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Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood. 2. Na-Feldspar
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0488-438x
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5614-3578
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Bioenergy2020+ GmbH, Güssing, Austria. Institute of Chemical, Environmental & Bioscience Engineering, TU Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3863-5186
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 7333-7346Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting a suitable bed material for the thermochemical conversion of a specific feedstock in a fluidized bed system requires identification of the characteristics of potential bed materials. An essential part of these characteristics is the interaction of the bed material with feedstock ash in a fluidized bed, which leads to layer formation and morphology changes. For this purpose, the interaction of feldspar bed material with the main ash-forming elements in wood ash (Ca, K, Mg, Si) in an indirect gasification system was analyzed using SEM-EDS, XRD, and thermodynamic modeling. In part 1 of this work (DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b01291), the layer formation on K-feldspar dominated by Ca reaction and ash deposition was investigated. The aim of this second part of the work was to determine the time-dependent layer formation on Na-feldspar and compare the results with the findings for K-feldspar. Interaction of Na-feldspar with ash-derived elements resulted in different layers on Na-feldspar: K reaction layers, where K replaced Na and Si shares decreased; Ca reaction layers, where Ca enriched and reacted with the Na-feldspar; and ash deposition layers, where wood ash elements accumulated on the surface. Ca reaction layers were formed first and became continuous on the surface before K reaction layers and ash deposition layers were detected. Cracks and crack layer formation in the Na-feldspar particles were found after several days of operation. The layer compositions and growth rates indicate that the diffusion of Ca and K plays an essential role in the formation of Ca reaction and K reaction layers. The reaction with Ca and the crack formation coincide with the interaction previously found for quartz and K-feldspar. In contrast to K-feldspar, Na-feldspar showed high potential for reaction with K. The findings indicate that the reaction of Na-feldspar with ash-derived K makes Na-feldspar a less stable bed material than K-feldspar during the thermochemical conversion of K-rich feedstocks in a fluidized bed system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019. Vol. 33, no 8, p. 7333-7346
Keywords [en]
Dual Fluidized Bed, Bed Material, Wood, Feldspar
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75473DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b01292ISI: 000481569100047OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-75473DiVA, id: diva2:1342266
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P46533-1 and P42034-1
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-09 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved

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Hannl, Thomas KarlKuba, MatthiasÖhman, Marcus

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