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Enabling Reactive Design of Robust Real-Time Embedded Systems
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62322ISBN: 978-91-7583-835-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-836-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-62322DiVA: diva2:1078928
Public defence
2017-04-24, D770, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An IDE for component-based design of embedded real-time software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An IDE for component-based design of embedded real-time software
2011 (English)In: 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, 47-50 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes work in progress on a tool for component-based design of embedded real-time software. The tool supports graphical modeling of software systems using concurrent reactive objects and components, as well as generation of C code from the model. The resulting application code can then be combined with a lightweight kernel for execution on bare metal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-40435 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2011.5953677 (DOI)80051994220 (Scopus ID)f94b40bd-babd-4794-9ae3-b5b4ea50367e (Local ID)978-1-61284-818-1 (ISBN)978-1-61284-819-8 (ISBN)f94b40bd-babd-4794-9ae3-b5b4ea50367e (Archive number)f94b40bd-babd-4794-9ae3-b5b4ea50367e (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems : 15/06/2011 - 17/06/2011
Note
Godkänd; 2011; 20110816 (ysko)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
2. Leveraging tinyos for integration in process automation and control systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leveraging tinyos for integration in process automation and control systems
2012 (English)In: IECON 2012: 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012, 5779-5785 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The number and complexity of networked sensors and actuators in industrial monitoring and control systems is rapidly increasing. This calls for flexible yet efficient methods (w.r.t. time and money) for designing, deploying and maintaining such systems. To this end, Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and wireless technologies are foreseen to play important roles. In the area of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), TinyOS (TOS) has gained wide spread use, mainly because it offers a simple programming model. Moreover TOS comes with a ready made code base (e.g., protocol stacks needed to implement SOA enabled devices) and is available for a large number of light-weight target platforms. However, TOS has yet to make its way into industrial applications where real-time operation is required (which is typical to monitoring and control systems). As being designed primarily with simplicity in mind, the TOS execution model for tasks is non-preemptive, limiting system responsiveness and schedulability. To overcome this problem preemptive TOSThreads has been introduced. However, this introduces the additional complexity of traditional multi-thread programming, thus the main benefit of TOS is lost. In this paper we present an alternative execution model for TOS, that allows preemptive execution while preserving the simplicity of vintage TOS. We exemplify the impact of scheduling to a typical sensor/actuator node scenario. Our results indicate that the proposed preemptive execution model is capable of reducing both delay and drop rate for the given scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012
Series
I E E E Industrial Electronics Society. Annual Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Embedded Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Embedded System; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37393 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2012.6389040 (DOI)b658115e-efbd-44b8-a1cd-58730328bf0a (Local ID)9781467324212 (ISBN)b658115e-efbd-44b8-a1cd-58730328bf0a (Archive number)b658115e-efbd-44b8-a1cd-58730328bf0a (OAI)
Conference
Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : 25/10/2012 - 28/10/2012
Note
Godkänd; 2012; 20130208 (andbra)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
3. Real-Time Execution of Function Blocks for Internet of Things using the RTFM-kernel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-Time Execution of Function Blocks for Internet of Things using the RTFM-kernel
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, 1-6 p., 7005232Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Function Blocks provides a means to model andprogram industrial control systems. The recently acclaimed IEC61499 standard allows such system models to be partitioned andexecuted in a distributed fashion. At device level, such models aretraditionally implemented onto programmable logic controllersthat underneath have an operating system and a softwarerun-time environment which implies high resource demands.However, there is a current trend to involve small embeddedsystems (so called Internet of Things devices) integrated into suchdistributed control systems. To this end, we seek to address theoutsets for real-time execution of Function Block based designsonto light-weight controllers (MCUs) with limited resources(memory and CPU). Furthermore, we propose a mapping ofthe Function Block execution semantics onto the RTFM-kernel,and discuss opportunities for off-line (design time) analysis withrespect to response time, overall schedulability and memoryrequirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014
Series
IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA)
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Science
Research subject
Embedded System; Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37327 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005232 (DOI)000360999100183 ()84946690253 (Scopus ID)b5049f49-ccc3-45ef-a526-27106a0f6a2d (Local ID)978-1-61284-969-0 (ISBN)b5049f49-ccc3-45ef-a526-27106a0f6a2d (Archive number)b5049f49-ccc3-45ef-a526-27106a0f6a2d (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation : 16/09/2014 - 19/09/2014
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20141204 (maalin)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
4. RTFM-4-FUN
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RTFM-4-FUN
