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Architectural Design Principles For Industrial Internet of Things
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9484-9766
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Arkitektuella designprinciper för industriellt internet (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

As society has progressed through periods of evolution and revolution, technology hasplayed a key role as an enabler. In the same manner that mechanical machines of the1800’s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machines are driving another one.With this recognition of a fourth industrial revolution, the Industry 4.0 initiative wasfounded. One of the drivers of Industry 4.0 is the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).

The IIoT is a consequence of widely present computing ubiquity and interconnected-ness. Software has become a crucial tool of almost all industries from bakeries and arts to manufacturing facilities and banking. Programming is now a required competenceand used by a variety of professions. It is not only about algorithm development, it has become more about engineering and integrating existing designs and tools. This impacts the way software is architected and drives a large body of research in the area.

Software solutions are becoming more distributed, not only over multiple processes, but over heterogeneous hardware and business domains. Computing platforms could bemobile or geographically separated over large distances, exposing the solutions to network disturbances, performance degradation and security vulnerabilities.

Hence, IIoT introduces complexity on a scale previously unseen in the software in-dustry. Software architecture must accommodate these heterogeneous domains and com-petencies and handle the increasing levels of complexity.

This thesis proposes an architectural style for designing IIoT software architectures.The popular Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) style is not sufficient to define a com-plete architecture for IIoT applications. SOA fundamental principles are defined as loose coupling, lookup and late binding. The proposed architecture style extends these SOA principles with autonomy, specialization, data at its source and first person perspective. It preserves the benefits of SOA that models functionalities as reusable services with standardized interfaces. Thus, the proposed style helps to capture the heterogeneity of IIoT (e.g. systems, capabilities, domains, competencies etc.), while handling challenges imposed by it. The style also captures resource constraints of IIoT platforms; distri-bution of application logic across IIoT; dependence between services within IIoT; and presentation of the solution in various stakeholder perspectives.

The IIoT generates large amounts of data that is subsequently stored, analysed, archived and eventually fed back into the product life cycle. Centralization of data has well known challenges. This thesis proposes a method of information extraction based on the principle of data at its source. Such data preserves implicit context, reducing the burden of semantic data within the system. Desired information is expressed through dynamic (runtime) queries. Using the queries, a path is created to retrieve the requested data. It alleviates the need for data to be stored in intermediary nodes; data remains atthe source. Thus, IIoT applications extract information and present it to requesting sys-tems without redundant source related context. This helps with issues of data ownership, access control and stale data.

