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Enhanced engineering of component-based industrial automation systems using formal methods
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2936-4185
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial automation is facing challenges related to a manufacturing change from mass pro-duction to mass customization. As a result, the focus of automation has been shifting to flexi-bility, reconfigurability and safety assurance resulting in a new class of systems that is heavilymodular. We call this new class of systems as Component-Based industrial Automation Sys-tems (CBAS).

Given the current challenges and shift in focus, the current engineering practices and meth-ods need to be changed or upgraded. One of these practices is software verification and valida-tion (V&V) techniques. Simulation is one of the well-known V&V techniques used currentlyin CBAS. Simulation is performed by building simulation models for the physical process,for example, simulation using Matlab. However, development of simulation models is time-consuming and does not guarantee 100% validation of the automation control software makingjust simulation inadequate for CBAS. To address this problem, formal verification has beenconsidered as a proper complementary V&V technique. Discrete state model checking is oneof such approaches, which is the process of automatically verifying whether a set of desiredformal specifications is satisfied over the target system model. While model checking is com-putationally resource hungry, it has been successfully used in other adjacent areas of computersystems engineering, such as hardware design, proving its ability to handle problems of rea-sonably large complexity. This suggests that model checking can be applied in the industrialautomation domain, and there has been an impressive number of works towards this goal.

Despite moderate successes and promises the reality is that formal techniques are rarelyused in the development practice by industrial automation engineers. It seems that the existingtools and methods do not fit into the current Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) of au-tomation systems engineering. This thesis first looks at current state of art with comprehensiveliterature review, identifying 3 main challenges for lack of industrial adoption of formal verifi-cation. The thesis then presents various formal method approaches to address these challenges.The main contribution of the thesis is a method for the formal verification of IEC 61499 func-tion block applications using Abstract State Machines (ASM) and model checking. A formaldescription for main artifacts of the standard is presented in the thesis. Further, ASM rules fortranslation for function blocks to the input format of the SMV model checker is presented. Inthis way, the proposed verification method enables the formal verification of the IEC 61499control systems.

As results, the thesis presents an application of this framework to industrial automation usecases to check for functional and non-functional requirements. It also presents use cases wherethe proposed framework is used for verifying portability of IEC 61499 based control applica-tions across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018. , p. 300
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Systems Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68113ISBN: 978-91-7790-082-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-083-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-68113DiVA, id: diva2:1194293
Public defence
2018-05-29, A109, Luleå Campus, Luleå, 12:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-03-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Software Composition and Distributed Operation Scheduling in Modular Automated Machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Composition and Distributed Operation Scheduling in Modular Automated Machines
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 865-878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a new software composition method for automated machines that exploits their mechatronic modularity. It is demonstrated that desired behavior of a certain class of machines can be composed of behaviors of its mechatronic components, including fully decentralized scheduling and operation control. This aims at increased performance of software design and maintenance, as well as systems' flexibility and reconfigurability. The IEC 61499 Function Blocks' (FBs) architecture is used as an implementation platform that enables system-level simulation and transparency of deployment. A configurable pick-and-place (PnP) manipulator with decentralized control synthesized using the proposed approach is chosen as an illustrative example

