Do salt and low temperature impair metal treatment in stormwater bioretention cells with or without a submerged zone?
Number of Authors: 3
2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Although seasonal temperature changes and (road) salt in winter and/or coastal stormwater runoff might interfere with the metal treatment performance of stormwater bioretention cells, no previous study has evaluated the effect of these factors and their interactions under controlled conditions. In this 18 week long study 24 well established pilot-scale bioretention columns were employed to evaluate the individual and combined effect(s) of low/high temperature, salt and presence of a submerged zone with an embedded carbon source on metal removal using a three factor, two-level full factorial experimental design. In most instances, the three factors significantly influenced the metal outflow concentrations and thus the treatment performance; the effect of temperature depended on the metal in question, salt had an overall negative effect and the submerged zone with carbon source had an overall positive effect. Despite these statistically significant effects, the discharge water quality was generally markedly improved. However, leaching of dissolved Cu and Pb did occur, mainly from bioretention cells dosed with salt-containing stormwater. The highest concentrations of metals were captured in the top layer of the filter material and were not significantly affected by the three factors studied. Overall, the results confirmed that bioretention provides a functioning stormwater treatment option in areas experiencing winter conditions (road salt, low temperatures) or coastal regions (salt-laden stormwater). However, validation of these results in the field is recommended, especially focusing on dissolved metal removal, which may be critically affected under certain conditions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Research subject Urban Water Engineering
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61078DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.179PubMedID: 27919558ScopusID: 2-s2.0-85007454220OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-61078DiVA: diva2:1056522