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Stochastic Planning of Smart Electricity Distribution Networks
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics. (Electric Power Engineering)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4443-7653
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The penetration of intermittent Distributed Generation (DG) brought additional uncertainty to the system operation and planning. To cope with uncertainties the Distribution System Operator (DSO) could implement several strategies. These strategies range from the inclusion of smart technologies which will increment system’s flexibility and resiliency, to improvements in forecasting, modeling, and regulatory pledge that will facilitate the planning activity. Regardless of the nature of the solutions, they could be collected in a sort of toolbox. The planner will access the toolbox to conform cost effective plans, better able to deal with any uncertainty. The present work will address the problem of distribution system planning under uncertainties, considering smart solutions along with traditional reinforcements, in the short-term lead time up to 3 years ahead. The work will be focused on three aspects that are the cornerstones of this work:

 • A planning facilitating strategy: Distribution Capacity Contracts (DCCs).

 • A flexibility enabler technology: Energy Storage.

 • A binding methodology: Multistage Stochastic Programming. Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP). 

Under the present directive of the European Parliament concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own DG but entitled to include it as a planning option to differ investment in traditional grid reinforcements. An evaluation of the regulatory context will lead this work to consider DCCs as a planning alternative available in the toolbox. The impact of this type of contract on the remuneration of the DG owner will be assessed in order to provide insight on its willingness to participate. The DCCs might aid the DSO to defer grid i ii investments during planning stages and to control the network flows during operation. 

Given that storage solutions help to match in time production from intermittent sources with load consumption, they will play a major role in dealing with uncertainties. A generic storage model (GSM) based on a future cost piecewise approximation will be developed. This model inspired by hydro-reservoirs will help assessing the impact of storage in planning decisions. This model will be tested by implementing it in short-term hydro scheduling and unit commitment studies. 

To trace a path towards the future of this research work, a discussion on the planning problem formulation, under consideration of the lead time, the expansion options, the smart strategies, and the regulatory framework will be presented. Special focus will be given to multistage stochastic programming methods and in particular to the SDDP approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60778ISBN: 978-91-7583-775-8 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-776-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-60778DiVA: diva2:1050489
Presentation
2017-02-10, Hörsal A, Campus Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 10:00
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services
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2017 (English)In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980881Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A Distribution System Operator (DSO) might consider a capacity contract as a planning alternative to defer grid investments. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) might be able to provide such capacity and change its production as requested by the DSO. This article presents an assessment of the impact of this type of distribution capacity contract (DCC) on VPP's remuneration. This assessment is done by comparing the optimal production / bidding strategy which maximize its profit, under presence or absence of these contracts. The impact of intermittent generation and storage while evaluating these scenarios will be investigated as well. A stochastic unit commitment will be used to determine the VPP's strategy under uncertainties from wind power, load, market prices, and the requested power by the DSO. The model showed that the VPP involvement in distribution capacity contracts can improve its remuneration when certain types of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are used to provide the service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60776 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2017.7980881 (DOI)000411142500094 ()2-s2.0-85034752863 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4237-1 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60775 (URN)
Conference
CIRED 2017, Glasgow 12-15 June 2017
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24
3. A Hydro-Reservoir Generic Storage Model for Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Hydro-Reservoir Generic Storage Model for Short-Term Hydrothermal Coordination
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2017 (English)In: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7980882Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work presents a linear solution for the short-term hydro-thermal scheduling problem linked to long-term conditions through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Given end-point conditions to conform long-term water releases, and given actual reservoir conditions, a segment of a pre-built piecewise future cost function will be chosen. The linear characteristic of the FCF segment will allow a linear modeling of the hydro-power plant, in a similar fashion as a thermal unit with an equivalent marginal opportunity cost. A short-term hydro thermal coordination problem will be formulated considering parallel and cascaded hydro-reservoirs. Three study cases involving different reservoir configurations and scenarios will be computed to test the model. The results of this model mimics coherently the future-cost hydro-thermal coordination problem for the different configurations tested. Given similarities with other forms of energy storage, a new theoretical model for generic storage will be proposed and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60777 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2017.7980882 (DOI)000411142500095 ()2-s2.0-85034783533 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4237-1 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. PP, no 99Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This work presents a generic storage model (GSM) inspired by the scheduling of hydraulic reservoirs. The model for steady state short-term (ST) operational studies interlaces with the long-term (LT) energy scheduling through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Under the assumption that a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach has been used to solve the energy schedule for the LT, the FCF output from that study will be processed to obtain an equivalent marginal opportunity cost for the storage unit. The linear characteristic of a segment of the future cost function (FCF) will allow a linear modeling of the storage unit production cost. This formulation will help to coordinate the renewable resource along with storage facilities in order to find the optimal operation cost while meeting end-point conditions for the long-term plan of the energy storage. The generic model will be implemented to represent a battery storage and a pumped-hydro storage. A stochastic unit commitment (SUC) with the GSM will be formulated and tested to assess the day-ahead scheduling strategy of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) facing uncertainties from production, consumption, and market prices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keyword
Schedules, Uncertainty, Load modeling, Production, Energy storage, GSM, Stochastic processes
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60774 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2017.2754288 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24
5. Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
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2018 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155, p. 184-195Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The long-term (LT) scheduling of reservoir-type hydropower plants is a multistage stochastic dynamic problem that has been traditionally solved using the stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) approach. This LT schedule of releases should be met through short-term (ST) scheduling decisions obtained from a hydro-thermal scheduling that considers uncertainties. Both time scales can be linked if the ST problem considers as input the future cost function (FCF) obtained from LT studies. Known the piecewise-linear FCF, the hydro-scheduling can be solved as a one-stage problem. Under certain considerations a single segment of the FCF can be used to solve the schedule. From this formulation an equivalent model for the hydropower plant can be derived and used in ST studies. This model behaves accordingly to LT conditions to be met, and provides a marginal cost for dispatching the plant. A generation company (GENCO) owning a mix of hydro, wind, and thermal power will be the subject of study where the model will be implemented. The GENCO faces the problem of scheduling the hydraulic resource under uncertainties from e.g. wind and load while determining the market bids that maximize its profit under uncertainties from market prices. A two-stage stochastic unit commitment (SUC) for the ST scheduling implementing the equivalent hydro model will be solved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60771 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2017.09.028 (DOI)000419410300018 ()2-s2.0-85032274995 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-06 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-29 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
6. A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Smart Distribution Toolbox for Distribution System Planning
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The distribution system planner should be able to coordinate smart grid solutions in order to find cost effective expansions plans. These plans should be able to deal with new added system uncertainties from renewable production and consumers while guaranteeing power quality and availability of supply. This paper proposes a structure for distribution systems planning oriented to help the planner in deciding how to make use of smart solutions for achieving the described task. Here, the concept of a system planning toolbox is introduced and supported with a review of relevant works implementing smart solutions. These are colligated in a way that the system planner can foresee what to expect with their combined implementation. Future developments in this subject should attempt to theorize a practical algorithm in an optimization and decision making context.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31486 (URN)5ab96432-eb8d-4e2e-a156-74ee1aa39629 (Local ID)5ab96432-eb8d-4e2e-a156-74ee1aa39629 (Archive number)5ab96432-eb8d-4e2e-a156-74ee1aa39629 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution : 15/06/2015 - 18/06/2015
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150626 (manalv)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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