National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7059 (URN)10.1109/TII.2015.2430836 (DOI)55f899ce-b98d-4286-bcbb-160612737396 (Local ID)55f899ce-b98d-4286-bcbb-160612737396 (Archive number)55f899ce-b98d-4286-bcbb-160612737396 (OAI)
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20150828 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. Formal verification of intelligent mechatronic systems with decentralized control logic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal verification of intelligent mechatronic systems with decentralized control logic
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012): Krakow, Poland, 17 - 21 September 2012; [including workshops], Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper introduces an approach to automatic verification of mechatronic systems designed as plug-and-play of Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC). The control logic of the system is composed from autonomous controllers of the IMCs and is automatically verified using model-checking. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. A re-configurable pick and place robot is used as an illustrative example. At first a three cylinder pick and place robot is used to design our new master-slave architecture for controller design and then the NCES models are re-used without much modification in a new 6 cylinder pick and place robot. The control model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA model checker. A multi closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used and controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. Computational Tree Logic (CTL) is used to specify these properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012
Series
I E E E International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27242 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2012.6489678 (DOI)09ba1101-f8f4-462b-834d-dd27a7ea46a5 (Local ID)978-1-4673-4735-8 (ISBN)978-1-4673-4736-5 (ISBN)09ba1101-f8f4-462b-834d-dd27a7ea46a5 (Archive number)09ba1101-f8f4-462b-834d-dd27a7ea46a5 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation : 17/09/2012 - 21/09/2012
Note
Validerad; 2012; 20141003 (patsan)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
3. Formal Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV -- Modelling
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV -- Modelling
2015 (English)In: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 313-320, article id 7345666Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes rules for formal modelling of IEC61499 function blocks for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines as an intermediate model. This paper first proposes a formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The formal description for main artifact of the standard (function block) is presented in the paper. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model checker which is used to formally verify properties of applications developed in IEC 61499 standard. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the formal verification of the IEC 61499 control systems. The paper also highlights the other uses of verification such as portability of IEC 61499 based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 controller, and the SMV model for the Basic Function block is explained in detail.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32663 (URN)10.1109/Trustcom.2015.650 (DOI)000380431400045 ()84969132840 (Scopus ID)73823e11-9167-417d-a059-923ab1f4f53c (Local ID)9781467379519 (ISBN)73823e11-9167-417d-a059-923ab1f4f53c (Archive number)73823e11-9167-417d-a059-923ab1f4f53c (OAI)
Conference
IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA : 20/08/2015 - 22/08/2015
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-10 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
4. Formal Modelling and Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV: Execution Semantics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formal Modelling and Verification of IEC61499 Function Blocks with Abstract State Machines and SMV: Execution Semantics
2015 (English)In: Dependable Software Engineering: Theories, Tools, and Applications : First International Symposium, SETTA 2015, Nanjing, China, November 4-6, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Xuandong Li; Zhiming Liu; Wang Yi, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 300-315Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

