Water conservation at the antarctic wasa base: Results 1989-90
1991 (English)In: Cold Regions Engineering, New York: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1991, 85-94 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
The Swedish WASA base was erected in the Norwegian sector of Antarctica during the 1988-89 summer season. The base was on a nunatakk and consisted of a dwelling house with full living facities for 10 people and a machine building. The sanitary system consisted of indoor running hot and cold water, a dishwasher, a washing machine, two showers, a sauna and two dry toilets. All sanitary installations were, at the time of delivery, standard manufacturered versions chosen to be water conservative. The specific water demand for 1989-90 summer season was 62.8 litres (1) or 16.6 gallons (gal) per day. Of that 1/3 was used in the kitchen and ¼ each for laundry and showers/sauna. The total specific use increased about 66% compared with the 1988/89 season. The probable reason for this was that the transfer of water to the inlet unit changed from a labour intensive technology system to a pumping and transportation device. The dishwasher and washing machine used about 32 % of this total figure. A further 21 % for personal hygiene, so nearly half of the total use was related to the taps. Further reduction in water demand should therefore be oriented towards alternatives such as aerators, timer restrictors or extremely low flow taps.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1991. 85-94 p.
Research subject Urban Water Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35820Local ID: a7fccc40-f1a2-11db-bb1b-000ea68e967bISBN: 0-87262-798-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-35820DiVA: diva2:1009074
International Cold Regions Engineering Specialty Conference : 26/02/1991 - 28/02/1991
Godkänd; 1991; 20070423 (ysko)2016-09-302016-09-30Bibliographically approved