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Cyber-Physical Engineering of Distributed Automation Systems in Energy Domain
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0075-1608
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Cyber-Fysikalisk Konstruktion av Distribuerade Automationssystem inom Energidomänen (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

The main focus of this thesis is in the domain of Energy Systems, specifically in the engi-neering of modern Smart Grid (SG) automation systems. The SG has been categorizedas a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), a complex system which exhibits tight integration between the cyber and the physical processes and their interactions in a networked envi-ronment. The complexity and the computation of the automation system are expectedto increase with the promise of a ”smart” electric grid which is capable of self-healing, self-reconfiguration and become more resilient against cyber-attacks. These automation software systems require control strategies which are distributed in execution and requirevery tight integrations and interactions between various modular software and hardware components. As the automation system becomes more software intensive, we hypothesizethat existing design practices of developing the substation automation software system would struggle to cope with the distributed design challenges of the Smart Grid and they could be substantially enhanced by the application of model-driven design, distributed software architectures and semantic models.

Model-driven engineering (MDE) is a software design paradigm that leverages the use of abstraction models at different stages of the design process for engineering complex software systems. MDE is widely used in the software engineering domain and it has proven to be effective when designing and maintaining large-scale software applications.One of the core tenants of MDE is model transformation and it is considered the heartand soul of MDE. The standard modelling language that is used for MDE in software engineering is the Unified Modelling Language (UML), which is a visual language with awide array of tool support. Despite its popularity in the software domain, UML models still have its limitations. In particular, the lack of uniformed semantics between its 13different visual diagrams and the lack of formal notations. In this thesis, we proposethe Cyber-Physical Engineering (CPE) framework, an MDE framework which combines semantic models and MDE based automatic model transformation in order to auto-generate both the automation control system and the simulation plant model from thephysical and functional specifications of CPS systems.

All the scientific papers included in this thesis contributes towards the proposed Cyber-Physical Engineering methodology which includes MDE using semantic models, formal modelling of functional requirements and co-simulation testing of CPS systems.

The contribution of the thesis is fivefold. Firstly, the thesis proposes the CPE frame-work, which is based on the use of semantic web modelling language where logical rea-soning can be applied to the models. The modelling language that is used is the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which is a declarative language with a strong formal foun-dation based on description logic. Secondly, the extended Semantic Web Rule Language(eSWRL) is introduced which defines the constructors that are necessary for model trans-forming OWL ontology models. The eSWRL transformation language is proposed to bean extension to the widely used ontology reasoning language Semantic Web Rule Lan-guage (SWRL) in order to address the limitations of monotonicity which restricts SWRLfrom transforming ontological models. Thirdly, the implementation of the underlying transformation engine of eSWRL in SWI Prolog. Fourthly, the formal modelling of func-tional requirements in ontology is proposed which investigates the viability of using nat-ural language based functional requirements to add control flow to the auto-generated automation control system. Lastly, an automated script based co-simulation environ-ment is shown to demonstrate how black-box validation can be performed to test theauto-generated automation control system.

Finally, the thesis presents the resultant CPE framework for the modelling and genera-tion of distributed CPS automation software that leverages the use of semantic web OWL models. It is aimed to provide a top-down design approach of developing distributed con-trol software for CPS systems along with the simulation model of the physical plant. Inthis thesis, we demonstrate the development process of the CPE framework and throughcase study applications, how a semi-complete distributed automation software system in IEC 61499 can be automatically generated from substation specifications in IEC 61850 and natural language based functional requirements which provide the structure and thecontrol flow of the distributed automation software respectively. An eSWRL toolchainhas been developed to facilitate the various model transformation process of the CPE framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Control Engineering Computer Systems Communication Systems Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68045ISBN: 978-91-7790-076-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-077-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-68045DiVA, id: diva2:1192754
Public defence
2018-05-25, A109, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Ontology Driven Approach to Generate Distributed Automation Control from Substation Automation Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ontology Driven Approach to Generate Distributed Automation Control from Substation Automation Design
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 668-679, article id 7762918Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a method for the automatic generation of smart-grid automation systems software from specifications that includes physical system layout and domain-specific functional “recipes.” The generated software has component organization and implements a decentralized approach to smart grid control, which reduces complexity of automation systems design and modification. The proposed method relies on synergies of two industrial standards IEC 61850 and IEC 61499, which are used to represent a part of the specification and the resulting software model, respectively. Then, the specification model is created in a form of ontology and the generation is based on ontology transformation. The proposed method requires an extension to the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to support the change of an ontology axioms set for the purpose of ontology transformation. The proposed transformation language, called extended SWRL, is introduced and illustrated in use. The result shows the viability of eSWRL as an ontology transformation language when demonstrated in a power distribution case study system.

