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Provning av aktivt brandskydd för bussar: En förstudie
2013 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The number of fires in buses and coaches are on the increase. In Sweden alone, an average of three bus fires are reported each week. Most of these fires occur in the vehicle’s engine compartment. Thus, installing a well-functioning active fire protection system is an important security measure. There is currently no international standard for fire extinguishing systems in buses. The aim of this report is to create a basis for a method of testing extinguishing systems intended for bus engine compartments. The engine compartment is normally located at the rear of the bus or coach. Some engine parts, e g manifold and turbocharger, may reach temperatures high enough to cause leaking fuel or oil to ignite. Fires may also occur due to electrical wiring short-circuits or overheating of engine components. The conditions in the engine compartment are challenging for any extinguishing system, and need to be accurately simulated using a relevant test method. For example, ventilation fans in the engine compartment often produce high levels of airflow and many compartments have large openings. This can lead to efficient oxygen supply to a fire and the suppression agent may be rapidly removed with the air flow. Furthermore, bus engine compartments are often geometrically complex and/or very compact, making it difficult to ensure that extinguishing agents actually reach the fire source. Additionally, fuel and lubricants are not the only flammables present. Fires may also occur in solids, like plastics, rubber and insulation materials. A method for testing these complex systems needs to be repeatable and reproducible, i.e. it must be possible to repeat at any time and in any place, while still yielding consistent results. The test must also be realistic and capable of simulating different scenarios. Additionally, it should be internationally applicable and must not erroneously favour or disfavour any specific extinguishing agent. The suggested method outlined in this report simulates warm and hot surfaces, an airflow-producing fan, a complex geometry as well as a range of fire sources. These components are placed in a test chamber with several apertures. The extinguishing system on test is installed in the chamber, after which the fire sources are ignited. Several different scenarios are set up and studied with various fire sources, airflow strengths, aperture sizes, and hot-surface temperatures, but with a fixed position of the system’s extinguisher nozzles for all test scenarios. The test results indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as whether or not minimum standard requirements have been met. The process of developing a test method presents several challenges, the greatest being establishing a realistic degree of complexity assuring that an extinguishing system that passes the test will also be able to fight a real fire in a real engine compartment. Thus, finalizing the test design will require extensive trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. , p. 52
Keywords [en]
Technology
Keywords [sv]
Teknik, Bussbränder, Släcksystem, Motorrum, Provning
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-47894Local ID: 563cc71f-c140-4520-89a0-9c142018321dOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-47894DiVA, id: diva2:1021224
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 15 credits
Educational program
Fire Protection Engineer, bachelor's level
Supervisors
Examiners
Note
Validerat; 20110620 (anonymous)Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf