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Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4732-7348
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9938-8217
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1725-6478
2016 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 539, p. 125-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SummaryFour indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of variables associated with bacteria depended on the degree of catchment development and the inherent complexity of bacteria sources. The list of variables associated with bacteria included the flow rate, solids with associated inorganics (Fe and Al) and phosphorus, indicating similar sources of constituents regardless of the season. On the other hand, bacteria were associated with water temperature only during rain periods, and somewhat important associations of bacteria with nitrogen and pH were found during the periods of snowmelt. Most of the associated constituents were positively correlated with bacteria responses, but conductivity, with two associated inorganics (Si and Sr), was mostly negatively correlated in all the catchments. Although the study findings do not indicate any distinct surrogates to indicator bacteria, the inclusion of the above identified constituents (flow rate, solids and total phosphorus for all seasons, water temperature for rainfall runoff, and total nitrogen and pH for snowmelt only) in sanitary surveys of northern climate urban catchments would provide additional insight into indicator bacteria sources and their modelling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 539, p. 125-140
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-3177DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.006ISI: 000378953700010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84970016276Local ID: 0f86f3f7-3971-48d6-9112-9ea422b49b7fOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-3177DiVA, id: diva2:976033
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160511 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved

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Galfi, HelenÖsterlund, HeleneMarsalek, JiriViklander, Maria

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