Another IIoT challenge tackled in this work is decentralization of Manufacturing Execution System (MES). It is motivated by a need to mitigate the impact of vulnerable shared networks on the factory floor; and by business requirements to reduce dependence on local factory infrastructure. This thesis explores a solution where functions of MES are distributed to the workstations that enables them to operate autonomously. Such autonomous workstations utilize the proposed Intelligent Product, Workflow Managerand Workflow Executor systems. Thus, MES can be decentralized to edge nodes as envisioned by Industry 4.0.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68463ISBN: 978-91-7790-128-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-129-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-68463DiVA, id: diva2:1199862
Public defence
2018-05-29, C305, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A survey of commercial frameworks for the Internet of Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A survey of commercial frameworks for the Internet of Things
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7301661Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In 2011 Ericsson and Cisco estimated 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020, encouraged by this industry is developing application frameworks to scale the Internet of Things. This paper presents a survey of commercial frameworks and platforms designed for developing and running Internet of Things applications. The survey covers frameworks supported by big players in the software and electronics industries. The frameworks are evaluated against criteria such as architectural approach, industry support, standards based protocols and interoperability, security, hardware requirements, governance and support for rapid application development. There is a multitude of frameworks available and here a total 17 frameworks and platforms are considered. The intention of this paper is to present recent developments in commercial IoT frameworks and furthermore, identify trends in the current design of frameworks for the Internet of Things; enabling massively connected cyber physical systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015
Series
I E E E International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35769 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301661 (DOI)2-s2.0-84952907595 (Scopus ID)a6f7e701-9a1a-4c9f-881d-b45c6d61cbcb (Local ID)978-1-4673-7929-8 (ISBN)a6f7e701-9a1a-4c9f-881d-b45c6d61cbcb (Archive number)a6f7e701-9a1a-4c9f-881d-b45c6d61cbcb (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation : 08/09/2015 - 11/09/2015
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20150605 (hasder)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
2. Translation Error Handling for Multi-Protocol SOA Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translation Error Handling for Multi-Protocol SOA Systems
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7301473Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The IoT research area has evolved to incorporate aplethora of messaging protocol standards, both existing and new,emerging as preferred communications means. The variety ofprotocols and technologies enable IoT to be used in manyapplication scenarios. However, the use of incompatiblecommunication protocols also creates vertical silos and reducesinteroperability between vendors and technology platformproviders. In many applications, it is important that maximuminteroperability is enabled. This can be for reasons such asefficiency, security, end-to-end communication requirements etc.In terms of error handling each protocol has its own methods,but there is a gap for bridging the errors across protocols.Centralized software bus and integrated protocol agents are usedfor integrating different communications protocols.However, the aforementioned approaches do not fit well in allIndustrial IoT application scenarios. This paper thereforeinvestigates error handling challenges for a multi-protocol SOAbasedtranslator. A proof of concept implementation is presentedbased on MQTT and CoAP. Experimental results show thatmulti-protocol error handling is possible and furthermore anumber of areas that need more investigation have beenidentified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015
Series
I E E E International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32804 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301473 (DOI)2-s2.0-84952950775 (Scopus ID)7672198f-f488-44a9-ad2e-18b6678af3fc (Local ID)978-1-4673-7929-8 (ISBN)7672198f-f488-44a9-ad2e-18b6678af3fc (Archive number)7672198f-f488-44a9-ad2e-18b6678af3fc (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation : 08/09/2015 - 11/09/2015
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20150605 (hasder)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
3. IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IoT Interoperability: On-demand and low latency Transparent Multi-protocol Translator
