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Revealing Social Values by 3D City Visualization in City Transformations
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8107-7768
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1175-1331
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5661-5237
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.ORCID iD: 0009-0008-5061-498X
2016 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Social sustainability is a widely used concept in urban planning research and practice. However, knowledge of spatial distributions of social values and aspects of social sustainability is required. Visualization of these distributions is also highly valuable, but challenging, and rarely attempted in sparsely populated urban environments in rural areas. This article presents a method that highlights social values in spatial models through 3D visualization, describes the methodology to generate the models, and discusses potential applications. The models were created using survey, building, infrastructure and demographic data for Gällivare, Sweden, a small city facing major transformation due to mining subsidence. It provides an example of how 3D models of important social sustainability indices can be designed to display citizens’ attitudes regarding their financial status, the built environment, social inclusion and welfare services. The models helped identify spatial variations in perceptions of the built environment that correlate (inter alia) with closeness to certain locations, gender and distances to public buildings. Potential uses of the model for supporting efforts by practitioners, researchers and citizens to visualize and understand social values in similar urban environments are discussed, together with ethical issues (particularly regarding degrees of anonymity) concerning its wider use for inclusive planning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 8, no 2, article id 195
National Category
Construction Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management; Human Work Science; Industrial Work Environment
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-10350DOI: 10.3390/su8020195ISI: 000371830100046Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84960351433Local ID: 9253210a-49aa-4de9-bb5e-eec078352842OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-10350DiVA, id: diva2:983292
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 20160223 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PERFORMANCE VISUALIZATION OF URBAN SYSTEMS
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The planning, construction, management and use of our built environment are affected by diverse social, economic and environmental factors. Sustainable urban development is dependent on the understanding of the complex relations between the built environment, the social activities that take place over time and the interaction with the natural environment. The challenge to understand urban systems on both the local and global scale has inspired researchers and national agencies to develop sustainability indicators to support the planning, construction, management and use of the built environment. Access to open data of our built environment in national, regional and local databases opens new possibilities to generate models of our urban systems to facilitate visualization and analysis of indicators in order to enhance awareness of sustainability dimensions. Here spatial Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) technologies can be used in combination with Geographic Information system GIS to manage data sets from multiple sources in different formats. The purpose of this research is to investigate how spatial ETL technologies can be used to develop models in order to analyse and visualize the performance of urban systems. The applied method is grounded in system development and based on an abductive research approach that was repeated in six studies. Three of the studies deal with the relocation of Kiruna where models of the city was created and used to investigate the impact of mining subsidence on energy supply, infrastructure and buildings. The fourth case investigates the selection of insulation material on the embedded energy in a passive house in Kiruna. In the fifth case an urban model of the twin towns Malmberget/Gällivare was created to explore and relate data on attitudes from a survey to public data on population, infrastructure and built environment. The final case is the development of an energy atlas containing 90% of the multifamily building stock in Sweden. The atlas combines the energy performance and renovation status of multifamily buildings with public data of ownership, income of residents etc. for individual buildings in 3D models or aggregated on spatial scales ranging from 250x250 m squares through district and municipality to county areas in Sweden. The result shows that multiple sources in different formats, both standardized and non-standardized, can be utilized in the extraction of information for the purpose of developing urban performance models. The Swedish high-resolution LiDAR digital height model together property information makes it possible to represent the built environment by extruded footprints to give a 3D representation of all urban areas in Sweden (Level-Of-Detail 1). In combination with performance data (e.g. energy use, renovation status or result from surveys) urban performance GIS models can be created and visualized in applications (such as Google Earth, 3D pdf) to support decision-making on both individual and institutional level. The automation of the process to develop performance models offers a method for customizing information deliveries on the fly using original data sources according to defined requirements. The flexibility and customization are kept in the process rather than in the delivered model. This makes it easier to keep the performance model up to date. For the management of large performance models, e.g. the example of the national energy atlas, a staging phase was added in the automation process, in order to reduce the processing time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017. p. 170
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61788 (URN)978-91-7583-814-4 (ISBN)978-91-7583-815-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-30, F231, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2024-02-19Bibliographically approved
2. Small town, big move: Constructions of place in transiting mining communities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Small town, big move: Constructions of place in transiting mining communities
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Konstruktioner av plats i gruvsamhällen i omvandling
Abstract [en]

The dissertation accounts for construction of place in mining communities as they undergo a major urban transformation. In the 2010s, urban centres in the northern Sweden mining communities of Gällivare and Kiruna entered a new execution phase of a large-scale transformation precipitated by ground subsidence caused by mining activities, a transformation that continues. The ambition to make the transition socially sustainable and contribute to more attractive communities resulted in research projects focused on these aspects.

