Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Fire Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Furfurylated Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) Treated with Guanyl-Urea Phosphate
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0852-5066
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7711-9267
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4335-8419
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7864-8091
Show others and affiliations
2022 (English)In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 1829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) was introduced into furfurylated wood in order to improve fire retardancy. Modified wood was produced via vacuum-pressure impregnation of the GUP–furfuryl alcohol (FA) aqueous solution, which was then polymerized at elevated temperature. The water leaching resistance of the treated wood was tested according to European standard EN 84, while the leached water was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and inductively coupled plasma–sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). This new type of furfurylated wood was further characterized in the laboratory by evaluating its morphology and elemental composition using optical microscopy and electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The chemical functionality was detected using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the fire resistance was tested using cone calorimetry. The dimensional stability was evaluated in wet–dry soaking cycle tests, along with the mechanical properties, such as the Brinell hardness and bending strength. The fire retardancy of the modified furfurylated wood indicated that the flammability of wood can be depressed to some extent by introducing GUP. This was reflected in an observed reduction in heat release rate (HRR2) from 454.8 to 264.9 kW/m2, without a reduction in the material properties. In addition, this leaching-resistant furfurylated wood exhibited higher fire retardancy compared to conventional furfurylated wood. A potential method for producing fire-retardant treated furfurylated wood stable to water exposure has been suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022. Vol. 14, no 9, article id 1829
Keywords [en]
exterior wood, fire-retardant, poly(furfuryl alcohol), wood modification
National Category
Wood Science Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering; Structural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90487DOI: 10.3390/polym14091829ISI: 000794801500001PubMedID: 35567003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85129836347OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-90487DiVA, id: diva2:1655334
Projects
Advanced Research Supporting the Forestry and Wood Processing Sector’s Adaptation to Global Change and the 4th Industrial Revolution
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-02 (hanlid);

Funder: CT WOOD, Luleå University of Technology; European Structural and Investment Fund, OP RDE (CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000803);

Part of special issue: Performance and Application of Novel Biocomposites II

Available from: 2022-05-02 Created: 2022-05-02 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Innovative Water-Resistant Fire-Retardant Wood incorporating Ammonium Phosphate-based salts for Exterior Use Conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovative Water-Resistant Fire-Retardant Wood incorporating Ammonium Phosphate-based salts for Exterior Use Conditions
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wood is a naturally based material and plays an important role as a renewable resource when aiming for a sustainable society. Nevertheless, its inherently combustible property needs to be enhanced to comply with modern construction methods and regulations. Ammonium phosphate-based additives are often used to effectively increase the fire-retardancy (FR) of wooden products when needed. However, their water-solubility make them unsuitable for exterior use unless such properties are overcome. This PhD thesis focuses on the development of methodologies to alleviate consequences from water-leaching of wood treated with ammonium phosphate-based additives, enabling further development of new types of fire protected wood construction material for exterior uses. As such, two methodologies were explored in this thesis: 1) a composite-type fixation, involving the introduction of a hydrophobic polymer matrix for entrapping the FR additives, 2) a reactive-type fixation, which is to fix the FR additives by creating covalent bonding with the wood polymeric constituents.

In order to determine the influence of composite-type fixation systems, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) prepolymer, furfuryl alcohol (FA), and kraft lignin, respectively, were studied for immobilising ammonium phosphate-based FR-additives in wood by pressure impregnating Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood with a solution of the prepolymer and fire-retardant additives (FRs), followed by drying and heating steps. Through the analysis of the treated wood materials, involving scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), the formation of a stable polymeric network structure entrapping the additives inside the wood with alleviating FRs’ water-leachability was proposed. In particular, MF-resin was able to encapsulate guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) in the lumen of the wood. Further details on the distribution and structural features of FR additives and matrices within the wood structure are described in the thesis. 

Furthermore, the ability of FRs comprising ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and urea to be fixed within the wood structure without the addition of polymeric materials was also investigated. This approach was accomplished by impregnating an aqueous solution containing the aforementioned additives, followed by drying and further heat treatment at 150°C. By analysis of the treated wood material by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and FTIR, the formation of a reactive-type fixation of FR to the wood structure was realised. By this way, phosphate and carbamylate groups from treated ADP/urea were found to have reacted with hydroxyl groups of the wood polymers. 

The fire performance of FR-treated wood materials was studied with a series of modern techniques, namely, limited oxygen index (LOI), microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), and cone calorimeter tests. LOI and MCC were used as a simple test of fire stability of FR-treated and subsequently water exposed wood. By applying the cone calorimeter test, the predicted reaction-to-fire classification of FR-MF, FR-FA, and phosphorylated/carbamylated wood was established and, actually, reached the highest possible classification, class B. This classification was held even after the accelerated ageing test according to the European standard EN 84. In summary, this further suggested that these methodologies, which enhanced the water-leaching resistance of ammonium phosphate-based salts, have the potential to give a fire-retardant wood suitable for exterior uses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101276 (URN)978-91-8048-381-0 (ISBN)978-91-8048-382-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-12-05, A193, Forskargatan 1, 931 77 Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2023-09-22 Created: 2023-09-22 Last updated: 2023-11-14Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(11049 kB)353 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 11049 kBChecksum SHA-512
2ed4bd9204f1c21bb91fe9c1db74a9d32f70a204df87020e62b6e23e88904aef9a3ed0310518756bc30c00ca8097d12ff412a538917f859fc176e6642a7c00fd
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMedScopus

Authority records

Lin, Chia-FengKarlsson, OlovKim, InjeongMyronycheva, OlenaMensah, Rhoda AfriyieFörsth, MichaelDas, OisikJones, DennisSandberg, Dick

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lin, Chia-FengKarlsson, OlovKim, InjeongMyronycheva, OlenaMensah, Rhoda AfriyieFörsth, MichaelDas, OisikMantanis, George I.Jones, DennisSandberg, Dick
By organisation
Wood Science and EngineeringStructural and Fire Engineering
In the same journal
Polymers
Wood SciencePaper, Pulp and Fiber Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 353 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 250 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf