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Forest based biorefinery supply chains - Identification and evaluation of economic, CO2, and resource efficiency
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5662-570X
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Värdekedjor för skogsbaserade bioraffinaderier – Identifiering och utvärdering av ekonomisk, CO2, och resurseffektivitet (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries for production of fuels, chemicals, or materials, can bean important contribution to reach a fossil-free economy. Large-scaleforest-based biorefineries are not yet cost competitive with their fossil counterparts and it is important to identify biorefinery supply chain configurations with good economic, CO2, and biomass performance if biorefineries are to be a viable alternative to the fossil refineries.

Several factors influence the performance of biorefinery supply chains,e.g. type of conversion process, geographical localisation, and produc-tion capacity. These aspects needs to be analysed in conjunction to identify biorefineries with good supply chain performance. There ares everal approaches to improve the performance of biorefineries, wheree.g. integration with other industries can improve the economic perfor-mance by utilisation of excess heat and by-products. From a Swedish perspective the traditional forest industry is of interest as potential host industries, due to factors such as by-product availability, opportunity for heat integration, proximity to other biomass resources, and their experience in operating large-scale biomass supply chains.

The objectives of this work were to investigate how different supply chain configurations influence the economic, biomass, and CO2 perfor-mance of thermochemical biorefineries integrated with forest industries,as well as methods for evaluating those supply chains.

This work shows that there is an economic benefit for integration with the traditional forest industry for thermochemical biorefineries.This is especially true when the biorefinery concept can replace cur-rent old industrial equipment on site which can significantly improvethe economic performance of the biorefinery, highlighting the role the Swedish forest industry could play to reach a cost efficient large-scale implementation of lignocellulosic biorefineries.

The cost for biomass is a large contributor to the total cost of biore-fineries and for traditional techno-economic evaluations, the biomass prices are considered as static variables. A large-scale biorefinery will likely have an impact on the biomass market, which could lead to both changes in the biomass price, as well as changed biomass demand for other industries. A framework where this is accounted for was intro-duced, combining a techno-economic perspective for evaluating the sup-ply chain performance, with a market model which identifies changes in biomass price and allocation due to the increased biomass competition.

The biorefinery performance can be determined from several per-spectives and system boundaries, both from a plant-level and a national perspective. To facilitate a large-scale introduction of biorefineries and  maximise the benefit from their implementations, there is a need to identify biorefinery concepts with high performance considering severa system boundaries, which has been explored in this work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Bioenergy Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67924ISBN: 978-91-7790-071-9 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-072-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-67924DiVA, id: diva2:1190159
Presentation
2018-05-07, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Integration, feedstock, and product choice
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of value chain configurations for fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Integration, feedstock, and product choice
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 144, p. 564-575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass constitutes a promising technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. The product, pyrolysis liquids, can either substitute heavy fuel oil directly, or be upgraded via e.g. hydroprocessing to diesel and petrol. This study presents a systematic evaluation of production costs and CO2 mitigation potentials of different fast pyrolysis value chain configurations. The evaluation considers types of localisations, emissions from electricity and hydrogen production, biomass feedstocks, and final products. The resulting production costs were found to be in the range of 36–60 EUR/MWh for crude pyrolysis liquids, and 61–90 EUR/MWh upgraded to diesel and petrol. Industrial integration was found to be favoured. The CO2 mitigation potential for the pyrolysis liquids was in the range of 187–282 t-CO2/GWh biomass. High variations were found when upgraded to diesel and petrol –best-case scenario resulted in a mitigation of 347 t-CO2/GWh biomass, while worst-case scenarios resulted in net CO2 emissions. Favourable policy support, continued technology development, and/or increased fossil fuel prices are required for the technology to be adapted on an industrial scale. It was concluded that integration with existing industrial infrastructure can contribute to cost reductions and thus help enable the transformation of traditional forest industry into biorefineries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67160 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.12.027 (DOI)000425561500046 ()2-s2.0-85038946657 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-01-04 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-01-04 Created: 2018-01-04 Last updated: 2018-04-17Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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