CFD Simulation of Jet in Asymmetric Co-flows in a Down-scaled Rotary Kiln Model
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Rotary kilns are industrial furnaces that have been widely used in limestone calcination, cement industry and hazardous waste incineration for centuries. In this work a rotary kiln used for the iron ore pellet sintering process in the grate-kiln pelletizing system has been studied. In order to increase the energy efficiency, a large amount of air is supplied to the kiln through air channels connected to the cooler. This air is necessary for the coal combustion process and the heat transport to the kiln bed. However, the geometry of the kiln hood connecting the air channels and the cooler is complicated. As a consequence, the jet flame is unstable. In order to improve the performance of the jet flame it is therefore necessary to study the kiln aerodynamics to reveal the flow field. Even though it is a complicated problem containing fluid dynamics, combustion and heat and mass transfer, it can be simplified into a down-scaled cold model to make it feasible to understand the flow field both experimentally and numerically. In this work, the whole kiln is generalized as a high Reynolds number turbulent round jet interacting with asymmetric co-flows. With the aid from previous PIV measurement data of a down-scaled water model of the kiln, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using the commercial code ANSYS CFX 16.0 have been pursued for two main purposes: 1) To find a turbulence model that is computationally inexpensive and able to capture the main features of the mean flow field; 2) With the turbulence model chosen in 1), to study the geometrical effect on the development of the primary jet. In Paper A, three turbulence models were employed, the standard k-epsilon model, a modified k-epsilon model with slightly higher turbulence production and the SSG Reynolds stress model. Wall functions were applied since resolving the viscous wall region was not a concern in this work. It is found that the standard k-epsilon model fit the experimental data best compared to the other two models and that all three turbulence models predict an asymmetric development of the primary jet, especially far downstream, In Paper B, again using the down-scaled kiln model, isothermal cases with four different nozzle diameters were simulated with the standard k-epsilon model. The aim is to investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the jet development in asymmetric co-flows from the air channels. It is found that, with increasing Reynolds number, the jet becomes shorter and the mixing between the primary jet and surrounding flow is better. A low-velocity region or external recirculation zone (ERZ) form near the kiln upper wall and shrink with increased nozzle diameter or decreased initial Reynolds number. The ERZ may stabilize the flame since it is a low-velocity region and consequently attract the jet to reside predominantly in it or in the shear layer. As a conclusion, by enlarging the jet exit diameter, the jet can be prolonged, while to a certain extent, the benefit from the ERZ would need to be sacrificed. Since the asymmetric development and the ERZ in the kiln were not studied during the previous PIV measurement campaign, more experimental studies are planned to provide more experimental evidences of the details of the flow and to lay grounds for validation of the CFD simulation results.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017.
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61175ISBN: 978-91-7583-789-5ISBN: 978-91-7583-790-1 (pdf)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-61175DiVA: diva2:1058311
2017-03-24, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Fredriksson, Christian, Ph.D.
Lundström, Staffan, ProfessorLarsson, Sofia, Ph.D.Marjavaara, Daniel, Ph.D.