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Influence of AlSi10Mg powder aging on the material degradation and its processing in laser powder bed fusion
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-4443-3097
Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via G. La Masa 1, 20156, Milano, Italy.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling. Jenoptik Optical Systems GmbH, Göschwitzersrasse 25, 07745 Jena, Germany.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8601-2923
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 412, artikel-id 118024Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the impact of powder aging on the degradation of AlSi10Mg powder during processing in laser powder bed fusion. Powder aging as result of handling, continuous storage and recycling is a fundamental concern for aluminum alloys as it introduces oxygen to the feedstock material. In this work, the analysis of the powder properties, affected by laser exposure and the aging procedure, showed a change of chemical and morphological characteristics of the powders in virgin and aged conditions. The oxygen content in the powders appeared to have a significant effect on the powders' surface appearance and light absorbance, gradually deteriorating the processability of the powders with the increase of oxygen level. Optical microscopy and X-ray computed tomography were used to analyze the porosity distribution in the printed part samples, identifying the origin, size and location of the pores. A direct relationship between the pore occurrence in final parts and the oxygen content in the powders was observed, revealing a higher degree of porosity in the aged powder sample (6.5%) in comparison with the virgin state (3.16%). The evolution of mechanical properties in the part samples after laser processing and powder aging was also studied, demonstrating a rapid decrease of ultimate tensile strength and elongation from virgin condition to aged.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2022. Vol. 412, artikel-id 118024
Nyckelord [en]
Additive manufacturing, Aging, Aluminum, Laser powder bed fusion, Powder absorbance, Powder condition
Nationell ämneskategori
Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik Materialkemi
Forskningsämne
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93764DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2022.118024ISI: 000929653800004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85140083469OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-93764DiVA, id: diva2:1707271
Anmärkning

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-10-31 (hanlid);

Funder: EIT Raw Materials (18079 SAMOA)

Tillgänglig från: 2022-10-31 Skapad: 2022-10-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2024-03-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Towards sustainability in additive manufacturing: material and process aspects
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Towards sustainability in additive manufacturing: material and process aspects
2023 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Alternativ titel[sv]
Mot hållbarhet i additiv tillverkning: material- och processaspekter
Abstract [en]

The acceptance of additive manufacturing (AM) depends on the quality of final parts and process repeatability. Recently, many studies have been dedicated to the establishment of the relationship between the process behavior and material performance. Phenomena such as laser-material interaction, melt pool dynamics, ejecta formation and particle movement behavior on a powder bed are of a particular interest for the AM community as these events directly influence the outcome of the process. Another aspect, which hinders the adoption of AM, is the need for cost-efficient powder materials, their sustainable processing and recycling. 

The research work presented in this thesis explores scientific aspects related to the above-mentioned topics, with a particular focus on the material and process behavior phenomena in powder bed fusion-laser melting (PBF-LM) and directed energy deposition (DED) processes. 

Paper A shows a comparative study of dissimilarly shaped gas and water atomized low alloy steel powders regarding their processability, packing capacities, particle movement behavior and powder performance in PBF-LM. The impact of chemical composition and morphology of the powders on the process behavior was revealed. Powder spattering and melt pool instabilities were discussed in detail. 

Paper B contains research on the particle movement and denudation behavior on a powder bed when using near-spherical and non-spherical steel powders. The influence of particle morphology on the dynamics of arbitrary-shaped powder particles was studied by applying an analytical correlation formula to calculate the drag force exerted on powder particles of various shape. Particle entrainment of gas and water atomized powders in front of the laser beam was measured, revealing a significant difference in the powder transfer towards the melt pool.

Paper C explains the role of ejecta in the recycled powder and the changing behavior of the material due to ejecta pick-up. The impact of multiple powder recycling steps on the degradation of low alloy steel powder in laser powder bed fusion was studied. Oxygen content, particle size and ejecta occurrence gradually increased after each recycling step and were identified as the main contributors to the property alterations observed in the powder during recycling. In addition, a direct correlation between the increase in oxygen and more frequent spatter ejection with repeated recycling was established. 

Paper D focuses on the impact of powder aging on the degradation of AlSi10Mg powder during processing in PBF-LM. The analysis of the powder properties, affected by laser exposure and the aging procedure, showed a change of chemical and morphological characteristics of the powders in virgin and aged conditions. The oxygen content in the powders appeared to have a significant effect on the powders' surface appearance and light absorbance, gradually deteriorating the processability of the powders with the increase of oxygen level. Porosity occurrence and its influence on the mechanical properties of the powders was also studied, demonstrating a rapid decrease of ultimate tensile strength and elongation from virgin condition to aged.

Papers E and F investigate the possibilities of iron ore waste reduction using Al powder as a reducing agent and a laser beam as a heat source. Paper E focuses on the Fe2O3-Al interaction behavior and extent of the iron ore reduction, whereas Paper F reports on the high-speed imaging investigation possibilities of laser beam-material surface interaction when processing Fe2O3-Al powders and an Fe2O3 powder-AlSI5 wire combination in DED. In-situ observation of various melt pool phenomena and exothermic reaction behavior of the material combinations using high-speed imaging was carried out. In addition to that, the influence of feed materials and laser power on the thermite reaction time was discussed in detail, showing their dissimilar behavior.

All six papers include research on laser additive manufacturing using powder feedstocks. The papers discuss various phenomena regarding powder processability, recycling and laser beam-material interaction behavior in both PBF-LM and DED. High-speed imaging was used as the main tool to observe and study the above listed topics.  

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nationell ämneskategori
Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik Metallurgi och metalliska material
Forskningsämne
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95789 (URN)978-91-8048-278-3 (ISBN)978-91-8048-279-0 (ISBN)
Disputation
2023-04-27, E632, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2023-03-02 Skapad: 2023-03-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-04-06Bibliografiskt granskad

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Fedina, TatianaBrandau, BenediktBrueckner, FrankKaplan, Alexander F.H.

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