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Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan,Iraq.
Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani,Kurdistan, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Iraqi Kurdistan , Iraq.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6790-2653
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1365-8552
2019 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for

domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km 2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate

along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–ock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–g–CO3.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019. Vol. 11, no 4, article id 690
Keywords [en]
hydrogeochemistry; water quality index; domestic use; Halabja Saidsadiq Basin
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73541DOI: 10.3390/w11040690ISI: 000473105700060Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85065012852OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-73541DiVA, id: diva2:1303581
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-04-10 (inah)

Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved

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Abdullah, TwanaAl-Ansari, NadhirKnutsson, Sven

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