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Geochemical vectors for stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide and associated dolomite-hosted Cu mineralization at Zinkgruvan, Bergslagen, Sweden
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2634-6953
Zetterqvist Geokonsult AB.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Boliden Mineral AB, Exploration Department.
Zinkgruvan Mining AB.
2018 (English)In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 190, p. 207-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Zinkgruvan deposit is the largest stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization in Sweden. The most recent genetic model attributes ore formation to the discharge of oxidized, near-neutral pH, metalliferous brines into a reduced basin, forming laterally extensive, stratiform sulfide mineralization on the seafloor. It has a known strike extent of 5 km and is underlain by a regionally extensive zone of K-altered metavolcanic rock and dolomitic marble, the latter hosting Cu-(Co-Ni) replacement mineralization near the inferred hydrothermal vent to the stratiform sulfides. The deposit is stratigraphically overlain by migmatized,  pyrrhotite- and graphite-rich pelite that is in turn overlain by a banded almandine-biotite-quartz-ferrosilite-bearing unit at the base of an regionally extensive metasedimentary succession. These laterally continuous units are interpreted as metamorphosed organic-rich sulphidic mudstone and silicate-dominated Fe formation, respectively.

The favorable stratigraphic interval contains anomalously high Zn, Pb, Ag, Cu, K2O/(K2O+Na2O), Mn, Co, Tl, Ba and B relative to adjacent metatuffite. However, only Zn, Pb, Ag, K2O/(K2O+Na2O) and Mn are significantly enriched relative to adjacent strata beyond the known lateral extent of the ore. Elevated copper, Co and Tl only occur in the vent-proximal part of the deposit, whereas anomalous enrichments of Ba and B are sporadic and occur mainly in the stratigraphic footwall. Many elements such as Si, Fe, Mg, Ca and Cs are of limited use in vectoring due to low enrichment factors relative to inferred background compositions and/or strong lithological controls on their distribution.

Although ore metal (Zn, Pb and Ag) enrichments are the best quantitative and qualitative guides to ore, K, Mn and Co enrichments also provide corroborative support. The most useful elements for vectoring have been synthesized into exploration indices. The Modified Sedex Metal Index (MSMI; Zn+3Pb+100Ag) is a vector towards stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, whereas MSMI2 [Zn+3Pb+10(Cu+Co)] alsoallows targeting of proximal Cu mineralization.

The banded iron formation and the pyrrhotite- and graphite-rich pelite of the stratigraphic hangingwall are consistently enriched in base metals (e.g. 500-1000 ppm Zn), total S and Mn throughout the entire Zinkgruvan area. However, these units are not known to grade laterally along strata into economic base metal sulfide mineralization, and they are not obviously products of the same hydrothermal system which formed the stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag deposit.

In a vent-distal setting, the somewhat spurious metal anomalies of the hangingwall units can be difficult to distinguish from those of the favorable interval. The favorable stratigraphic interval can, however, be recognized by also taking into account that positive Zn anomalies are mainly coincident with positive anomalies in both K and Mn only in the favorable interval. Furthermore, samples from the favorable interval generally have Co/Ni > 1 and displays a positive Co/Ni vs. Zn trend, whereas samples of the pyrrhotite- and graphite-rich pelite have Co/Ni < 1 and define a negative Co/Ni vs. Zn trend. Thus, the index (Co/Ni)*Zn allows easy detection of weak Zn anomalies associated with the stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 190, p. 207-228
Keywords [en]
Geochemical vectoring; exploration index; SEDEX; VMS; Broken Hill-type; Bergslagen
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67980DOI: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2018.03.015ISI: 000432601600015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85044466046OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-67980DiVA, id: diva2:1191314
Projects
Conceptual Modeling and Exploration Criteria for Stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag-(Cu) Deposits in Bergslagen, Sweden
Funder
VINNOVA, 2014-01792
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-04-03 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2018-03-18 Created: 2018-03-18 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375674217305563

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Jansson, NilsAllen, Rodney

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