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Robust energy management for IoT machine elements
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1763-8978
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Advancements in semiconductor technology have reached the point at which ambient energy in the surrounding environment can power sensors and microprocessors. This capability enables new strategies for energy management, which are necessary to continue the sensorization of our environment. With the vast amount of interconnected devices and the rate at which the number of such devices is increasing, there is a need to power resource-constrained devices through means other than disposable batteries. Harvesting ambient energy from the surroundings of the device is one solution to this challenge. 

It has been estimated that the global demand for bearings will reach 104.5 billion dollars in 2018 with an annual increase of 7.3%. Bearings are mechanical parts that are essential for rotating machinery and that have the potential to measure and monitor vital parts of a machine. A scenario in which bearings contain embedded electronics to monitor process and health parameters that can be analyzed on site and collected from remote locations is a crucial motivator for this thesis. 

The investigated technologies should be applicable in dirty and encapsulated industrial environments; therefore, vibrational and rotational kinetic energies are considered in this thesis. For each energy source, both the physics and the associated electronics are modeled and to some extent experimentally verified. Vibration harvesters are investigated and modeled in SPICE to verify performance gains using a novel circuit for nonlinear power extraction for piezoelectric materials. The simulations revealed that a weak coupling from the electrical system to the mechanical system would greatly benefit nonlinear extraction techniques. Such a weakly coupled system can be created in a bearing. Mechanical load and rotation generate cyclic strain in the bearing's raceway; the cyclic strain can be utilized by applying piezoelectric patches to the raceway to power embedded systems, and sensory information from the piezoelectric patch can also be used to monitor the bearing. Finally, trends and limits for the energy costs of computing, communication and data acquisition are investigated to determine suitable energy storage technologies to combine with the advancements in energy harvesting for machine elements such as rolling element bearings. 

The results indicate that high integration between the mechanical and electrical parts is desired, which, in combination with capacitive energy storage, appears to be the long-term direction for real-world implementations.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords [en]
Energy harvesting, Rolling element bearing, Energy Storage
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69575ISBN: 978-91-7790-169-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-170-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-69575DiVA, id: diva2:1219207
Public defence
2018-09-27, D770, University Campus, Porsön, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Energy harvesting from raceway strain in rolling element bearings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy harvesting from raceway strain in rolling element bearings
(English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This paper presents how strain in rolling element bearings can be utilized to power embedded systems. Mechanical strain can be converted to the electrical domain by using piezoelectric materials; here, we present how piezoelectric patches should be dimensioned and mounted to optimize power output. Previous work has not addressed how repetitive strain in bearings can be used to harvest energy. Simulation data from the SKFtool BEAST are analyzed together with linear piezoelectricity to extract the power output. In the simulated case, results show that piezoelectric patches can be used to power embedded systems and that sensory data can be extracted to monitor the bearings.

Keywords
Rolling element bearing, Energy scavenging, Piezoelectric, IoT
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69574 (URN)
Available from: 2018-06-15 Created: 2018-06-15 Last updated: 2018-09-06
2. Piezoelectric energy harvesting modeled with SPICE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piezoelectric energy harvesting modeled with SPICE
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 654-659, article id 7520441Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The generation of electricity from vibrations has attracted considerable attention over the past decade. For this purpose, a piezoelectric-type harvester tuned to resonate at a specific frequency is typically used. This paper proposes a SPICE model capable of modeling piezoelectric energy harvesters. The model is parametrized enabling simple introduction of relevant physical parameters. Underlying theory based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented and modeling simplifications are justified. The SPICE model is verified by comparison to examples for which analytical and experimental solutions has been published. The SPICE model is valid close to the analyzed mode center frequency and delivers results within 1% compared to experimental and analytical data. Furthermore, we also show that the harvester can be electrically tuned to match the excitation frequency. This makes it possible to maximize the power output for both linear and non-linear loads. The here presented model enables efficient analysis of harvester design and changes of harvesting conditions

