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Liquid water content of the snow surface estimated by spectral reflectance
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. (Experimental mechanics)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5943-1476
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics. (Experimental mechanics)
(English)In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

The spectral reflectance from snow with known liquid water content (LWC) was measured in a climate chamber using two optical sensors, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer and a Road eye sensor. The spectrometer measured the backscattered radiation in the wavelength range of 920 -1650 nm. The Road eye sensor was developed to monitor and classify winter roads based on the reflected intensity measurements at wavelengths 980 nm, 1310 nm and 1550 nm. Results of the study suggest that the spectral reflectance from snow is inversely proportional to the LWC in snow. Based on the effect of LWC on the spectral reflectance, three optimum wavelength bands are selected where the snow with different LWC were clearly distinguishable. A widely used remote sensing index known as the normalized difference water index (NDWI), was used to develop a method to estimate the surface LWC for a given snow pack. The derived NDWI values with respect to the known LWC in snow, show that the NDWI is sensitive to the LWC in snow and further show that the NDWI and LWC are directly proportional. Based on this information, the NDWI was used to estimate the surface LWC in snow from measurements on a ski track using the Road eye sensor. The findings of the study suggest that the presented method can be applied to estimate the surface LWC in order to classify snow conditions potentially for ski tracks and pistes applications. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65754DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CR.1943-5495.0000158OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-65754DiVA: diva2:1143243
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2017-11-24

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