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Revealing Social Values by 3D City Visualization in City Transformations
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5661-5237
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
2016 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social sustainability is a widely used concept in urban planning research and practice. However, knowledge of spatial distributions of social values and aspects of social sustainability is required. Visualization of these distributions is also highly valuable, but challenging, and rarely attempted in sparsely populated urban environments in rural areas. This article presents a method that highlights social values in spatial models through 3D visualization, describes the methodology to generate the models, and discusses potential applications. The models were created using survey, building, infrastructure and demographic data for Gällivare, Sweden, a small city facing major transformation due to mining subsidence. It provides an example of how 3D models of important social sustainability indices can be designed to display citizens’ attitudes regarding their financial status, the built environment, social inclusion and welfare services. The models helped identify spatial variations in perceptions of the built environment that correlate (inter alia) with closeness to certain locations, gender and distances to public buildings. Potential uses of the model for supporting efforts by practitioners, researchers and citizens to visualize and understand social values in similar urban environments are discussed, together with ethical issues (particularly regarding degrees of anonymity) concerning its wider use for inclusive planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195
National Category
Construction Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management; Human Work Science; Industrial Work Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10350DOI: 10.3390/su8020195ISI: 000371830100046Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84960351433Local ID: 9253210a-49aa-4de9-bb5e-eec078352842OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-10350DiVA, id: diva2:983292
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160223 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The planning, construction, management and use of our built environment are affected by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Sustainable urban development is dependent on the understanding of the complex relations between the built environment, the social activities that take place over time and the interaction with the natural environment. The challenge to understand urban systems on both the local and global scale has inspired researchers and national agencies to develop sustainability indicators to support the planning, construction, management and use of the built environment. Access to open data of our built environment in national, regional and local databases opens new possibilities to generate models of our urban systems to facilitate visualization and analysis of indicators in order to enhance awareness of sustainability dimensions. Here spatial Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) technologies can be used in combination with Geographic Information system GIS to manage data sets from multiple sources in different formats. The purpose of this research is to investigate how spatial ETL technologies can be used to develop models in order to analyse and visualize the performance of urban systems. The applied method is grounded in system development and based on an abductive research approach that was repeated in six studies. Three of the studies deal with the relocation of Kiruna where models of the city was created and used to investigate the impact of mining subsidence on energy supply, infrastructure and buildings. The fourth case investigates the selection of insulation material on the embedded energy in a passive house in Kiruna. In the fifth case an urban model of the twin towns Malmberget/Gällivare was created to explore and relate data on attitudes from a survey to public data on population, infrastructure and built environment. The final case is the development of an energy atlas containing 90% of the multifamily building stock in Sweden. The atlas combines the energy performance and renovation status of multifamily buildings with public data of ownership, income of residents etc. for individual buildings in 3D models or aggregated on spatial scales ranging from 250x250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas in Sweden. The result shows that multiple sources in different formats, both standardized and non-standardized, can be utilized in the extraction of information for the purpose of developing urban performance models. The Swedish high-resolution LiDAR digital height model together property information makes it possible to represent the built environment by extruded footprints to give a 3D representation of all urban areas in Sweden (Level-Of-Detail 1). In combination with performance data (e.g. energy use, renovation status or result from surveys) urban performance GIS models can be created and visualized in applications (such as Google Earth, 3D pdf) to support decision-making on both individual and institutional level. The automation of the process to develop performance models offers a method for customizing information deliveries on the fly using original data sources according to defined requirements. The flexibility and customization are kept in the process rather than in the delivered model. This makes it easier to keep the performance model up to date. For the management of large performance models, e.g. the example of the national energy atlas, a staging phase was added in the automation process, in order to reduce the processing time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017. p. 170
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61788 (URN)978-91-7583-814-4 (ISBN)978-91-7583-815-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-30, F231, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
2. Small town, big move: Constructions of place in transiting mining communities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small town, big move: Constructions of place in transiting mining communities
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Konstruktioner av plats i gruvsamhällen i omvandling
Abstract [en]

The dissertation accounts for construction of place in small mining towns as they undergo major urban transformation. In 2010s urban centers in mining communities in northern Sweden, Gällivare and Kiruna started to undergo big scale urban transformation because of ground subsidence caused by mining activities, and the transformation that continues in 2020. Ambition to make the transition socially sustainable and contribute to more attractive communities resulted in research projects with this focus.

