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Is Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World?: Review of Previous Work and Possible Solutions
LTU team.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6790-2653
University of Kurdistan, Erbil.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1365-8552
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2017 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 801-823, article id 79510Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

Mosul Dam is an earth fill dam located on the Tigris River in North Western part of Iraq. It is 113 m in height, 3.4 km in length, 10 m wide in its crest and has a storage capacity of 11.11 billion cubic meters. It is, constructed on be- drocks which consist of gypsum beds alternated with marl and limestone, in cyclic nature. The thickness of the gypsum beds attains 18 m; they are in- tensely karstified even in foundation rocks. This has created number of prob- lems during construction, impounding and operation of the dam. Construc- tion work in Mosul Dam started on January 25th, 1981 and started operating on 24th July, 1986. After impounding in 1986, seepage locations were recog- nized. The cause of seepage is mainly due to: 1) The karsts prevailing in the dam site and in the reservoir area. 2) The existence of gypsum/anhydrite rock formations in the dam foundation alternating with soft marl layers and wea- thered and cavernous limestone beddings. 3) The presence of an extensive ground water aquifer called Wadi Malleh aquifer, which affects considerably the ground water regime in the right bank. The dissolution intensity of the gypsum/anhydrite ranged from 42 to 80 t/day which was followed by a noti- ceable increase in the permeability and leakages through the foundation. In- spection of the dam situation in 2014 and 2015 indicates that the dam is in a state of extreme unprecedentedly high relative risk. In this work, possible so- lutions to the problem are to be discussed. It is believed that grouting opera- tions will elongate the span life of the dam but do not solve the problem. Building another dam downstream Mosul Dam will be the best protective measures due to the possible failure of Mosul Dam, to secure the safety of thedownstream area and its’ population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2017. Vol. 9, no 10, p. 801-823, article id 79510
Keywords [en]
Mosul Dam, Tigris River, Dam Failure, Karstification, Flooding, Iraq
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65893DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.910048OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-65893DiVA, id: diva2:1145915
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 1;2017-10-05 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-09-30 Created: 2017-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved

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Al-Ansari, NadhirKnutsson, SvenLaue, Jan

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