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Dispersion and reinforcing potential of carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose powders modified with 1-hexanol in extruded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf.
Applied Wood Materials Laboratory, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4762-2854
2012 (English)In: Journal of polymers and the environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1052-1062Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bionanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chemically modified, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) powders were prepared by extrusion, followed by injection molding. The chemically modified NFC powders were prepared by carboxymethylation and mechanical disintegration of refined, bleached beech pulp (c-NFC), and subsequent esterification with 1-hexanol (c-NFC-hex). A solvent mix was then prepared by precipitating a suspension of c-NFC-hex and acetone-dissolved PLA in ice-cold isopropanol (c-NFC-hex sm), extruded with PLA into pellets at different polymer/fiber ratios, and finally injection molded. Dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile tests were performed to study the reinforcing potential of dried and chemically modified NFC powders for PLA composite applications. The results showed a faint increase in modulus of elasticity of 10 % for composites with a loading of 7.5 % w/w of fibrils, irrespective of the type of chemically modified NFC powder. The increase in stiffness was accompanied by a slight decrease in tensile strength for all samples, as compared with neat PLA. The viscoelastic properties of the composites were essentially identical to neat PLA. The absence of a clear reinforcement of the polymer matrix was attributed to poor interactions with PLA and insufficient dispersion of the chemically modified NFC powders in the composite, as observed from scanning electron microscope images. Further explanation was found in the decrease of the thermal stability and crystallinity of the cellulose upon carboxymethylation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1052-1062
National Category
Bio Materials
Research subject
Wood and Bionanocomposites
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-13745DOI: 10.1007/s10924-012-0508-4ISI: 000312402900018Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84871287256Local ID: d0787f70-9997-419f-a746-960f4bd14a6eOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-13745DiVA, id: diva2:986698
Note
Validerad; 2012; 20120806 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved

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Eyholzer, ChristianOksman, Kristiina

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