The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyse how place is constructed in established mining communities in transition through the following research questions: How is place constructed in dialogues on social sustainability and attractiveness? How do people of different age groups, professions and gender construct place in established mining communities in transition? What are the possibilities and limitations of different research methods in relation to including residents’ perspectives in the transformation process? The overall theoretical standpoint of this dissertation is that place is socially constructed: place is made by people discussing and describing it, by discourses that are produced, reproduced and challenged in social groups beyond individual standpoints. Residents’ thoughts and ideas about place are an important part of what the communities are, were and will become, along with their reflexive relationship with their place of residence and thoughts on their own and other peoples’ future in the respective communities (See Lefebvre, 1991, Halegua, 2020).  By reflexive relationship with place I am referring to actions where residents consider risk, think about their future, define what makes their life more meaningful and reflect upon changes in their environment; local community is one of the levels of these thoughts, attitudes and feelings.

Five studies were conducted to investigate construction of place in the transiting mining communities of Kiruna and Gällivare using mixed methods: participatory action research in Living Labs, statistical logistics regression analysis, GIS 3D visualisation. This included an analytical review of research on established mining communities, a 3D visualisation of social issues in Gällivare, an analysis of Living Labs with residents of Gällivare and Kiruna as well as a group of commuters to Gällivare, a comparative study of three co-creative processes in Kiruna and a statistical analysis of construction of place in Kiruna over time.

The results show that residents, while participating in dialogues on social sustainability and attractiveness, construct the transient communities through contradictory storylines. Bearing themes in construction of place were aggregated through the storylines that residents constructed and reproduced, expressed different attitudes towards and referenced. The established storylines with a long history, such as model community, a town constructed as a new establishment planned to be modern and inclusive; nature and the town, the theme of beautiful natural surroundings valued by residents and visitors, including the mountains, forest, rivers and lakes; big city elsewhere, a big city used in the construction of Kiruna and Gällivare to show what those places are not, as a counterpoint; the secure small town, the storyline of knowing “everyone”, spontaneously meeting, helping each other, were all used to re-establish the sense of stability and reframe the new environment by connecting it to the construction of the communities’ past. The storyline, the conditionally inclusive town, was used to question the character of and conditions for inclusion in the local interconnected context. The storylines of hope of a more inclusive and sustainable future and broken promises of a faster transformation, resulting in bigger changes, were used to process the change to imagined futures of place.

There were certain patterns in how people of different age groups, professions and gender construct place in transiting communities. The main difference in the way men and women constructed Gällivare, according to 3D visualisation analysis, was that women were less content than men with the built environment, following similar geographical patterns. Construction of Kiruna as a place to live (or leave) over time has shown that while blue-collar workers were less prone than white-collar workers to consider leaving in 2011, there were no significant differences between social classes in 2016 in that regard. Generational patterns were similar - the younger the respondent, the more prone he or she is to consider leaving - but the gap between the youngest respondents and all other respondents has grown. The effect of social bonds that inhibit the will to move went from insignificant to visible for men and from significant to stronger for women. The hope of a transformed Kiruna, so ubiquitous in 2011, was much less pronounced in 2016.

Different research methods had different potential in terms of the potential to understand construction of place and were thus included in the planning process: the statistical method gave representative patterns of factors behind whether residents consider leaving and how the patterns changed over time, but this method was limited in its ability to generate an understanding of the contextual meaning of those patterns, Living Labs provided the opportunity to see how place is constructed in dialogues but was limited in its ability to generate an understanding of preferences and individual standpoints, 3D visualisation provided spatial patterns beyond statistics and means for discussion and communication of those patterns with a broad variety of actors but had limited potential for their interpretation.

 

Abstract [sv]

I den här avhandlingen analyseras konstruktion av plats i gruvsamhällen som genomgår omfattande samhällsomvandlingar. År 2010 har Kiruna och Gällivare gått in i en ny exekutiv fas i de storskaliga samhällsomvandlingarna då många fastigheter måste flyttas eller rivas och byggas om eftersom gruvbrytningen i underjordsgruvorna påverkar markytan. Samhällsomvandlingarna fortsätter och lär fortsätta i flera år till. Ambitionen att genomföra samhällsomvandlingarna på ett hållbart sätt, främja social hållbarhet och göra lokalsamhällen mer attraktiva resulterade i forsknings- och utvecklingsprojekt som fokuserade på dessa frågor.