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2014 (English)In: 2014 9th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES 2014): Pisa, 18-20 June 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Function Blocks provides a means to model andprogram industrial control systems. The recently acclaimed IEC61499 standard allows such system models to be partitioned andexecuted in a distributed fashion. At device level, such models aretraditionally implemented onto programmable logic controllersand industrial PCs. In this paper, we discuss work in progresson developing a mapping allowing to implement a subset of IEC61499 models onto light-weight embedded devices (MCUs). Wepropose and detail an event semantics, and its mapping to thenotions of tasks and resources for Stack Resource Policy basedanalysis and scheduling. Moreover, we show how the proposedmapping can be efficiently implemented under the RTFM-kernel.Finally we outline a prototype tool-chain and discuss related,ongoing and future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Science
Research subject
Embedded System; Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-31695 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2014.7087453 (DOI)5f425bf0-2a15-489b-8321-1f032143a348 (Local ID)5f425bf0-2a15-489b-8321-1f032143a348 (Archive number)5f425bf0-2a15-489b-8321-1f032143a348 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems : 18/06/2014 - 20/06/2014
Note

Godkänd; 2014; 20141204 (maalin)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
5. End-to-End Response Time of 61499 Distributed Applications over Switched Ethernet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>End-to-End Response Time of 61499 Distributed Applications over Switched Ethernet
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 1, 287-297 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The IEC 61499 standard provides means to specify distributed control systems in terms of function blocks. For the deployment, each device may hold one or many logical resources, each consisting of a function block network with service interface blocks at the edges. The execution model is event driven (asynchronous), where triggering events may be associated with data (and seen as messages). In this paper, we propose a low complexity implementation technique allowing to assess end-to-end response times of event chains spanning over a set of networked devices. Based on a translation of IEC 61499 to RTFM1-tasks and resources, the response time for each task in the system at device-level can be derived using established scheduling techniques. In this paper, we develop a holistic method to provide safe end-to-end response times taking both intra- and inter-device delivery delays into account. The novelty of our approach is the accuracy of the system scheduling overhead characterization. While the device-level (RTFM) scheduling overhead was discussed in previous works, the network-level scheduling overhead for switched Ethernets is discussed in this paper. The approach is generally applicable to a wide range of COTS Ethernet switches without a need for expensive custom solutions to provide hard real-time performance. A behavior characterization of the utilized switch determines the guaranteed response times. As a use case, we study the implementation onto (single-core) ARMcortex based devices communicating over a switched Ethernet network. For the analysis, we define a generic switch model and an experimental setup allowing us to study the impact of network topology as well as 802.1Q quality of service in a mixed critical setting. Our results indicate that safe sub millisecond end-to-end response times can be obtained using the proposed approach.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60286 (URN)10.1109/TII.2016.2626463 (DOI)000395874400029 ()2-s2.0-85013444377 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-02-21 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
6. Response Time for IEC 61499 over Ethernet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response Time for IEC 61499 over Ethernet
Show others...
2015 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics: INDIN 2015, Cambridge, UK, July 22-24, 2015. Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, 1206-1212 p., 7281907Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The IEC 61499 standard provides means to specify distributed control systems in terms of function blocks. For the deployment, each device may hold one or many logical resources, each consisting of a function block network with service interface blocks at the edges. The execution model is event driven (asynchronous), where triggering events may be associated with data (and seen as a message). In this paper we propose a low complexity implementation technique allowing to asses end-to-end response time of event chains spanning a networked devices. Based on a translation of IEC 61499 to RTFM-tasks and resources, the response time for each task in the system can be derived using established scheduling techniques. In this paper we develop a method to provide safe end-to-end response time taking both intra- and inter-device delivery delays into account. As a use case we study the implementation onto (single-core) ARMcortex based devices communicating over a switched Ethernet network. For the analysis we define a generic switch model, and an experimental setup allowing us to study the impact of network topology as well as 802.1Q quality of service in a mixed critical setting. Our results indicate that safe sub milli-second end-to-end response times can be obtained using the proposed approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39547 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2015.7281907 (DOI)e5b1a7a7-f812-4558-80e6-cece79f4c7f1 (Local ID)9781479966493 (ISBN)e5b1a7a7-f812-4558-80e6-cece79f4c7f1 (Archive number)e5b1a7a7-f812-4558-80e6-cece79f4c7f1 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : 22/07/2015 - 24/07/2015
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20150917 (maalin)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
7. Scheduling of CRO systems under SPR-DM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scheduling of CRO systems under SPR-DM
Show others...
