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The Energy Efficiency Problematics in Sports Facilities: Identifying Savings in Daily Grass Heating Operation
NEC Laboratories Europe, NEC Europe Ltd., Heidelberg.
NEC Laboratories Europe.
NEC Laboratories Europe.
NEC Laboratories Europe.
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE Sixth International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2015, p. 189-197Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recently, reflections on modern sports stadiums' environmental impacts have gained substantial attention. Large-scale stadiums of e.g. professional soccer teams are characterized by having installations of grass heating systems serving the crucial commercial asset and at the same being the sub-system with the highest yearly thermal energy consumption. Public buildings of this size imply situation-specific operational modes combined with high levels of safety and comfort requirements. In this paper we provide a first study on the energy savings potential of a professional soccer stadium's grass heating system during day-to-day operation. In practice, limited heating capacities of the arena have to be adhered to, which causes the current operation to often result in under-performance of other, less critical facility units. Our analysis of dynamic operational and contextual data serves as foundation for long-term energy efficiency measures. We study relevant parameters related to the current control schemes and the stadium's context. Concretely, the grass root temperature as critical observable is studied with respect to weather conditions and the resulting thermal behavior. We provide an improved control strategy and quantify the anticipated savings of this strategy to be as high as 34% compared to the last heating season. For the future, the documented thermal characteristics will enable the formulation of more advanced control strategies to positively influence the grass heating operation. This will lead to further improvements in balancing the heating demand across all thermal facility sub-systems by integrating operational context with forecasts of the thermal behavior in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: ACM Digital Library, 2015. p. 189-197
Keyword [en]
context awareness, control systems, cyber-physical systems, energy management, grass heating, smart buildings, sports stadium
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28073DOI: 10.1145/2735960.2735978Local ID: 1b94dc51-429a-475c-aa01-fc581b894ebfISBN: 978-1-4503-3455-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-28073DiVA, id: diva2:1001267
Conference
ACM/IEEE Sixth International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems : 14/04/2014 - 16/04/2015
Note
Upprättat; 2015; 20150921 (missch)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. EVOX-CPS: A Methodology For Data-Driven Optimization Of Building Operation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EVOX-CPS: A Methodology For Data-Driven Optimization Of Building Operation
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Existing building stock’s energy efficiency must improve due to its significant proportion of the global energy consumption mix. Predictive building control promises to increase the efficiency of buildings during their operational phase and thus lead to a reduction of the lion’s share of buildings’ lifetime energy consumption. Predictive control complements other means to increase performance, such as refurbishments as well as modernization of systems.

This thesis contributes EVOX-CPS, a holistic methodology to develop data-driven predictive control for (existing) buildings and deploy the control in day-to-day use. EVOX-CPS evolves buildings into Cyber-Physical Systems and addresses the development of data-driven predictive control using computational methods. The thesis’ focus rests on accounting for the situation of existing buildings - which vary greatly regarding their physical characteristics, usage patterns, system installation, and instrumentation levels. The methodology addresses the aspect of building stock variety with its capability to flexibly adapt to different buildings’ characteristics, e.g., by supporting the integration of varying levels of pre-existing building instrumentation. Furthermore, EVOX-CPS supports using different data mining, regression, or control techniques (i) to strengthen the support for a variety of buildings, and (ii) to cater to researchers’ and practitioners’ differing skills, experiences, or preferences concerning different data analysis techniques. Through its flexibility, the methodology addresses a vast potential installation base and lowers the barriers for adoption in day-to-day use, e.g., by being able to leverage prior investments in building instrumentation and supporting different data-analysis techniques. At the same time, EVOX-CPS provides researchers and practitioners with comprehensive guidance relevant to their daily work. Besides, EVOX-CPS supports addressing a building’s known limitations in the daily operation, e.g., uncomfortable indoor conditions.

The experimentation in two real buildings validates the effectiveness of EVOX-CPS’ data-driven control with high reliability due to prolonged experimentation periods combined with applying energy normalization and inferential statistics. The experiments during routine heating system operation establish high confidence in the recorded effect sizes: the improvements in operational efficiency are profound and statistically significant. More specifically, the experiments of controlling the grass heating system of the soccer stadium Commerzbank Arena, Frankfurt, Germany, in two winters saved up to 66% (2014/2015) and 85% (2015/2016) of energy consumption. Extrapolation to an average heating season leads to expected savings of 775 MWh (148 t of CO2 emissions) and 1 GWh (197 t CO2), respectively. The experiments also show that EVOX-CPS allowed alleviating the known operational limitation of heating supply shortages which required nightly preheating in the stadium’s standard operating procedures. In another set of experiments, we applied the methodology to control the heating system of the Sierra Elvira School in Granada, Spain. The experimentation occurred during the regular class hours of 43 school days in winter 2015/2016. A first experiment demonstrated the possibility to lower consumption by one-third while maintaining indoor comfort. Another experiment raised average indoor temperatures by 2K with 5% additional energy consumption. Again, that illustrates EVOX-CPS’ capability to address a building’s known operational issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keyword
Cyber-Physical Systems, Existing Buildings, Predictive Control, Sustainable Development, Energy Efficiency
National Category
Computer Sciences Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67780 (URN)978-91-7790-059-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-060-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-27, Hörsal-A, Campus Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 08:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved

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