2017 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 1754-1763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the Industrial Internet of Things there is a clear need for a high level of interoperability between independently developedsystems, often from different vendors. Traditional methods of interoperability including protocol gateways and adapters, are often usedat the network layer. Recent work on application interoperability has emphasized the use of middleware or protocol proxy/gateway.However, middleware tends to move the interoperability problem rather than solving it, and there are scalability issues with increasingthe number of proxies; re-configuration effort, and required bandwidth and processing overheads.This paper proposes a secure, on-demand and transparent protocol translator for the Industrial Internet of Things. Targeting thechallenge of interoperability between IP-based communication protocols, the paper analyses current solutions and develops a set ofrequirements to be met by IoT protocol interoperability. The proposed protocol translator is not a middleware, it is a SOA-basedparticipant, it is used on-demand when needed, it does not introduce design time dependencies, it operates transparently, it supportslow-latency, and it is secured through the use of Arrowhead authorization and authentication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), Industrial automation, Internet of Things (IoT), Multi-Protocol Translation, Protocol conversion, Arrowhead, Interoperability, Information technology - Computer engineering, Informationsteknik - Datorteknik
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7879 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2017.2697718 (DOI)000412362300056 ()2-s2.0-85037051630 (Scopus ID)64dff8e4-1dd0-48cd-af81-277e714a9939 (Local ID)64dff8e4-1dd0-48cd-af81-277e714a9939 (Archive number)64dff8e4-1dd0-48cd-af81-277e714a9939 (OAI)
Projects
Arrowhead
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-10-30 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
4. Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Orchestration of Arrowhead services using IEC 61499: Distributed Automation Case Study
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of 2016 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2016), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, article id 7733650Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel approach to automationof flexible manufacturing systems with mechatronic intelligenceand distributed control. The mechatronic intelligence layer isimplemented using a combination of wireless sensor/actuatornetworks with service-oriented architecture, where services arelocated at the device level, as well as in local and global Cloudsfollowing the Arrowhead framework.The machine/floor level coordination is implemented using thedistributed automation architecture of IEC 61499, which is alsoused as a graphical tool for orchestration of services.The paper discusses the enablers developed in-order to combineIEC 61499 and Arrowhead and the use is illustrated ona laboratory scale flexible factory example. By integration ofIndustrial IoT with IEC 61499, we envision that large gains interms of engineering effort and system operation performancecan be made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Series
I E E E International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Computer Sciences
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34647 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2016.7733650 (DOI)000389524200157 ()2-s2.0-84996599557 (Scopus ID)8e793c87-3e8f-472d-a528-708f8dd2beeb (Local ID)978-1-4673-7929-8 (ISBN)8e793c87-3e8f-472d-a528-708f8dd2beeb (Archive number)8e793c87-3e8f-472d-a528-708f8dd2beeb (OAI)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation : 06/09/2016 - 09/09/2016
Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
5. Service Oriented Architecture Enabling the 4rh Generation of District Heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service Oriented Architecture Enabling the 4rh Generation of District Heating
2016 (English)In: The 15th International Symposium on District Heating and CoolingSeptember 4-7, 2016, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The 4th Generation of District Heating (4GDH) is a complex agglomeration of heat providers, distributors, and consumers that must be automatically, continuously managed and coordinated. It is a complex system of systems; a definition which we align to Maier’s architecting principles for systems-of-systems as collaborative systems. Wrapped in the idea of system of systems is the reality that the 4GDH systems’ descriptions and specifications are not currently all known. Nonetheless, the transition into the 4GDH is actual. We propose the use of two frameworks to secure a smooth metamorphosis and assure systems’ operation, maintenance, and evolution. The two frameworks are the Arrowhead Framework and the OPTi Framework. The first one enables system integration through Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and the second one offers the overall system optimization with respect to all stakeholders. This paper uses the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) tool SysML to model a district heating complex’s structures and behaviors from the concept level down to the sensors and actuators within a district heating substation where we apply the SOA technology based on the open Arrowhead Framework. We focus on the Arrowhead Framework’s core services, i.e. Service Registry, Authorization and Orchestration to clearly describe the interactions between the different service providers and consumers. Going back up from the sensors to the systems, it is clear that SOA is the architecture that will empower the 4GDH.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Control Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics; Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-35437 (URN)9fa3c76d-d356-4d7d-94ec-25e985b44fef (Local ID)9fa3c76d-d356-4d7d-94ec-25e985b44fef (Archive number)9fa3c76d-d356-4d7d-94ec-25e985b44fef (OAI)
Conference
International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling : 04/09/2016 - 06/09/2016
Projects
OPTi Optimisation of District Heating Cooling systems, OPTi
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 649796
Note