IEC 61499 Standard for Function Blocks Architecture is an executable component model for distributed embedded control system design that combines block-diagrams and state machines. This paper proposes approach to formal modelling of IEC61499 function block execution semantics for popular model checking environment of SMV using Abstract State Machines. An operational semantics of IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model is presented using this framework. This paper first introduces the importance of model checking function block applications in different execution semantics. It highlights the uses of formal verification, such as, verifying portability (behavior) of component based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. The formal model is applied on an example IEC 61499 application. The paper compares the verification results of this IEC 61499 application with two-stage synchronous execution model and the same application with cyclic execution model presented in the earlier work. With this comparison, we verify the portability of the IEC61499 applications across different platforms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 9409
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-33040 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-25942-0_20 (DOI)7c8dc356-c8b1-4711-a278-5ae470631c3e (Local ID)978-3-319-25941-3 (ISBN)978-3-319-25942-0 (ISBN)7c8dc356-c8b1-4711-a278-5ae470631c3e (Archive number)7c8dc356-c8b1-4711-a278-5ae470631c3e (OAI)
Conference
Symposium on Dependable Software Engineering : Theories, Tools and Applications 04/11/2015 - 06/11/2015
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20151022 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
5. Counterexample-guided simulation framework for formal verification of flexible automation systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Counterexample-guided simulation framework for formal verification of flexible automation systems
2015 (English)In: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, Nj: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, p. 1192-1197, article id 7281905Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a framework for formal verification of industrial automation software in an intuitive way. The IEC 61499 function block architecture is assumed to be the input language, and the Intelligent Mechatronic Components (IMC) architecture is assumed as an underlying design pattern for the applications, which implies autonomous control logic in each IMC and their compositions to systems in a plug-and-play way. Then the system is automatically verified using model checking and the counter examples for the failed model checking properties are played back step-by-step and state-by-state in the simulation model that most industrial automation control systems would have built as the basis for initial testing. Net Condition Event Systems formalism (a modular extension of Petri net) is used to model the decentralized control logic and discrete-state dynamics of the plant. The model is then subjected to model checking using the ViVe/SESA tool chain. The method's application is illustrated using a simple pick and place manipulator. A closed loop model of Plant and Controller is used. Controller is extensively verified for safety, liveliness and functional properties of the robot. We then show how a counter example for deadlock detected by the model checker is played back in the simulation model for visualizing how exactly the system deadlocked.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, Nj: IEEE Communications Society, 2015
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34507 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2015.7281905 (DOI)84949493863 (Scopus ID)8ba144b0-089e-4d22-bf05-1d73a4a0d67d (Local ID)9781479966493 (ISBN)8ba144b0-089e-4d22-bf05-1d73a4a0d67d (Archive number)8ba144b0-089e-4d22-bf05-1d73a4a0d67d (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics : 22/07/2015 - 24/07/2015
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20151012 (patsan)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
6. Towards a formal model of protection functions for power distribution networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a formal model of protection functions for power distribution networks
2016 (English)In: ECON Proceedings (Industrial Electronics Conference), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 5302-5309, article id 7794150Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The protection system is a crucial part of the power grid. It protects people, equipment, and property. Reliability of such mission critical systems is of an extreme importance. Protection systems have strict requirements to reliability including dependability, security and timeliness. Although it undertakes rigorous testing and commissioning, it fails in some circumstances causing faults in the network, resulting in loss of power. It is hard to catch these hidden and undetectable errors in the design and installation. Since protection function is essentially a piece of code, formal methods can be used for rigorous testing of the software and provide definitive proof of the system properties. This paper proposes a formal model (to use in formal verification techniques) for protection systems. The paper develops closed loop model of the electrical network with its protection system. The model is developed in IEC 61499 language for the further generation of its formal model in SMV language. The model is validated via simulation and comparison with a comprehensive model of the electrical network in Matlab Simulink. In future work, the generated SMV model will be used to formally verify reliability requirements of the protection system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61761 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2016.7794150 (DOI)000399031205094 ()2-s2.0-85010051136 (Scopus ID)9781509034741 (ISBN)
Conference
42nd Conference of the Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2016, Florence, Italy, 24-27 October 2016
Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
7. Towards formal verification of smart grid distributed intelligence: FREEDM case
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards formal verification of smart grid distributed intelligence: FREEDM case
2016 (English)In: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 3974-3979, article id 7392719Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a model-checking framework for the purpose of design and implementation of robust smart grid applications based on distributed intelligence. The paper first introduces distributed grid intelligence approach to smart grid automation and related challenges of their verification. We then introduce the case study example and how model-checking can be applied to the presented system implemented in IEC 61499 standard. In the end we present the initial results of our model-checking application to smart grid applications. The paper will conclude with some issues faced during the research and corrective steps to address these issues in future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Series
I E E E Industrial Electronics Society. Annual Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1553-572X
Keywords
Information technology - Automatic control, Informationsteknik - Reglerteknik
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37538 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2015.7392719 (DOI)000382950703169 ()b9a06ca1-623a-4003-8986-2cbdb6507ccb (Local ID)978-1-4799-1762-4 (ISBN)b9a06ca1-623a-4003-8986-2cbdb6507ccb (Archive number)b9a06ca1-623a-4003-8986-2cbdb6507ccb (OAI)
Conference
Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : 09/11/2015 - 12/11/2015
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-11-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
8. Neutralizing Semantic Ambiguities of Function Block Architecture by Modeling with ASM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neutralizing Semantic Ambiguities of Function Block Architecture by Modeling with ASM
2015 (English)In: Perspectives of System Informatics: 9th International Ershov Informatics Conference, PSI 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 24-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Andrei Voronkov ; Irina Virbitskaite, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 76-91Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Function Blocks Architecture of the IEC 61499 standard is an executable component model for distributed embedded control systems combining block-diagrams and state machines. The standard aims at the portability of control applications that is however hampered by ambiguities in its execution semantics descriptions. In recent years several execution models have been implemented in different software tools that generate mutually incompatible code.This paper proposes a general approach to neutralizing these semantic ambiguities by formal description of the IEC 61499 in abstract state machines (ASM). The model embodies all known execution semantics of function blocks. The ASM model is further translated to the input format of the SMV model-checker which is used to verify formally properties of applications. In this way the proposed verification framework enables the portability checking of component-based control applications across different implementation platforms compliant with the IEC 61499 standard.The paper first discusses different existing execution semantics of function blocks and the portability issues across different IEC 61499 tools. Then a modular formal model of function blocks’ operational semantics in ASM is introduced and exemplified in the paper by the cyclic execution semantics case for a composite function block. Subsequently, the SMV model is generated and model-checking is illustrated for a simple test case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 8974
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35294 (URN)9c483ff1-8450-4f13-8ae8-2b51e48e34db (Local ID)978-3-662-46822-7 (ISBN)978-3-662-46823-4 (ISBN)9c483ff1-8450-4f13-8ae8-2b51e48e34db (Archive number)9c483ff1-8450-4f13-8ae8-2b51e48e34db (OAI)
Conference
International Ershov Informatics Conference : 22/06/2014 - 27/06/2014
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150504 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved

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