Keywords
Cyber Physical Systems, eSWRL, Ontology, IEC 61850, IEC 61499, Substation Automation, Distributed Control, Smart Grid
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62732 (URN)10.1109/TII.2016.2634095 (DOI)000399961500026 ()2-s2.0-85018161667 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-04-25 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-28 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. Modelling of IEC 61850 message passing for automatic generation of distributed control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of IEC 61850 message passing for automatic generation of distributed control
2016 (English)In: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 1524-1529, article id 7392317Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The future distribution grid known as the smart grid will become more distributed in both infrastructure and control. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 are two industrial standards addressing the challenges presented by a decentralized infrastructure. This paper contributes to system engineering of smart grid automation by enabling automatic generation of IEC 61499 control systems from IEC 61850 specifications. The areas which this paper fills is proposing a method to formally capture the logical node to logical node message passing which is lacking in the IEC 61850 standard. The proposed method is to represent an IEC 61850 protection scheme as a graph and then integrate it into the IEC 61850 ontology developed previously. The case study used is a sympathetic tripping protection scenario which demonstrates how the process of developing the graph model from the protection scheme and applying ontology rules to automatically generate the resultant IEC 61499 function blocks with meaningful connections between the logical nodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Keywords
Information technology - Automatic control, Informationsteknik - Reglerteknik
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35142 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2015.7392317 (DOI)000382950701101 ()98c55831-86c8-4185-930d-6b3ec61eff0a (Local ID)978-1-4799-1762-4 (ISBN)98c55831-86c8-4185-930d-6b3ec61eff0a (Archive number)98c55831-86c8-4185-930d-6b3ec61eff0a (OAI)
Conference
Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : 09/11/2015 - 12/11/2015
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-11-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
3. On requirements-driven design of distributed smart grid automation control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On requirements-driven design of distributed smart grid automation control
2017 (English)In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 738-745, article id 8104864Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a novel method of modelling requirements for smart grid automation systems that fits and complements the leading standards used for software development in smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. Ontological representation is used to formally model the systems requirements and the integration of the requirement modelling to be used in conjunction with IEC 61850 specifications and IEC 61499 implementation. The proposed model is illustrated on a case study presented by the CIGRE working group where the system requirement in natural language was firstly modelled in ontology, then implemented in IEC 61499. Lastly, the resulting IEC 61499 control system was tested and validated against the system requirement by signal testing of the end control system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN, ISSN 1935-4576
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66914 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2017.8104864 (DOI)000427453200111 ()2-s2.0-85041216399 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-0837-1 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, University of Applied Science Emden/LeerEmden, Germany, 24-26 July 2017
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
4. On development of execution model for model transforming distributed substation automation control with ontology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On development of execution model for model transforming distributed substation automation control with ontology
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1219-1225, article id 8001419Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The so called Smart Grid is said to be enabled with bi-direction communication networks and energy flow. IEC 61850 is a substation communication standard which improves interoperability of the substation design. IEC 61499 is an automation standard which can be used for implementation of control in IEC 61850 models. This work is utilizing Model Driven Engineering techniques for substation automation systems, specifically using ontology models to automatically generate IEC 61499 distributed automation control systems. eSWRL is the proposed ontology transformation and it is necessary to develop an execution model for executing the transformation rules. This paper explores the use of several execution semantic models for eSWRL and illustrates the use of the most suitable execution model for the context of this work. In the case study, eSWRL rules are written using the execution models discussed in this paper to generate a distributed automation control library in IEC 61499.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 2163-5137
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65621 (URN)10.1109/ISIE.2017.8001419 (DOI)000426794000192 ()2-s2.0-85029905750 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1412-5 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Edinburgh, 19-21 June 2017
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
