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Bortom servicefronten. E-handelsarbetets platser och ojämlikhetsmönster: [Beyond the Service Front. Inequality in the Places of Online Retailing]
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3865-796X
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4089-9159
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5625-1744
2023 (Swedish)In: Tidskrift för Genusvetenskap, ISSN 1654-5443, E-ISSN 2001-1377, Vol. 44, no 1-2, p. 58-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The digitalization of retailing is restructuring consumption as well as retail work. Unlike front-line service work in stores, online retail work is defined by indirect service work at a distance from customers at warehouse sites. The rapid pace of change means that knowledge about online retail workplaces and its employees is still fragmentary. Empirically drawing on Swedish national statistics and an ongoing study of five online retail warehouses, this article explores intersections of online retail warehousing, gender and racialization, and meanings of place therein. National statistics show that online retail employs more men and more foreign-born than retailing in general. While retailing is dominated by small workplaces, online retail warehouses are either small or large and the proportion of women and Swedish-born is lower at the larger warehouses than the small ones. Occupational data show that the proportion of women and foreign-born people is significantly lower among online retail managers than among warehouse workers. Further nuances are provided by the qualitative insights from the five studied warehouses. Almost only women worked in the two smaller warehouses, which was explained by references to the nature of the work. At the larger, more gender-balanced warehouses, examples of segregation between employees of the same category were found, as was the importance of place for hierarchies between workers and managers. More so, the study makes evident that place matters also for the boundary making around and between online retail workplaces, especially in relation to racialization processes. While inequality, place and work in retail stores are about conditional access to employment, in online retail warehouses the matter seems to be more about how certain bodies’ lack of mobility and opportunities in the labor market at large left them “stuck” in online retailing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ämnesföreningen för genusvetenskap (ÄG) , 2023. Vol. 44, no 1-2, p. 58-81
Keywords [en]
Gender, organization, spatiality, place, warehouse
Keywords [sv]
genus, organisation, plats, rumslighet, lagerarbete
National Category
Work Sciences
Research subject
Human Work Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105032DOI: 10.55870/tgv.v44i1-2.13960OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-105032DiVA, id: diva2:1851185
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 1;2024-06-27 (joosat);

Full text: CC BY License;

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2024-04-12 Created: 2024-04-12 Last updated: 2024-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Unpacking Online Retailing: The Organization of Warehouse Work and Inequality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unpacking Online Retailing: The Organization of Warehouse Work and Inequality
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
E-handelns olika lager : Organiseringen av arbete och ojämlikhet
Abstract [en]

This dissertation studies the organization of warehouse work and inequality in Swedish online retailing. Online retailing relocates the work of providing service to individual customers, usually performed by frontline workers in retail stores, to warehouses backstage. In line with the on-demand characteristics of online retail warehousing, where a fast and smooth goods handling process becomes a competitive advantage for the companies, the manual warehouse work has been shown to be associated with routinization, and a high work tempo and monotony for workers performing it. Little is known about these issues in Sweden. Union reports and news media have shown that online retail warehousing involves a generally poor work environment and low wages. Research-based findings from other geographical contexts explain that the workforce mainly consists of those who cannot find a job elsewhere and whose subordinated position limits their possibilities for resistance against the working conditions. Herein, inequality appears. Inequality is understood in the dissertation as a consequence of the practices that organize the work, which tend to be shaped by gendered and racialized processes. The inequality as such often, but not always, take the form of class relations (Acker 2006).

 

Based on an ethnographic study of five online retail warehouses in Sweden – Homeware, Electronic, Recreational, Pharmacy, and Grocery – the dissertation aims to explore and understand how practices and processes to organize online retail warehouse work relate to inequality, and it aims to contribute with knowledge in this regard. As part of this, the dissertation also aims to make visible the work, workplaces, and workers that online retail warehousing brings about. The methods and materials include interviews with managers, workers, and union and health and safety representatives (n=30); focus groups with workers and pharmacists (n=15 groups, a total of 49 participants); and ethnographic observations (a total of eleven weeks). The dissertation also comprises material from a systematic literature review of 21 articles focused on warehouse working conditions and inequality, and employment data from Statistics Sweden divided into occupations groupings. My ambitions with the dissertation have been empirical – in how I have worked to contribute with knowledge about online retail warehousing, in particular in with regards to the Swedish context – and theoretical – in how I have strived to contribute with perspectives on how we can analytically approach inequality.

 

The results show that the warehouse work was organized in relation to the ‘on-demand’ element of online retailing, wherein flexibility becomes a necessity for online retail warehouses in the strive to fulfil the (over time fluctuating levels of) customer orders on time. While Homeware, Electronic, Recreational, Pharmacy, and Grocery all strived for profit by making warehouse workers provide a fast and satisfactory service for customers, the differences between them with regards to how the warehouse work was organized meant that there were variations in the shape and the degree of the inequality (cf. Acker 2006). This is exemplified in the dissertation with the practices and processes of the division of work tasks, the monitoring of workers’ performance through productivity data, and a Swedish language policy. In addition to inequality expressed in gendered and racialized class relations between managers and warehouses workers, and other groups of employees, the dissertation also found inequality produced by class and shaped by gender and race/ethnicity between groups of warehouse workers. The variations of the inequality seemed to be associated with the differences in the size and spatiality of the online retail warehouses, the size of the workforce, and the extent of technology applied in the goods handling process. Furthermore, the dissertation suggests that there are three analytical points of entry to from where to approach inequality – the workplace level, the field of work level and the worker level – which together help us understand its manifoldness, how the severity of inequality varies and the lived and embodied realities of it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Work organization, gender, race/ethnicity, warehousing, e-commerce
National Category
Work Sciences Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Human Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105070 (URN)978-91-8048-530-2 (ISBN)978-91-8048-531-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-14, A109, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-04-12 Created: 2024-04-12 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, KristinaRydström, KlaraSardiello, Tiziana

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