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35388 (URN)9e7d8669-d562-48f9-8742-f972866fdfca (Local ID)9e7d8669-d562-48f9-8742-f972866fdfca (Archive number)9e7d8669-d562-48f9-8742-f972866fdfca (OAI)
Conference
Real-Time in Sweden : 13/06/2011 - 14/06/2011
Note
Godkänd; 2011; 20111122 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
8. Real-time for the masses: Step 1: programming API and static priority SRP kernel primitives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time for the masses: Step 1: programming API and static priority SRP kernel primitives
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2013 (English)In: 2013 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial and Embedded Systems (SIES 2013): 19-21 June 2013, Porto, Portugal, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, 110-113 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lightweight Real-Time Operating Systems have gained widespread use in implementing embedded software on lightweight nodes. However, bare metal solutions are chosen, e.g., when the reactive (interrupt-driven) paradigm better matches the programmer’s intent, when the OS features are not needed, or when the OS overhead is deemed too large. Moreover, other approaches are used when real-time guarantees are required. Establishing real-time and resource guarantees typically requires expert knowledge in the field, as no turn-key solutions are available to the masses.In this paper we set out to bridge the gap between bare metal solutions and traditional Real-Time OS paradigms. Our goal is to meet the intuition of the programmer and at the same time provide a resource-efficient (w.r.t. CPU and memory) implementation with established properties, such as bounded memory usage and guaranteed response times. We outline a roadmap for Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) and report on the first step: an intuitive, platform-independent programming API backed by an efficient Stack Resource Policy-based scheduler and a tool for kernel configuration and basic resource and timing analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013
Keyword
Information technology - Systems engineering, Informationsteknik - Systemteknik
National Category
Embedded Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Embedded System; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32446 (URN)10.1109/SIES.2013.6601482 (DOI)6f199cd4-5aa4-4696-a750-baf5affeca89 (Local ID)6f199cd4-5aa4-4696-a750-baf5affeca89 (Archive number)6f199cd4-5aa4-4696-a750-baf5affeca89 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems : 19/06/2013 - 21/06/2013
Projects
ESIS
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130701 (pln)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
9. SRP-DM scheduling of component-based embedded real-time software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SRP-DM scheduling of component-based embedded real-time software
Show others...
2011 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model and component based design is an established means for the development of large software systems, and is starting to get momentum in the realm of embedded software development. In case of safety critical (dependable systems) it is crucial that the underlying model and its realization captures the requirements on the timely behavior of the system, and that these requirements can be preserved and validated throughout the design process (from specification to actual code execution). To this end, we base the presented work on the notion of Concurrent Reactive Objects (CRO) and their abstraction into Reactive Components.In many cases, the execution platform puts firm resource limitations on available memory and speed of computations that must be taken into consideration for the validation of the system.In this paper, we focus on code synthesis from the model, and we show how specified timing requirements are preserved and translated into scheduling information. In particular, we present how ceiling levels for Stack Resources Policy (SRP) scheduling and analysis can be extracted from the model. Additionally, to support schedulability analysis, we detail algorithms that for a CRO model derives periods (minimum inter-arrival times) and offsets of tasks/jobs. Moreover, the design of a micro-kernel supporting cooperative hardware- and software-scheduling of CRO based systems under Deadline Monotonic SRP is presented.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34558 (URN)8c7a9196-a0ce-4944-83da-07d3add16d5f (Local ID)8c7a9196-a0ce-4944-83da-07d3add16d5f (Archive number)8c7a9196-a0ce-4944-83da-07d3add16d5f (OAI)
Conference
International Workshop on Dependable and Secure Industrial and Embedded Systems : 04/06/2011 - 04/06/2011
Note
Godkänd; 2011; 20111215 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved
10. Uniform scheduling of internal and external events under SRP-EDF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uniform scheduling of internal and external events under SRP-EDF
2010 (English)In: Annual International Conference on Real-Time and Embedded Systems ( RTES 2010): 1-2 November 2010, Mandarin Orchard Hotel, Singapore, 2010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With the growing complexity of modern embedded real-time systems, scheduling and managing of resources has become a daunting task. While scheduling and resource management for internal events can be simplified by adopting a commonplace real-time operating system (RTOS), scheduling and resource management for external events are left in the hands of the programmer, not to mention managing resources across the boundaries of external and internal events. In this paper we propose a unified system view incorporating earliest deadline first (EDF) for scheduling and stack resource policy (SRP) for resource management. From an embedded real-time system view, EDF+SRP is attractive not only because stack usage can be minimized, but also because the cost of a pre-emption becomes almost as cheap as a regular function call, and the number of preemptions is kept to a minimum. SRP+EDF also lifts the burden of manual resource management from the programmer and incorporates it into the scheduler. Furthermore, we show the efficiency of the SRP+EDF scheme, the intuitiveness of the programming model (in terms of reactive programming), and the simplicity of the implementation.

National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39049 (URN)da3eacd0-f727-11df-8b95-000ea68e967b (Local ID)da3eacd0-f727-11df-8b95-000ea68e967b (Archive number)da3eacd0-f727-11df-8b95-000ea68e967b (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Real-Time and Embedded Systems : 01/11/2010 - 02/11/2010
Note
Godkänd; 2010; 20101123 (simait)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-11-25Bibliographically approved

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