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Filter Materials for Sorption of Cu and Zn in Stormwater Treatment: A Batch Equilibrium and Kinetic study
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. (VA-teknik)
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Urban stormwater is today recognized as a significant source of pollution that has contributed to the deterioration of water quality in lakes and streams. Of the pollutants, metals are commonly occurring in stormwater and can cause major damage when released into the receiving waters. A promising treatment method for removing these metals before it reaches the receiving waters is to filter the water in various filter technologies such as catch basin inserts.

In this study, the potential of five materials to remove dissolved copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from stormwater was investigated. The study was initiated with batch equilibrium tests to assess the sorption capacity of the materials at different metal concentrations relevant for stormwater. This was done in both single and binary batches to investigate whether or not any competitive sorption occurred between the metals. Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models were adapted to the obtained data. Through geochemical modelling, it was also possible to investigate whether precipitation of metals was likely. Finally, kinetic studies were conducted to investigate whether the reaction rate of Cu and Zn was relevant in the context of catch basin inserts.

The results showed that the biochar had the highest sorption capacity followed by peat, bark, milkweed, and polypropylene. It could also be noted that Cu competed with Zn binding sites at high concentrations and that the sorption capacity of biochar, peat and bark, at concentrations between 50-100 μg/l Cu and 50-500 μg/l Zn, was sufficient to meet the limits set for stormwater emissions. For these sorbents, the reaction rate was also significant. Kinetics tests showed that at an initial concentration of 1,000 μg/l, 83% of the metals were sorbed after 5 minutes and after 10 minutes this number was 93%. Bark and peat also showed low effluent pH and leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The Langmuir and pseudo-second order equation could be well adapted to the data while geochemical modelling showed that precipitation of metals was unlikely. This suggests that chemical adsorption may be the mechanism that largely accounted for the removal of Cu and Zn.

The results of this study can hardly be used to estimate the field performance of stormwater filters, but can be used as a basis for comparing and selecting sorbents for subsequent column tests.

Abstract [sv]

I denna studie undersöktes potentialen för fem material att avskilja löst koppar (Cu) och zink (Zn) från dagvatten. Studien inleddes med skaktest för att testa sorptionsförmågan hos materialen vid olika metallkoncentrationer relevant för dagvatten. Detta gjordes i både singel och binära test för att undersöka om någon konkurrerande sorption skedde mellan metallerna. Langmuirs, Freundlichs och Sips isotermmodeller anpassades även till resultatet. Genom geokemisk modellering var det även möjlig att undersöka om utfällning av metaller var sannolik. Till sist gjordes kinetiska studier för att undersöka om reaktionshastigheten för sorption av Cu och Zn till filtermaterialen var relevanta i ett brunnsfiltersammanhang.

Resultaten visar att biokol hade den största sorptionsförmågan följt av torv, bark, sidenört och polypropylen. Det kunde även konstateras att koppar konkurrerade om sorptionsplatser för zink vid högre koncentrationer och att sorptionskapaciteten för biokol, torv och bark, vid koncentrationer mellan 50-100 µg/l Cu och 50-500 µg/l Zn, är tillräckligt hög för att uppfylla gränsvärdena för utsläpp av dagvatten. För dessa sorbenter var reaktionshastigheten betydande. Kinetiktesten visade att vid en initial koncentration på 1,000 µg/L var 83% av metallerna sorberade efter 5 minuter och efter 10 minuter var denna siffra uppe i 93%. Bark and torv uppvisade även ett lågt uppmätt pH och lakade löst organisk kol (DOC). Langmuir och pseudo-andra ordningens ekvation kunde anpassas väl till datat samtidigt som den geokemiska modelleringen visade att utfällning av metaller var osannolikt. Detta antyder att kemisk adsorption kan vara den mekanism som till störst del stod för avskiljningen av Cu och Zn. Studien kan inte fastställa något om filtermaterialens fältprestanda, men kan användas som underlag för att jämföra och att välja sorbenter för efterföljande kolumntester.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 58
Keywords [en]
Stormwater, Treatment, Metals, Sorbents, Batch equilibrium test, Isotherms, Kinetic test, Catch basin inserts
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68059OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-68059DiVA, id: diva2:1193209
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Natural Resources Engineering, master's
Presentation
2018-01-19, F1031, CAMPUS LULEÅ, F HUSET, plan 3, LULEÅ, 09:40 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Projects
Formas project 2016-75Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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