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Qualification of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Space Industry: Challenges for Product Development
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. (Product Innovation)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3086-9140
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a collection of production processes that has received a good deal of attention in recent years from different industries. Features such as mass production of customised products, design freedom, part consolidation and cost efficient low volume production drive the development of, and the interest in, these technologies. One industry that could potentially benefit from AM with metal materials is the space industry, an industry that has become a more competitive environment with established actors being challenged by new commercial initiatives. To be competitive in these new market conditions, the need for innovation and cost awareness has increased. Efficiency in product development and manufacturing is required, and AM is promising from these perspectives. However, the maturity of the AM processes is still at a level that requires cautious implementation in direct applications. Variation in manufacturing outcome and sensitivity to part geometry impact material properties and part behaviour. Since the space industry is characterised by the use of products in harsh environments with no room for failure, strict requirements govern product development, manufacturing and use of space applications. Parts have to be shown to meet specific quality control requirements, which is done through a qualification process. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate challenges with development and qualification of AM parts for space applications, and their impact on the product development process. Specifically, the challenges with powder bed fusion (PBF) processes have been in focus in this thesis.

Four studies have been carried out within this research project. The first was a literature review coupled with visits to AM actors in Sweden that set the direction for the research. The second study consisted of a series of interviews at one company in the space industry to understand the expectations for AM and its implications on product development. This was coupled with a third study consisting of a workshop series with three companies in the space industry. The fourth study was an in-depth look at one company to map the qualification of manufacturing processes in the space industry, and the challenges that are seen for AM. The results from these studies show that engineers in the space industry work under conditions that are not always under their control, and which impact how they are able to be innovative and to introduce new manufacturing technologies, such as AM. The importance of product quality also tends to lead engineers into relying on previous designs meaning incremental, rather than radical, development of products is therefore typical. Furthermore, the qualification of manufacturing processes relies on previous experience which means that introducing new processes, such as AM, is difficult due to the lack of knowledge of their behaviour. Two major challenges with the qualification of critical AM parts for space applications have been identified: (i) the requirement to show that critical parts are damage tolerant which is challenging due to the lack of understanding of AM inherent defects, and (ii) the difficulty of testing parts in representative environments. This implies that the whole product development process is impacted in the development and qualification of AM parts; early, as well as later stages. To be able to utilise the design freedom that comes with AM, the capabilities of the chosen AM process has to be considered. Therefore, Design for Manufacturing (DfM) has evolved into Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM). While DfAM is important for the part design, this thesis also discusses its importance in the qualification of AM parts. In addition, the role of systems engineering in the development and qualification of AM parts for space applications is highlighted. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords [en]
Additive Manufacturing, Space industry, Product Development, Qualification, Design for Additive Manufacturing
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66699ISBN: 978-91-7790-011-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-012-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-66699DiVA, id: diva2:1159274
Presentation
2018-02-08, A1123 - Multistudio, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Opportunities and Challenges for Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opportunities and Challenges for Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of Norddesign 2016: Biannual conference on Design and Development, 10-12 August, NTNU – Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheim, Norway / [ed] Casper Boks, Johannes Sigurjonsson Martin Steinert, Carlijn Vis, Andreas Wulvik, Glasgow: The Design Society, 2016, Vol. 1, p. 401-410Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a fast developing manufacturing technology that brings many opportunities for the design teams at companies working with product development. One industry that has embraced this is aerospace, and more specifically within space applications (satellites and launchers). Although there are huge possibilities with this technology, there are also several challenges that need to be overcome. This paper is based on interviews, study visits and a state of the art review from the current literature. The focus of this work has been to map the opportunities and challenges with AM in space applications and to highlight the research gaps that have been found. There are few documents available that address AM and/or innovation within space applications. The results show that design for AM, as well as product and process qualification, are areas that need to be further investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Glasgow: The Design Society, 2016
Series
DS / Design Society ; 85
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Product Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-26864 (URN)000387791100040 ()2-s2.0-84995873393 (Scopus ID)01f5f145-b3c7-43b3-9681-cfba4a8985b9 (Local ID)978-1-904670-80-3 (ISBN)01f5f145-b3c7-43b3-9681-cfba4a8985b9 (Archive number)01f5f145-b3c7-43b3-9681-cfba4a8985b9 (OAI)
Conference
12th Biennial Norddesign 2016 Conference "Highlighting the Nordic Approach", Trondheim, Norway, 10-12 August 2016
Projects
Rymdforskarskolan
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160403 (petert)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
2. Additive Manufacturing and the Product Development Process: insights from the Space Industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing and the Product Development Process: insights from the Space Industry
2017 (English)In: he 21th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17): 21-25 August 2017, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada : proceedings of ICED17 / [ed] 21th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17), Vancouver, 21-25 August 2017, 2017, Vol. 5, p. 345-354Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With Additive Manufacturing (AM), manufacturing companies have the potential to develop more geometrically and functionally complex products. Design for AM (DfAM) has become an expression implying the need to design differently for the AM process, compared to for conventional, usually "subtractive" manufacturing methods. There is a need to understand how AM will influence the product development process and the possibilities to create innovative designs, from the perspective of the product development engineer. This paper explores the expected influence of AM on the product development process in a space industry context. Space industry is characterized by small-scale production, and is increasingly cost-oriented. There is a general belief that AM could pave the way for more efficient product development. Three companies have been studied through interviews, observations and workshops. Results show that engineers' expected implications of introducing AM in the space industry are: The involvement and influence of customers and politics on innovativeness; the need for process understanding and usage of new tools for DfAM-thinking; the need for qualification of AM processes.

Series
Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ISSN 2220-4334
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Product Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65373 (URN)2-s2.0-85029782661 (Scopus ID)
Conference
21th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17), Vancouver, 21-25 August 2017
Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
3. Qualification Challenges with Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Qualification Challenges with Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Additive Manufacturing (AM) has the potential to remove boundaries that traditional manufacturing processes impose on engineering design work. The space industry pushes product development and technology to its edge, and there can be a lot to gain by introducing AM. However, the lack of established qualification procedures for AM parts has been highlighted, especially for critical components. While the space industry sees an advantage in AM due to expensive products in low volumes and long lead-times for traditional manufacturing processes (e.g. casting), it also acknowledges the issue of qualifying mission critical parts within its strict regulations. This paper focuses on the challenges with the qualification of AM in space applications. A qualitative study is presented where conclusions have been drawn from interviews within the aerospace industry. The results highlight important gaps that need to be understood before AM can be introduced in critical components, and gives insight into conventional component qualification.

Keywords
Additive Manufacturing, Space application, Qualification, Product development process, Manufacturing process development
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Product Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65623 (URN)
Conference
28th Annual Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, USA, 7-9 August 2017
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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Dordlofva, Christo

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