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Series
I E E E Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1091-5281
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-33220 (URN)10.1109/I2MTC.2016.7520441 (DOI)000382523600116 ()84980325841 (Scopus ID)806226b2-1e59-4cf6-b6bb-bd7ed3366a3b (Local ID)9781467392204 (ISBN)806226b2-1e59-4cf6-b6bb-bd7ed3366a3b (Archive number)806226b2-1e59-4cf6-b6bb-bd7ed3366a3b (OAI)
Conference
International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference : 23/05/2016 - 26/05/2016
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-07 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
3. Energy harvesting technologies for wireless sensors in rotating environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy harvesting technologies for wireless sensors in rotating environments
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, article id 7005364Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Using sensors to measure parameters of interest in rotating environments and communicating the measurements in real-time over wireless links, requires a reliable power source. In this paper, we have investigated the possibility to generate electric power locally by evaluating six different energy-harvesting technologies. The applicability of the technology is evaluated by several parameters that are important to the functionality in an industrial environment. All technologies are individually presented and evaluated, a concluding table is also summarizing the technologies strengths and weaknesses. To support the technology evaluation on a more theoretical level, simulations has been performed to strengthen our claims. Among the evaluated and simulated technologies, we found that the variable reluctancebased harvesting technology is the strongest candidate for further technology development for the considered use-case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014
Series
IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30362 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005364 (DOI)000360999100315 ()2-s2.0-84946686221 (Scopus ID)423f5291-5a99-418b-b2d3-6479e11fdd6e (Local ID)978-1-4799-4845-1 (ISBN)423f5291-5a99-418b-b2d3-6479e11fdd6e (Archive number)423f5291-5a99-418b-b2d3-6479e11fdd6e (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation : 16/09/2014 - 19/09/2014
Projects
Arrowhead
Note

Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20140904 (gusjon)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
4. Interleaved Switch Harvesting on Inductor: Non-linear extraction, action and reaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interleaved Switch Harvesting on Inductor: Non-linear extraction, action and reaction
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 642-647, article id 7520439Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The circuit presented in this paper provides increased transfer efficiency for the electric charge generated by a piezoelectric element to the storage device, it also enables a simplified active control circuitry required for switched harvesting solutions as the control transistors are referenced to ground. This is achieved by inverting the voltage potential across the piezoelectric element and thereby maintaining a higher voltage while extracting energy. The increased potential allows vibration harvesters to operate over a broader frequency range. For weakly coupled piezoelectric harvesters, the increased potential allows the electrical power output to be increased. In this paper, the circuit is simulated in SPICE using existing models of discrete components in conjunction with a model of a piezoelectric vibration harvester. The power output and mechanical behavior of the harvester using the presented circuit are compared to two existing technologies: Synchronous Switch Harvesting on Inductor (SSHI) and a full-wave rectifying bridge. The comparison demonstrates that the novel Interleaved Switch Harvesting on Inductor (ISHI) circuit outperforms state-of-the-art active harvesting solutions, e.g., SSHI, as a result of the decreased energy losses from diodes. In addition, the ISHI circuit requires fewer components than does the SSHI circuit and solves the floating transistor source issue that arises in SSHI implementations. To achieve the maximum power conversion efficiency, impedance matching is required, which can be achieved by controlling the voltage of the storage device

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Series
I E E E Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1091-5281
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-38164 (URN)10.1109/I2MTC.2016.7520439 (DOI)000382523600114 ()2-s2.0-84980383531 (Scopus ID)c7ab804b-e9e4-44c3-b234-cc3445dab6dd (Local ID)9781467392204 (ISBN)c7ab804b-e9e4-44c3-b234-cc3445dab6dd (Archive number)c7ab804b-e9e4-44c3-b234-cc3445dab6dd (OAI)
Conference
International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference : 23/05/2016 - 26/05/2016
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
5.
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6. A passive Barkhausen noise sensor for low-power applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A passive Barkhausen noise sensor for low-power applications
Show others...
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) Proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 280-284, article id 7520374Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper proposes a passive Barkhausen noise sensor design suitable for low power applications. The sensor uses a permanent magnet and the relative motion between itself and a measured specimen instead of the conventional method that uses a fixed sensor and an alternating magnetic field. Since this novel design is passive, the sensor is well suited for low power applications and could potentially be used in e.g. A condition monitoring system integrated into a rolling element bearing. Proof of concept testing has been performed showing that the proposed sensor produces similar results as conventional Barkhausen noise sensors when applied to specimens being cyclically loaded until failure in a rotating bending rig. The results imply that material fatigue detection using the Barkhausen noise can be performed with the proposed sensor at a fraction of the energy cost compared to a conventional sensor. This warrants future research into the development of the proposed sensor, its advantages, disadvantages, and functionality

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016
Series
I E E E Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1091-5281
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27126 (URN)10.1109/I2MTC.2016.7520374 (DOI)000382523600050 ()2-s2.0-84980398147 (Scopus ID)07898908-71e1-408f-9457-00c2f43688d4 (Local ID)9781467392204 (ISBN)07898908-71e1-408f-9457-00c2f43688d4 (Archive number)07898908-71e1-408f-9457-00c2f43688d4 (OAI)
Conference
International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference : 23/05/2016 - 26/05/2016
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved

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Häggström, Fredrik

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf