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Surface Roughness Considerations in Design for Additive Manufacturing - A Literature Review
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1313-9020
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. GKN Aerospace.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3086-9140
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7108-6356
2021 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED21), Cambridge University Press, 2021, p. 2841-2850Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One often-cited benefit of using metal additive manufacturing (AM) is the possibility to design and produce complex geometries that suit the required function and performance of end-use parts. In this context, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one suitable AM process. Due to accessibility issues and cost-reduction potentials, such ‘complex’ LPBF parts should utilise net-shape manufacturing with minimal use of post-process machining. The inherent surface roughness of LPBF could, however, impede part performance, especially from a structural perspective and in particular regarding fatigue. Engineers must therefore understand the influence of surface roughness on part performance and how to consider it during design. This paper presents a systematic literature review of research related to LPBF surface roughness. In general, research focuses on the relationship between surface roughness and LPBF build parameters, material properties, or post-processing. Research on design support on how to consider surface roughness during design for AM is however scarce. Future research on such supports is therefore important given the effects of surface roughness highlighted in other research fields.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2021. p. 2841-2850
Series
Proceedings of the Design Society, E-ISSN 2732-527X ; 1
Keywords [en]
Laser Powder Bed Fusion, Surface Roughness, Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM), Design for X (DfX), Design engineering, Design tactics and methods, Additive Manufacturing, 3D/4D Printing
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Product Innovation
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87079DOI: 10.1017/pds.2021.545Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85117784655OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-87079DiVA, id: diva2:1594047
Conference
23rd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 21), Gothenburg, Sweden, August 16-20, 2021
Projects
RIT2021
Funder
Luleå University of TechnologySwedish National Space Board
Note

Forskningsfinansiär: GKN Aerospace Sweden AB

Available from: 2021-09-14 Created: 2021-09-14 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Surface Roughness Considerations in Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Space Industry Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Roughness Considerations in Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Space Industry Case Study
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing (AM), commonly known as 3D printing, represents manufacturing technology that creates objects layer by layer based on 3D model data. AM technologies have capabilities that provide engineers with new design opportunities outside the constraints of traditional subtractive manufacturing. These capabilities of AM have made it attractive for manufacturing components in the space industry., where parts are often bespoke and complex. In particular, Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) has attracted attention due to its ability to produce components with the part properties required for space applications. Additionally, the precision of the laser enables the production of innovative near-net shape and low-weight part designs.

 However, due to the powdered metal material, the LPBF process is categorised with rough surfaces in the as-built state. The extent and effect of surface roughness are closely linked to geometrical design variables, including build orientation, overhangs, support structure, and build parameters; hence the more intricate the design, the more difficult the removal of this roughness. Consequently, the as-built surface for most applications is too rough and could adversely affect proprieties, i.e., fatigue. Hence, practical Design for AM (DfAM) supports should be developed that understand how design factors, such as surface roughness, will impact a part’s performance.

This thesis therefore presents literature reviews on research related to LPBF surface roughness and design support, exploring the trends in managing surface roughness and investigations on the characteristics of design support. Additionally, through a space industry case study, a proposed process involving additive manufacturing design artefacts (AMDAs) is considered to investigate and describe the relationship between design, surface roughness, and performance. The review found that, in general, research focuses on the relationship between surface roughness and LPBF build parameters, material properties, or post-processing. There is very little support for design engineers to consider how surface roughness from an AM process affects the final product (less than 1% of the review articles).

In investigating surface roughness, the AMDA process identified characteristics that impact roughness levels and geometric adherence to part design. Additionally, twelve characteristics of design support were identified and considered to review the AMDA process. The process aided the evaluation of design uncertainties and provided indications of part performance. However, iterations of the process can be required to clarify product-specific design uncertainties. Though, the designer obtains a better understanding of their design and the AM process with each iteration. The inclusion of the requirement to set evaluation criteria for artefacts was recommended to develop the AMDA process as design support.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
Additive Manufacturing, Space Industry, Surface Roughness, Design for Additive Manufacturing, DfAM, Laser Powder Bed Fusion
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Product Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93408 (URN)978-91-8048-166-3 (ISBN)978-91-8048-167-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2023-04-03, E632, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-10-04 Created: 2022-10-03 Last updated: 2024-04-03Bibliographically approved

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Obilanade, DidunoluwaDordlofva, ChristoTörlind, Peter

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