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Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms: Cluster observations
Instiutet for rymdfysik, Kiruna, Sweden.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instiutet for rymdfysik, Kiruna, Sweden.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
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2017 (English)In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 5, no 6, 1341-1352 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst 100 nT or Kp 7C. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere) are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward OC flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only OC data were used because HC may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004) and the highest scaled OC outflow observed is 2 1014 m2 s1 (29 October 2003).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus GmbH , 2017. Vol. 5, no 6, 1341-1352 p.
National Category
Aerospace Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Atmospheric science; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67138DOI: 10.5194/angeo-35-1341-2017ISI: 000418075000001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85038635321OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-67138DiVA: diva2:1170152
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-01-04 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved

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