5. On Automatic Generation of IEC61850/IEC61499 Substation Automation Systems Enabled by Ontology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Automatic Generation of IEC61850/IEC61499 Substation Automation Systems Enabled by Ontology
2015 (English)In: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 3577-3583Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an introductory step in theautomatic generation of distributed control software for powerdistribution automation systems based on Ontology DrivenEngineering enabled by industrial standards IEC61850 andIEC61499. The novelty of this approach is the ability ofautomatically generating the logical connections between thelogical nodes. The paper covers the several stages of thetransformation process, such as developing the IEC61850ontology and the ontology transformation rules. The developed IEC61850 ontology includes the logical nodes descriptions and additional contextual relations between the logical nodes which is lacking in the IEC61850 SCL configuration language. Then, the IEC61850 ontology is transformed to an existing IEC61499 ontology, adding classes of IEC61850 logical nodes as IEC61499 function blocks in the IEC61499 ontology. The means of the transformation of the ontologies is based on the eSWRL sematic web rules language, an extension to the rule language SWRL. The end result is the development of an IEC61850 ontology and a set of eSWRL rules which facilitates the ontology transformation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39584 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2014.7049030 (DOI)e674c38b-03be-4564-bf14-32be29c5692f (Local ID)e674c38b-03be-4564-bf14-32be29c5692f (Archive number)e674c38b-03be-4564-bf14-32be29c5692f (OAI)
Conference
Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : 29/10/2014 - 01/11/2014
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; Bibliografisk uppgift: 1553-572X http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=7048467; 20150113 (cheyan)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved
6. Service-oriented extension of IEC 61850 for model-driven smart grid automation design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service-oriented extension of IEC 61850 for model-driven smart grid automation design
2017 (English)In: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 5489-5496Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a design pattern based on the service-oriented architecture for the design of flexible distributed automation control system for substation automation systems. The design pattern is intended to be applied to control systems based on the leading standards for software development of smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. The proposed design pattern models system requirements as orchestrators and IEC 61850 logical node specification is used as the basis for the design of smart grid services. The proposed design pattern is illustrated on a case study of a distribution system which consists of one transformer and five feeder sections. The design pattern is used to design the control system for the feeder section of the case study distribution system which includes the development of the orchestrator from the system requirement to the resultant IEC 61499 control system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68208 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2017.8216950 (DOI)000427164805069 ()2-s2.0-85046674305 (Scopus ID)9781538611272 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2017, Bejing, China, 29 October - 1 November 2017
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
7. Automated Fault Location and Isolation in Distribution Grids with Distributed Control and Unreliable Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Fault Location and Isolation in Distribution Grids with Distributed Control and Unreliable Communication
2015 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 2612-2619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the analysis and simulation of the performance of fault location and isolation (FLI) in an automated power distribution feeder. This system is composed of two coupled networks: a power system consisting of a distribution feeder with multiple load buses, and an unreliable communication network of the distributed intelligent agents in the system, namely, the substation automation and fault protection units separating segments of the feeder. We provide a complete specification of a distributed algorithm for FLI and an exact characterization of the time from the occurrence of a fault to its location and isolation. Both apply to a distribution feeder with an arbitrary number of buses. These models are then refined into a hybrid simulation that combines three models executing in parallel: a power system model based on dc power flow, a distributed automation system model for the intelligent agents constructed using the IEC 61499 distributed automation standard, and an abstract communication network model that unreliably links the physically distributed agents. The results demonstrate the effect of communication network reliability at two levels of design abstraction, the correspondence of results at the two levels, and the use of a modern cosimulation framework to verify the performance of distributed smart grid automation algorithms

National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-9063 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2014.2387093 (DOI)7a022b93-c7d9-44fa-818f-099ed6e6ce0c (Local ID)7a022b93-c7d9-44fa-818f-099ed6e6ce0c (Archive number)7a022b93-c7d9-44fa-818f-099ed6e6ce0c (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150326 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved

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