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Effect of light power density variation on dental light-cure resin composites
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8676-8819
2001 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dental resin based composites are tooth-colored filling materials composed of synthetic resins and particulate ceramic reinforcing filler particles. The resin system also contains molecules that promote and/or modify the polymerisation reaction of the dimethacrylate resin monomers. The filler is bonded to the cured polymer with a film of silane coupling agent covering the filler particles. That silane film is also bonded to the reinforcing filler particles. Dental composites have been used as restorative materials for anterior applications since the 60s. Their tooth matching ability, ability to bond to tooth tissues and their lack of mercury have also promoted them as an alternative to dental amalgam for use in posterior teeth. Favourable results from long-term clinical trails demonstrate that when placed correctly, composites can produce esthetical posterior restorations with acceptable longevity ( el-Mowafy et al., 1994: Taylor et al., 1994 ), although not yet comparable to amalgams (Mjor). Significant problems still remain to be solved and limit their usefulness in the routine practice of dentistry. One of the most significant problems today relates to large material contraction during intra-oral polymerisation of composites. The hardening of composites is the result of polymerisation reactions involving dimethacrylate monomers. A rigid and heavily cross-linked polymer network is produced which surrounds the inert filler particles. The extent of this reaction, the degree of conversion, dictates many of the physical and mechanical properties of the composites. The degree of cure is influenced by many factors, including the light energy used to activate the reaction (Rueggeberg and Jordan, 1993). A reduction in volume, here termed shrinkage, occurs when the monomer polymerises. That shrinkage, which is more than 10-20 times higher in microns than what occurs when an amalgam sets, is caused by a change from van der Waal bonding to covalent bond formation. During that reaction, the monomer molecules rearrange and move closer together (Oleinik, 1986). The magnitude of the shrinkage is dictated by the extent of the reaction, as well as by the nature of the monomers. Research program In the currently ongoing study we are studying the effect of light intensity on polymerisation-induced strain, degree of conversion, volumetric changes and modulus of elasticity of two commercial dental composites. The objective is to test the hypothesis that low light intensity and increased curing time can be used to cure composites with better performance than high intensity cured composites. The benefits with the low intensity long time cure could be improved marginal integrity without loss of mechanical and physical properties. MethodsPolymerisation strain: Small ring shape samples were prepared and cured with three different light intensities (800, 450 and 200 mW/cm2). The polymerisation strain was measured by strain gages. The temperature increase was also measured. The sources of increased temperature are heat generated from the lamp as well as exothermal heat from curing. Volumetric shrinkage: The overall volumetric shrinkage was measured using water and mercury displacement methods. Degree of conversion: The effect of light intensity irradiation time on degree of conversion was measured by spectroscopy (FT- Raman). Modulus of Elasticity: One important factor influencing residual stresses is the stiffness of the dental composite. A miniature tensile machine for small sample size was used to measure the Young's modulus for two materials cured with different light intensities. ResultsA decrease in light intensity decreased the residual strain for the different material systems being evaluated. As long as the lower light intensity was compensated with an increased curing time, degree of conversion, Young's modulus and volumetric shrinkage were compared to high intensity cure for shorter time. The temperature increase, though, was lower for the low intensity cure than for the high intensity cure, even if longer time was used for the low intensity cure. DiscussionThe above results support the proposed hypothesis. A lower light intensity delays gelation, allowing the material to flow more initially. Such flow decreases the induced strain. Another important factor is the lower increase in temperature, which also decreases the thermal shrinkage that occurs during cooling back to room temperature. Differences between the two materials can also be related to differences in molecular structures between the two composites. An important conclusion is that for these materials, the polymerisation reaction is controlled by the total light energy supplied to the dental composite.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2001. , p. 50
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757 ; 2001:54
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Machine Elements; Polymeric Composite Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-18480Local ID: 8d14a4f0-d179-11db-a0b9-000ea68e967bOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-18480DiVA, id: diva2:991489
Note

Godkänd; 2001; 20070313 (ysko)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-03-08Bibliographically approved

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Emami, Nazanin

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