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Discharge of indicator bacteria from on-site wastewater treatment systems
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0520-796X
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9541-3542
2017 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 91, 365-373 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-scale on-site wastewater treatment facilities present the risk of microbial pollution of groundwaterused for drinking water and surface water used for recreational purposes. This study assessedthe discharge of indicator bacteria, total coliform, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci and Clostridiumperfringens, by flow-proportional sampling from 12 full-scale on-site treatment systems featuringbiological treatment units (mainly sand filters) and alkaline filter beds for phosphorus treatment(P-filters). Correlations of effluent bacterial concentrations with pH, total and dissolved organic carbon,filter age and hydraulic load were evaluated. The bacterial concentrations in the effluents ofthe sand filters were considerable. The concentrations for excellent bathing water quality set in theEU bathing water directive, 200 and 500 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL for intestinal enterococciand E. coli, respectively, were exceeded in three (intestinal enterococci) and one (E. coli) of the eightinvestigated sand filters. In one of the sand filters, effluent E. coli concentrations were high althoughno obvious malfunction of the filter was observed. In the effluent from the other investigated biologicaltreatment units (a trickling fibre filter, two units with attached growth treatment and one aeratedactivated sludge technique), bacterial concentrations were very high (75,000 cfu/100 mL of Clostridiumperfringens and 85,000 cfu per 100 mL of total coliform), possibly because of a shorter retention time ofthe wastewater in these facilities, missing aeration and little time between start-up and measurements.Three and four of the nine investigated P-filters exceeded excellent bathing water quality in coastalwaters as stipulated by the EU bathing water directive in respect of E. coli and intestinal enterococci,respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Desalination Publications , 2017. Vol. 91, 365-373 p.
Keyword [en]
Sand filter; Alkaline filter; Polonite; Total organic carbon; pH
National Category
Engineering and Technology Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66875DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2017.21416OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-66875DiVA: diva2:1162033
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-12-06 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-12-01 Created: 2017-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.deswater.com/vol.php?vol=91&oth=91|0|October|2017

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