 

The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyze how place is constructed in established mining communities in transition through the following research questions: How is place constructed during dialogues on social sustainability and attractiveness? How do people of different age groups, professions and gender construct place in established mining communities in transition? What are the possibilities and limitations of different research methods in relation to including residents’ perspectives in the transformation process? The overall theoretical standpoint of this dissertation is that place is socially constructed: place is made by people discussing and describing it, by discourses that are produced and reproduced in social groups beyond the individual standpoints.

 

Five studies were conducted to investigate construction of place in the transiting mining communities of Kiruna and Gällivare using mixed methods: participatory action research in Living Labs, statistical logistics regression analysis, GIS 3D visualization. An analytical review of research on established mining communities, a 3D visualization of social issues in Gällivare, an analysis of Living lab with residents of Gällivare and Kiruna as well as a group of commuters to Gällivare, a comparative study of three co-creative processes in Kiruna, and a statistical analysis of construction of place in Kiruna over time. Different methods had different potential when it comes to understanding construction of place and thus including their perspective in the planning process: statistical method gave representative patterns of factors behind considering leaving and how those changed over time but was limited in understanding the contextual meaning of those patterns, Living Labs provided the opportunity to see how place is constructed in dialogues but was limited in understanding preferences and individual standpoints, 3D visualization provided spatial patterns beyond statistics and means for discussion and communication of those patterns with broad variety of actors but limited potential for their interpretation.

 

The results show that residents, while participating in dialogues on social sustainability and attractiveness, construct the transient communities through contradictory storylines. Bearing themes in construction of place were aggregated through storylines that residents constructed and reproduced, had different attitudes towards and referred to. The established storylines with long history such as model community, town constructed as a new establishment planned as modern and inclusive, nature and the town, the theme of beautiful natural surroundings valued by residents and visitors, the mountains, the forest, the rivers and the lakes; big city elsewhere, a big city used in the construction of Kiruna and Gällivare to show what those places are not, as a counterpoint; the cohesive town, the storyline of knowing “everyone”, spontaneously meeting, helping each other – were used to reestablish the sense of stability and reframe the new environment by connecting it to the construction of communities pasts. The storylines of hope of more inclusive and sustainable future, and broken promises of transformation that took more time and took different turns from what was communicated as the future - were used handle the change to imagined futures of place.

 

There were certain patterns in how people of different age groups, professions and gender construct place in transiting communities. The main difference in how men and women constructed Gällivare as attractive town, according to 3D visualization analysis, was that women were less content than men with built environment, following similar geographical patterns. Construction of Kiruna as a place to live (or leave) over time, has shown that while in 2011 blue collar workers were less prone and white collar workers more prone to consider leaving, in 2016 there were no significant differences between social classes in that regard. Generational patterns were similar: the younger, the more prone to consider leaving, but the gap between the youngest and the others has grown. The effect of social bonds that held back the will to move went from insignificant to visible for men and from significant to stronger for women. The hope of the transformed Kiruna, so present in 2011 was much less pronounced in 2016.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2020
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544Attract: Attraktiva, hållbara livsmiljöer i kallt klimat
Keywords
construction of place, Gällivare, Kiruna, transformation, rural studies, urban change
National Category
Social Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Human Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79069 (URN)978-91-7790-611-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-612-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-09-18, A109, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2020-05-29 Created: 2020-05-29 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, TimSegerstedt, EugeniaOlofsson, ThomasJakobsson, Mats

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