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Particle Packing for Concrete Mix Design: Models vs. Reality
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2567-5891
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3997-3083
2014 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 51, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The packing density of aggregates is of great importance in concrete mix design as obtaining a higher packing density leads to less usage of cement paste which has technical, environmental and economic benefits. It is thus of interest to model particle packing correctly. Hence, in this study, packing densities of seven mixes of aggregate were attained in the laboratory using the loose packing method and were compared to values suggested by three models: 4C, Compressible Packing Model and Modified Toufar Model. Modified Toufar showed 1.72% mean difference from the laboratory values while CPM and 4C had mean differences of 1.79% and 1.84% respectively. In addition, it was found that some of the models are preferable in certain mixtures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 51, p. 85-94
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11550Local ID: a8da796a-d226-4f81-bf32-6533318afb9eOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-11550DiVA, id: diva2:984500
Note

Validerad; 2014; 20141209 (yahgha)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2022-09-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Aggregates in Concrete Mix Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aggregates in Concrete Mix Design
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The importance of studying the behaviour and properties of concrete can be highlighted by considering the fact that concrete is the most used man-made material in the world. The very first step in making concrete is its mix design and deciding the type and amount of constitutes used in the production of concrete which should fulfil the requirements of the final product. Mix design models are commonly used for the purpose of proportioning concrete ingredients while anticipating the properties of the final product. 

The current document deals with the commonly used principals in mix design models namely particle packing theory and excess water/paste layer theories. The conducted studies includes an investigation on accuracy of particle packing models (Toufar, 4C, CPM) and also tries to address the issue with measurement of specific surface area of particles as an essential input to water/paste layer theories. 

It has been observed that the particle packing models can predict the packing density with acceptable margin. However, it should be mentioned that the particle packing models by themselves are not mix design models but should be rather used as a part of a mix design. In addition, it was found that the accuracy of calculating the specific surface area of particles based on their size distribution curve can be further improved by assuming angular platonic solids as uniform shape of aggregate instead of traditional approach of assuming spheres for aggregates’ shape. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017. p. 60
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
Mix design, water layer theory, particle packing, aggregates, specific surface area
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61659 (URN)978-91-7583-800-7 (ISBN)978-91-7583-801-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-03-28, F1031, Lulea, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
2. Flowability and proportioning of cementitious mixtures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flowability and proportioning of cementitious mixtures
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Flytbarhet och proportionering avcementblandnigar
Abstract [en]

Understanding the role of constituents of cementitious mixtures as the most globally used human-made material and their effect on the flowability of the blends is of great importance. A comprehensive understanding of the ingredients of mixtures allows for optimized proportioning of constituents and can lead to a reduction in cement and water demand of the blends.

The thesis focuses on relating the flow of mixtures to the specific surface area of the particles through the concepts of excess water layer theory by assuming that the particles are enveloped by a thin film layer that separates the grains and lubricates their surfaces. However, in order to study the film thickness, it is inevitable to consider packing density and specific surface area of the particles. Both of the mentioned parameters and their influence on water requirement of mixtures were investigated as a part of the project.

The theoretical part of the thesis includes background and explanation of the concepts and theories used in conducting the research including particle packing theory, specific surface area, and excess layer theories. In addition, the thesis attempts at defining and formulating terms and parameters such as representative shape, mixer efficiency, and optimal packing.

The experimental part of the thesis consists of laboratory measurements of packing density in the loose state, estimation of specific surface area using microtomography and slump tests for mortar and concrete.

The results of the thesis indicate that the available packing models can estimate the packing density with acceptable accuracy. In addition, it was shown that it is possible to estimate flowability of mixtures based on information about the specific surface area of the constituents. A mix design approach is introduced which predicts flow spread of slump test, a measure that is often used in laboratories and at the building sites.

Moreover, the research revealed that the estimation of the specific surface area of particles can be improved by assuming a platonic solid shape for the particles instead of spheres. Furthermore, the mixer efficiency was quantified and optimization of mixtures against packing density and water requirement was explained.

The finding of the project lays a foundation for a simple workability based mix design approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Particle packing, excess layer theory, mix design
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73152 (URN)978-91-7790-328-4 (ISBN)978-91-7790-329-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-03, F1031, Lulea, 10:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Ghasemi, YahyaEmborg, Mats

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