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Agricultural biomass for small-scale combustion systems
2006 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Biomass is a renewable and CO2 neutral energy source with a high development potential among the EU countries. Biomass refers to all forms of plant derived material that can be used for energy generation. The high availability of agricultural residues and the great potential of energy crops make certain biomass types an interesting option for heat and electricity generation, using combustion as the conversion process, either in small, medium or large scale systems. The present work aims at the investigation of the combustion process and ash melting behaviour of three different agricultural biomass fuels, namely straw, Miscanthus and maize, in small-scale combustion systems designed and optimized for wood fuels. The combustion experiments were carried out in a laboratory environment, in two different boilers, for short periods of time (4 to 24 hours) and under well controlled parameters. The laboratory systems were compared with other combustion systems running under household heat demands, with continuous operation and during a heating season – field tests. Furthermore, the effect of two types of additives, dolomite and bauxite, during straw combustion in the laboratory tests was evaluated. The efficiency of the investigated systems when operated with wood fuels and agricultural biomass was very similar. Miscanthus was the best biomass fuel tested regarding emissions, which were lower or very close to the threshold limits for Austrian wood pellet boilers. The agricultural fuels tested showed problems with ash accumulation in the fuel bed area and with slag. The least problematic fuel was maize followed by Miscanthus and straw. The use of additives did not improve the combustion behaviour or reduce the slag intensity. The boilers tested in the laboratory are not suitable to operate with agricultural biomass fuels and improvements in its ash handling capacity are required. One of the boilers investigated in the laboratory scale showed considerable improvements in the ash removal capacity when the burner plate was substituted by a smaller one. The boilers from the field tests were operated for a period of a heating season without ash related problems. However, several methods were used to avoid ash accumulation in the fuel bed and slag problems, e.g. addition of lime, increase of the excess air ratio and frequent automatic grate cleaning (every hour). The emissions from the investigated boilers in the field tests were higher than in the laboratory tests when similar fuels were burned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006.
Keyword [en]
Technology, Combustion, Biomass, Straw, Miscanthus, Maize, Emissions, Ash, Slagging
Keyword [sv]
Teknik
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-51520ISRN: LTU-PB-EX--06/48--SELocal ID: 8b974100-0a11-462b-9db6-77d900344c3dOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-51520DiVA: diva2:1024882
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Energy Engineering, master's level
Examiners
Note
Validerat; 20101217 (root)Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved

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