Upprättat; 2016; 20160701 (deventer)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-14Bibliographically approved
6. Protocol interoperability of OPC UA in ServiceOriented Architectures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Protocol interoperability of OPC UA in ServiceOriented Architectures
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 44-50, article id 8104744Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract—Industrial Internet of Things covers all aspects ofnetworked intelligent manufacturing systems. This means coveringa wide array of application domains and user requirements.In such scenarios it is not feasible to define a single protocol forall situations. Hence, a multi-protocol approach is required. OPCUA has strong backing from Industry 4.0 as the protocol for theIndustrial Internet of Things. Interoperability of OPC UA hasbeen investigated in the context of migration from legacy andwith protocols such as DPWS. Additionally HTTP and CoAPhave been investigated as possible transport mediums.However, OPC UA interoperability has not been investigatedwithin a multi-protocol settings and no generic protocol translationexists. This paper proposes an OPC UA translator followingthe service translator model proposed in the Arrowhead project.Utilizing a mapping to intermediate format, it can be used alongside CoAP, HTTP and MQTT protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics INDIN, ISSN 1935-4576
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66355 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2017.8104744 (DOI)000427453200005 ()9781538608371 (ISBN)
Conference
15th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, University of Applied Science Emden/LeerEmden, Germany, 24-26 July 2017
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved
7. Workflow Managementfor Edge Driven Manufacturing Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Workflow Managementfor Edge Driven Manufacturing Systems
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract—The fourth industrial revolution is one of digitization.As manufacturers build more digital equipment into theirprocess harnessing the potential becomes a challenge. ISA 95based manufacturers rely on top down decision making, withredundant flow of information in order to organize Workflowson the factory floor. With advances in edge computing andsmart objects, more decision are made at lower levels of theinfrastructure hierarchy.However, how can the MES tracking and execution functionsbe decentralized while maintain an organized collaboration ofsmart objects? This paper proposes a Cyber Physical ServiceOriented System of Systems operating on edge computing. Thereare three systems proposed here; Smart Product, WorkflowManager and Workflow Executor. These systems operate withinArrowhead Local Clouds and create a fully autonomous setof system to complete a production order. Planning, Supplychain and Quality of Service monitoring are out of scope andremain as centralized activities. The Smart Product is the coreCyber Physical System that must be context-aware in order topass the correct Workflow information to the Workflow Systemresponsible for current activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68459 (URN)
Conference
IEEE Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems
Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2018-05-03
8. In-network Processing for Context-Aware SOA-based Manufacturing Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-network Processing for Context-Aware SOA-based Manufacturing Systems
2017 (English)In: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, , p. 6p. 3460-3465Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To achieve flexible manufacturing, increasingly largeamounts of data are being generated, stored, analyzed, archivedand eventually fed back into the product life cycle. But whereis this data stored and how is it transported? Current methodsrely on centralized or federated databases to manage the datastorage. This approach has several challenges, such as collectionbottlenecks, secure retrieval, single point of failure and dataschemefragility as data heterogeneity increases. Additionally,manufacturers are finding the need to open their networks forservice based equipment suppliers. This means previous securityassumptions regarding network encryption and informationaccess-control must be re-evaluated.Proposed here is a method of in-network processing thatgathers information only where and when it is needed. Systemsbuild context at runtime by creating dynamic queries whichmake service composition. The service composition processes rawdata and presents it as information to the calling system. Thisreduces the movement of data/information and removes singlepoint collection bottlenecks. Furthermore, fine grained accesscontrol and shared trust can be granted between untrustedsystems. The proposed methods are demonstrated on a lab setupof an industrial use case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017. p. 6
Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66354 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2017.8216586 (DOI)000427164803070 ()2-s2.0-85046654831 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-1127-2 (ISBN)
Conference
43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2017, Bejing, China, 29 October - 1 November 2017
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
9. System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System of System Composition based on Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture
(English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68462 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2018-04-23
10. Software Architectural Style for Industrial Internetof Things
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Architectural Style for Industrial Internetof Things
(English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

As society has progressed through periods of evolutionand revolution, technology has played a key role as anenabler. In the same manner that mechanical machines of the1800’s drove the industrial revolution, now digitalized machinesare driving another industrial revolution. With the recognitionof a fourth industrial revolution the Industry 4.0 initiative wasfounded in Germany in 2011. One of the drivers of Industry4.0 is the Industrial Internet of Things. The Internet of Thingsis a natural step as computing ubiquity and interconnectednessbecome more widely present. Add to this intelligence, delegationand human orientation and the result is software intensiveengineering at almost all layers (excluding the physical andhuman layers). Software development is a competency in communications,information systems, computer science, softwareand computer systems engineering and electrical and electronicengineering. Software solutions are becoming more distributed,not only over processes, but over heterogeneous computing platformsand business domains. These platforms could be physicallyseparated over large distances, or highly mobile platforms withvarying security requirements. All these requirements introducecomplexity on a scale previously unseen in the software industry.

National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68461 (URN)
Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-23 Last updated: 2018-04-23

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