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Analyzing energy consumption and gas emissions of loading equipment in underground mining
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2306-9241
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7334-4934
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5347-0853
2015 (English)In: CIM Journal, ISSN 1923-6026, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 179-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In an environment of rising energy prices and mining at greater depths, cost-efficient loading and hauling equipment is essential. Conducted at an underground mining operation, this study analyzes the energy consumption and gas emissions of diesel and electric load-haul-dump machines (LHDs) with similar bucket capacities. Based on energy prices from the first quarter of 2014, results of discrete event simulation show that energy costs for diesel and electric LHDs are US$0.24/t and US$0.07/t, respectively. Also, diesel LHDs emit 2.68 kg CO2 per litre of diesel fuel, whereas using electric machines reduces the need for ventilation to mitigate engine heat and emissions and reduces energy costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 6, no 4, p. 179-188
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-15252DOI: 10.15834/cimj.2015.24Local ID: ebfbfc7e-7ebf-4eae-8ca1-67316147c07bOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-15252DiVA, id: diva2:988226
Note

Godkänd; 2015; 20141021 (abusal)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Rock mass transportation systems in underground mines: consequences and solutions when mining at greater depths
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rock mass transportation systems in underground mines: consequences and solutions when mining at greater depths
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis addresses a number of challenges related to rock mass transportation in deep underground mines. In particular, high energy consumption and high exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs, the effects of ore pass loss on the loading, hauling and dumping operations due to increasing stresses and increasing costs due to the longer vertical transportation of the rock masses. These critical challenges have been identified by a literature review and analysis of data collected from 15 international deep mines. In order to answer the formulated research questions, three studies on various issues related to rock mass transportation in deep underground mines were made, and the analysis was performed mainly using discrete event simulation.

The thesis presents a study of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs with similar bucket sizes. The results show the possible energy savings and a decrease in CO2 emissions when using electric LHDs instead of diesel ones. The thesis also presents a study of the effects of ore pass loss on LHD operations and on the mine production. Maintaining the production with a lower number of operational ore pass structures by increasing the number of LHDs can have a negative effect on the production. This is because an increased number of LHDs in operation will results in increased waiting times for the LHDs and cause variations in the production rate. These variations can be large, causing severe consequences if not managed correctly. The results also show the importance of developing alternative plans for underground loading and hauling operations in case of an ore pass loss. Transportation of rock, especially when mining depth increases, is often associated with high costs and long transportation times. To decrease the amount of unnecessary rock transportation, near-to-face sorting plants may be one alternative. In the thesis, a study was performed on a possible reduction in rock mass transportation to the surface when using this technique. The results conclude that near-to-face sorting plants could lower the environmental effects generated by unnecessary rock transportation to the surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63089 (URN)978-91-7583-886-1 (ISBN)978-91-7583-887-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-29, F1031, Luleå, 10:00
Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-19 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved
2. Load-Haul-Dump operations in underground mines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Load-Haul-Dump operations in underground mines
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Lastning och transport i underjordsgruvor
Abstract [en]

The research presented in this thesis addresses several aspects of loading operations inunderground mines, in particular tools and equipment selection. It also addresses the flexibilityof the fleet when subject to substantial disturbances, such as ore pass loss, and proposes integration of the scheduling system with discrete event simulation. The thesis begins with a study of discrete event simulation (DES) tools for loading operations in an underground mining system. The results show the benefits of using simulation but also the drawbacks.The thesis presents an analysis of energy consumption and exhaust gas emissions from diesel and electric LHDs. The results show the potential energy savings with the use of electric LHDs. Next, it focuses on the LHD operations affected by long-term ore pass loss (unavailability). It shows the effects on the production system (the ventilation requirements, production and waiting times when too many LHDs operate in the area affected by an ore pass loss) and highlights the need for a flexible solution and a mitigation strategy. Finally, the thesis studies the integration of ABB’s Ability Operations Management System (OMS) with the SimMine simulation model and how this affects LHD operations. The results show the benefits of using the joined platformas a testbed and decision support system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 155
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
LHD, DES, simulation, underground mine, energy consumption, ventilation requirements, orepass loss, production scheduling, process control
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Mining and Rock Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72950 (URN)978-91-7790-316-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-317-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-24, F1031, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved

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Salama, AbubakaryGreberg, JennySkawina, BartlomiejGustafson, Anna

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