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Optimisation of a centralised recycling system for steel plant by-products: a logistics perspective
Swerea MEFOS AB.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1511-8020
2013 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 77, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper focuses on the optimisation of a recovery strategy for waste materials and thereby improved material efficiency in the iron and steel industry. A joint venture between four Nordic steel plants is considered in order to recycle materials otherwise mainly put to landfill, i.e. dusts and sludges from the steel production processes. Process integration (PI) was used to investigate the possibilities for recovering the materials by developing a system optimisation model of the steel plants and integrating a dedicated material upgrading process in the system. This work aims to develop a model suitable for analysing and finding a logistic solution needed to achieve a common recycling system by studying material supply, required material storage, shipping system and shipping frequency. The developed optimisation model is presented, using a case study of the steel production plants with the dedicated upgrading process and the logistics system. The prospect for shipping materials from the steel production sites to the material upgrading process site as well as the material supply to the upgrading unit is essential in the system analysis. A mathematical optimisation model based on mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) for the common system is presented. The integration of the dedicated material upgrading process show a system in balance regarding the materials generated and processed in the upgrading unit. Generated material amounts suitable for the upgrading process can be fully recovered thereby decreasing the landfilled amounts from the four steel production sites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 77, p. 29-36
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10099DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.04.012ISI: 000323142200004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84879093305Local ID: 8d8e6968-fb26-4e2a-b826-0da8f5a7531fOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-10099DiVA, id: diva2:983039
Note
Validerad; 2013; 20130617 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Process Integration Approach to Assessing Possibilities for Improved Material Efficiency in Nordic ore-based Iron- and Steelmaking Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Process Integration Approach to Assessing Possibilities for Improved Material Efficiency in Nordic ore-based Iron- and Steelmaking Systems
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
En processintegrationsstrategi för bedömning av möjligheter för förbättrad materialeffektivitet i nordiska malmbaserade järn- och ståltillverkningssystem
Abstract [en]

Iron- and steel production is a material- and energy intensive industrial activity. The production of one tonne of steel commonly results in some 400 kilograms of residual materials such as metallurgical slags, dusts, sludge and scales generated in the processes. Much work is continuously devoted to finding possible ways of using residual materials and minimising landfilled volumes. As these materials often contain considerable amounts of valuable elements such as iron, coal, manganese and calcium, it may be profitable to use them to replace virgin raw materials or to sell them as products that may be useful in other industries and/or processes. 

 

The thesis is based on case studies that exemplify how the use of process integration, through system analysis, can assist in assessing effects and opportunities for different concepts for increased material efficiency in Nordic ore-based steelmaking systems. The process integration approach taken for this research work was the simulation of a specific iron- and steel production system and the use of an optimisation tool for the evaluation of an extended system including the symbiosis between four steel plants.

 

Three different cases were studied including: system effects of increased magnesium oxide content in the lime raw material, investigation of the prospects for vanadium enrichment and slag reduction concept and a study of the logistics perspective for a joint residual material upgrading and recycling venture between four steel plants. The analysed cases present possibilities to improve the material efficiency by:

•      Enhanced recovery of residual materials;

•      Upgrading of residual materials to products;

•      Specific elements recovery;

•      Decreased use of virgin raw material;

•      Improved quality of residual materials;

•      Decreased amounts of materials placed in long-term storage or landfills.

 

From the results of the cases studied, the best scenarios and potential gains by enhanced material efficiency is presented. In the case of system effects of increased magnesium oxide content in the lime raw material, the issue was mainly to obtain maximum usage of metallurgical slags without compromising the quality of the main product. The calculated possibility of increased slag recirculation enabled further a decreased consumption of iron ore pellet and limestone. Regarding the investigation of the vanadium enrichment and slag reduction concept, the best scenario markedly increased the internal slag recirculation in order to enrich the vanadium content in the slag for ferrovanadium production. By the vanadium enrichment and recovery concept, considerable amounts of vanadium would be made useful instead of ending up in long-term storage. The study of a shared Nordic concept for residual materials upgrading and use demonstrated the potential for upgrading the materials to a direct reduced iron product for recovery in blast furnace. The concept showed high potential for significantly reducing the amount of material being long-term stored or deposited to landfill and thus a potential step towards achieving the zero-waste philosophy target.

 

None of the concepts for enhanced material efficiency studied in this thesis work has been implemented; however, they are still of relevance for the Nordic steel industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 82
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
Process metallurgy, Process integration, System analysis
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76435 (URN)978-91-7790-478-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-479-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-12-11, F531, LTU, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-18 Created: 2019-10-18 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, MikaelSamuelsson, Caisa

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