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Effect of Thermomechanical Loading at Low Temperatures on Damage Development in Glass Fiber Epoxy Laminates
Scientific and Didactic Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Material Technologies, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.ORCID iD: 0009-0004-0066-3602
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5550-2962
Scientific and Didactic Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Material Technologies, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8556-8863
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5210-4341
2024 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the high interest in the use of glass/epoxy laminates in aerospace applications, aviation, and as cryogenic tanks, it is crucial to understand the behavior of composites under challenging environmental conditions. Polymer composites are exposed to low temperatures, including cryogenic temperatures, which can lead to the initiation of microdamage. This paper investigates damage initiation/accumulation and its influence on the properties of cross-ply woven glass fiber epoxy composites at low temperatures compared to room temperature conditions. To evaluate the influence of a low-temperature environment on the mechanical performance of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite (GFRP) laminates, three types of test campaigns were carried out: quasi-static tensile tests and stepwise increasing loading/unloading cyclic tensile tests at room temperature and in a low-temperature environment (−50 °C). We demonstrated that the initial stiffness of the laminates increased at low temperatures. On the other hand, there were no observed changes in the type or mechanism of developed damage in the two test conditions. However, the reduction in stiffness due to the accumulated damage was more significant for the laminates tested at low temperatures (~17% vs. ~11%). Exceptions were noted in a few formulations where the extent of damage at low temperatures was insignificant (<1%) compared to that at room temperature. Since some of the studied laminates exhibited a relatively minor decrease in stiffness (~2–3%), we can also conclude that the formulation of matrix material plays an important role in delaying the initiation and formation of damage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) , 2024. Vol. 17, no 1, article id 16
Keywords [en]
epoxy/glass, laminates, low temperature, mechanical test, stiffness degradation
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Polymeric Composite Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103859DOI: 10.3390/ma17010016ISI: 001141174300001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85181973967OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-103859DiVA, id: diva2:1830064
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-01-22 (joosat);

Funder: Polish Ministry of Education and Science (DWD/5/0435/2021);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-01-22 Created: 2024-01-22 Last updated: 2024-03-07Bibliographically approved

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Al-Maqdasi, ZainabJoffe, Roberts

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