Avhandlingens syfte är att beskriva och analysera konstruktion av plats i etablerade gruvsamhällen under samhällsomvandlingarna genom följande forskningsfrågor. Hur går konstruktion av plats till i dialoger om social hållbarhet och attraktivitet? Hur görs plats av människor i olika åldersgrupper, av olika kön och yrkesgrupper i etablerade gruvsamhällen som genomgår samhällsomvandling? Vilka möjligheter och begränsningar bär olika forskningsmetoder i relation till deras potential att inkludera medborgares perspektiv i omvandlingsprocessen? Det övergripande teoretiska perspektivet i avhandlingen är att plats är socialt konstruerad: plats görs av reflekterande människor som diskuterar och beskriver det, av diskurser som produceras och reproduceras i sociala grupper bortom individuella uttalanden och åsikter. Människors sätt att reflektera över deras lokalsamhällen är en viktig del av vad dessa samhällen är, var och kommer att bli, tillsammans med den reflexiva relationen till platsen och tankar om dessa människors egen framtid och andras framtid i dessa samhällen (se Lefebvre, 1991, Halegua, 2020). Med den reflexiva relationen till platsen menar jag hur människor förhåller sig till risker, tänker på framtiden, definierar vad gör deras liv meningsfull och reflekterar över förändringar i deras omgivning; lokalsamhället är en av nivåer för dessa tankar, attityder och känslor.

Fem delstudier genomfördes för att undersöka konstruktion av plats i gruvsamhällen i omvandling med hjälp av olika forskningsmetoder: en forskningsöversikt av studier om sociala hållbarhetsfrågor i etablerade gruvsamhällen, en 3D visualisering av sociala värden i Gällivare, en reflexiv analys av workshops i Living labs i Kiruna och Gällivare, en jämförande studie av tre medskapande processen i Kiruna samt en statistisk analys där konstruktion av plats i Kiruna jämfördes över tid.

Resultaten av dessa studier visar att de som bor i Kiruna och Gällivare i deras dialoger om social hållbarhet och attraktivitet konstruerar plats genom motsägelsefulla berättelser, bärande teman i konstruktion av plats aggregerades genom dessa berättelser som människor konstruerade och reproducerade, förhöll sig olika och hänvisade till. Etablerade berättelser har en lång historia. såsom berättelsen Mönstersamhället, en stad konstruerad planerad som modern och inkluderande; berättelsen Naturen och staden om den vackra naturen utanför samhällen – skogen, fjällen, älv och sjöar - som värderas högt av besökare och lokalbefolkningen; berättelsen Stor stad annorstädes, en stor stad som används som kontrapunkt för att visa vad Kiruna och Gällivare inte är och fortsätta konstruera det rurala i samhällen; en berättelse Den trygga småstaden, berättelsen om att alla känner alla, spontana möten, samarbeten, de alla användes för att återknyta samhällen i förändring till de etablerade sätten att konstruera plats i dem, koppla samman plats i dag med konstruktion av dess förflutna. Berättelsen Den villkorat inkluderande staden användes för att ifrågasätta inkluderingen och dess villkor i de tätt sammankopplade samhällen. Berättelsen Hopp om inkluderande och hållbar framtid och berättelse Brutna löften om de snabba omvandlingarna som resulterar i större samhällsförändringar, användes för att bearbeta förändrade konstruktioner av platsens framtid.

Mönster identifierades i hur människor av olika åldersgrupper, professioner och kön gör plats under samhällsomvandlingarna. 3D visualiseringsstudien visade att kvinnor i Gällivare var generellt mer missnöjda med den byggda miljön än män medan spatiala mönster av missnöje liknade varandra. Studien om konstruktion av Kiruna som en plats att stanna eller lämna visade att arbetaryrken i mindre utsträckning än andra övervägde att flytta år 2011, medan denna skillnad inte kunde observeras i 2016. Generationsmönster liknade den beskrivningen: ju yngre desto mer benägna var respondenterna att överväga flytta från kommunen i framtiden, medan gapet mellan den yngre generationen och de övriga hade växt. Effekten av starka sociala band som bidrog till att hålla tillbaka viljan att flytta har förändrats från icke signifikant till synlig för män och från signifikant till stark för kvinnor. Hoppet om omvandlad Kiruna så närvarande 2011 var mindre uttalad år 2016.

Olika forskningsmetoder hade olika potential för att inkludera medborgares perspektiv i samhällsomvandlingarna. Den statistiska metoden gav representativa mönster bakom människors tankar om att stanna eller flytta, men den kunde inte bidra till djupare förståelse av sociala företeelsen bakom dessa mönster och deras kontextuella betydelse.  Living Labs gav möjligheten att förstå hur plats görs i dialoger om social hållbarhet och attraktivitet, men var begränsad i möjligheter att nå djupare förståelse för individers reflektioner, individuella åsikter och preferenser. 3D visualiseringen hjälpte identifiera rumsliga mönster och gav verktyg för att diskutera dessa mönster med olika respondenter men var begränsad i dess utrymme att förstå och tolka dessa mönster.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2020
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544Attract: Attraktiva, hållbara livsmiljöer i kallt klimat
Keywords
construction of place, Gällivare, Kiruna, transformation, rural studies, urban change
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Human Work Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79069 (URN)978-91-7790-611-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-612-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-09-18, A109, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova
Available from: 2020-05-29 Created: 2020-05-29 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, TimSegerstedt, EugeniaOlofsson, ThomasJakobsson, Mats

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