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Additive Manufacturing by laser-assisted drop deposition from a metal wire
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0649-0130
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4265-1541
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0194-9018
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3569-6795
2021 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 209, article id 109987Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The subject of Additive Manufacturing includes numerous techniques, some of which have reached very high levels of development and are now used industrially. Other techniques such as Micro Droplet Deposition Manufacture are under development and present different manufacturing possibilities, but are employed only for low melting temperature metals. In this paper, the possibility of using a laser-based drop deposition technique for stainless-steel wire is investigated. This technique is expected to be a more flexible alternative to Laser Metal Wire Deposition. Laser Droplet Generation experiments were carried out in an attempt to accurately detach steel drops towards a desired position. High-speed imaging was used to observe drop generation and measure the direction of detachment of the drops. Two drop detachment techniques were investigated and the physical phenomena leading to the drop detachment are explained, wherein the drop weight, the surface tension and the recoil pressure play a major role. Optimised parameters for accurate single drop detachment were identified and then used to build multi-drop tracks. Tracks with an even geometry were produced, where the microstructure was influenced by the numerous drop depositions. The tracks showed a considerably higher hardness than the base wire, exhibiting a relatively homogeneous macro-hardness with a localised softening effect at the interfaces between drops.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021. Vol. 209, article id 109987
Keywords [en]
Laser Metal Wire Deposition, Wire-Laser Additive Manufacturing, Laser Droplet Generation, Laser Droplet Formation Process, Drop-on-Demand
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83628DOI: 10.1016/j.matdes.2021.109987ISI: 000701685800004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85110453172OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-83628DiVA, id: diva2:1543975
Projects
LAM-4DLAM-4D stage 2SAMOA
Funder
Vinnova, 2018-04324; 2019-04872
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-07-26 (beamah);

Ytterligare forskningsfinansiär: EIT Raw Materials (no. 18079)

Available from: 2021-04-13 Created: 2021-04-13 Last updated: 2023-03-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Laser-induced recoil pressure on metal drops and powder particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser-induced recoil pressure on metal drops and powder particles
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing became a major research topic and part of industrial production in the past years. Numerous techniques now allow to build 3D structures with a wide choice of materials. When it comes to processing of metals, a laser beam is often used as a heat source to melt either a wire or powder, where the trajectory of spatters and powder particles can be affected by the laser beam radiation. Laser beam irradiation is partly absorbed by the material, and is then converted to heat, which can cause melting and even vaporization. The vaporization of material induces a recoil pressure on the melt pool, which affects its geometry and dynamics. However, the effects of the recoil pressure on airborne objects such as drops and powder particles are still relatively unknown. Their different sizes and boundary conditions compared to a melt pool might affect their behaviour under high laser beam radiation. 

Therefore, this thesis aims at better understanding the effects of the recoil pressure on metal drops and powder particles, as well as their impacts on Additive Manufacturing processes, especially Directed Energy Deposition and Laser Metal Wire Deposition. In the three adjoined papers, high-speed imaging was used to observe (i) powder blown through a laser beam, (ii) drops falling in a laser beam, and (iii) drops detaching from a wire in a laser beam. The videos enabled to calculate the acceleration of powder particles and drops of different sizes, the density map of the powder stream, and the detachment direction of the drops. The experimental results were completed with theoretical calculations of thermodynamics, recoil pressure and surface tension. 

These studies allowed to conclude that the acceleration induced by the recoil pressure on a drop or a powder particle increases with decreased size. Moreover, the recoil pressure causes a slight deviation of the powder stream in Directed Energy Deposition that can induce a better powder focusing. The recoil pressure can also cause the disintegration of powder particles in the laser beam. Finally, it was shown that the recoil pressure can be used to detach drops on demand from a wire and accelerate them towards the substrate where they can be strategically deposited for building additive structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83629 (URN)978-91-7790-817-3 (ISBN)978-91-7790-818-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-06-08, A109, Luleå tekniska Universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-04-14 Created: 2021-04-13 Last updated: 2021-11-02Bibliographically approved
2. Aspects of material and heat transfer in drop- and powder-based laser additive manufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aspects of material and heat transfer in drop- and powder-based laser additive manufacturing
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing became a major research topic and part of industrial production in the past years. Numerous techniques now allow to build 3D structures with a wide choice of materials. When it comes to processing of metals, a laser beam is often used as a heat source to melt either a wire or powder. Novel approaches of material deposition are also developed, such as Laser Droplet Generation, which could potentially be applied to Additive Manufacturing. During the process, the laser beam light is partly absorbed by the material, and is then converted to heat, which can induce melting and even vaporization. Additive Manufacturing presents several processing challenges, such as the recoil pressure acting on the drops and powder particles that affects their trajectory. Storage and recycling of the powders is also an important aspect since the powder properties are changed through aging. Another challenge is the adjustment of process parameters according to varying deposition conditions, where the use of process monitoring techniques is crucial.

Therefore, this thesis aims at better understanding (i) the effects of recoil pressureon metal drops and powder particles, (ii) powder aging and its effects on the process, and (iii) process optimisation and stability via monitoring. In the six adjoined papers, high-speed imaging and thermal imaging were used to observe laser Additive Manufacturing processes involving both metal drops and powders. The videos enabled to observe drop detachments, measure trajectories, plot powder density maps, quantify powder catchment in the melt pool, measure themelt pool geometry, detect oxides, and extract cooling rates. The experimental results were supplemented with material analysis and theoretical calculations of thermodynamics, recoil pressure and surface tension.

These studies allowed to conclude that the recoil pressure induced by laser irradiation on a drop or a powder particle can have some significant effect such as acceleration, change of trajectory, or disintegration. However, these effects seem to be considerably lower than what theoretical models predict. It was also found that the recoil pressure can be used to accurately detach drops from a wire, which was utilised as a new material deposition method for Additive Manufacturing. In Directed Energy deposition, it was showed that aging of the aluminium powder feedstock should be avoided since it induces high porosity, high dilution and decreased mechanical properties. Finally, to guarantee a defect-free deposition during the whole process, it was demonstrated that a thermal camera can be used to monitor the melt pool size, which allows to apply appropriate laser power adjustments to compensate for changing building conditions.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95798 (URN)978-91-8048-280-6 (ISBN)978-91-8048-281-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-05-03, E632, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-03-07 Created: 2023-03-07 Last updated: 2023-09-01Bibliographically approved

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