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Performance Analysis of Verifiable Data Registry Solutions for Decentralized Identifiers
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1281-6130
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0244-3561
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4031-2872
2022 (English)In: 2022 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Computer Science and Data Engineering (CSDE), IEEE, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

User identification in decentralized systems is a demanding task. Identification systems should work resiliently and have efficient performance. Moreover, identification systems should protect the data that they must store against hackers and saboteurs. Keeping a system with decentralized identification without any intervention in the middle has attracted attention to improve earlier centralized identification systems. Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) constitute a solution for identification divided into different modules. The verifiable data registry is one of the main parts of this technology, which is distributed storage of identity properties. We analyze the decentralized identification data registry and compare the performance of verifiable data registry based on blockchain and the Distributed Hash Table (DHT) on different scales of systems. Our evaluation results show that DHT has better performance. Furthermore, a model based on DHT shows that in addition to immutable storage and faster query time, it makes systems handle or search in data storage with lower searching time compared to Ethereum Blockchain as another immutable secure technology. Finally, our results show that DHT is a better solution than other models in different scenarios. Although blockchain has promising results on a small scale, it still has problems with storage and query time in large-scale systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022.
Keywords [en]
Blockchain, Distributed Hash Table, Record keeping, Immutability, Data registry
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Cyber-Physical Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94951DOI: 10.1109/CSDE56538.2022.10089278Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85153671577OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-94951DiVA, id: diva2:1721096
Conference
9th IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Computer Science and Data Engineering (CSDE), Gold Coast, Australia, December 18-20, 2022
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-6654-5305-9

Available from: 2022-12-21 Created: 2022-12-21 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High-level systems need identification techniques, where higher security and scalability are considered requirements. Identification plays a significant role in systems where smart electronic devices increase in zero trust and open environments like decentralized systems. Also, decentralization has emerged as one of the most exciting domains in recent years, again after the first Internet was invented. Besides, decentralization in identification systems has gained popularity worldwide since cryptocurrencies became part of businesses. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) can be appropriate decentralized solutions that improve identification to be much more secure, scalable, and trustworthy.

The decentralized nature of DLT and DHT ensures no single point of failure, making them highly resilient to attacks. Blockchain as a DLT solution can help devices communicate with each other securely and trustably by storing an immutable history of transactions, providing an additional layer of security to identification systems. DHT senable applications to keep files and information immutable in a decentralized manner. DHTs ensure that the data is replicated across multiple nodes, making it highly resilient to data loss. Moreover, mitigating high storage costs without memory limitations is the target of these technologies. In this context, a decentralized system paradigm that combines systems with DLT and DHTs can be highly beneficial.

This thesis argues for such a paradigm, and the contributions include introducing the term decentralized networks and architectures and demonstrating the feasibility of using blockchain as a DLT solution in real-world scenarios. These scenarios can be applied to the Internet of Things (IoT) or other Peer to Peer networked systems. We explore different architectures in various systems and analyze the interaction in blockchain. This thesis contributes to developing decentralized identification systems that provide users’ trust in an open environment. It presents the challenges associated with decentralized identification, including registry and storage issues, and proposes solutions using DLT and DHT. The immutability of DLT and DHTs provides fast and secure solutions for decentralized identification systems. In particular, we show that a DHT-based architecture is feasible to maintain decentralization while avoiding memory constraints. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of performance. Our investigation shows that combining DHTs with blockchain in decentralized identifiers improves performance.

By concealing blocks in the private blockchain, we show that query performance is better than other DHT and public blockchain-based solutions without concealed information. Moreover, our results show that DHT performs better than the public blockchain for scenarios with many records.

These findings highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate technology for decentralized identification systems, considering the specific use case and the number of records to be stored.

We also consider different decentralized identification systems and platforms built based on the recommendation of W3C Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs). We found low-efficiency issues using this technology, resulting from leveraging public DLT in the data registry part of DIDs. That model has searching time problems if the DLT grows. Finally, this thesis helps to analyze these issues and find better solutions. By choosing the right technology, we can ensure that decentralized identifiers are efficient, secure, and scalable, which enables users to trust them in an open environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105460 (URN)978-91-8048-579-1 (ISBN)978-91-8048-580-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-08-30, A 193, Luleå University of Technology, Skellefteå, 08:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-14 Created: 2024-05-14 Last updated: 2024-06-18Bibliographically approved

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Alizadeh, MortezaAndersson, KarlSchelén, Olov

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