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You Bet!: An Investigation of Market Positioning by Online Gambling Firms and Drivers of their Customers’ Gambling Intention
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8022-8835
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Online gambling is a global multibillion dollar business that dwarfs all other forms of entertainment, and yet business and marketing research about it is scarce (Mizerski, 2013). The focus of gambling research has been on problem gamblers who ultimately represent a rather small, albeit important percentage of the gambling population. However, in the current Age of Chance (Reith, 2002) gambling, whether as a game of chance or taking risky action in the hope of a desired result (Lexico.com, 2019), is said to be at the very heart of our society. Indeed, business often operates in an environment of uncertainty that is increasingly online. This thesis seeks to address the paucity of marketing and business research in online gambling to better understand aspects that customers consider when gambling online. In doing so, the thesis commences by investigating semantic differences in the text used to achieve market positioning on the websites of online gambling firms. It proposes a new methodology that employs a combination of lexical and statistical analyses to understand how customers view content and how this is related to market positioning. Results show that firms that emphasise low certainty (or risk) are better positioned in customers’ mind than those that put emphasis on action or certainty. The thesis proceeds to explore the literature for drivers of customers’ online gambling intention and identifies perceived fairness and enjoyment, particularly anticipated enjoyment, as overlooked concepts. Anticipated enjoyment is defined as the enjoyment felt prior to the actual experience while perceived fairness encompasses procedural, distributive and interactional fairness. The research employs the theoretical frameworks of  the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology – UTAUT (Venkatesh et al., 2003; Venkatesh, Thong, & Xu, 2012). Anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness are used as additional motivational drivers to enhance the models and better understand customers’ online gambling intention. Data are collected via surveys and analyses using mediated regression and PLS-SEM suggest that both anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness strongly impact customers’ online gambling intention, whereas some of the UTAUT constructs fail to exhibit significance. Shorn of irrelevant relationships, a new Gambling Intention Model (GIM) is put forward. While the context of this study is online gambling, the resultant GIM may have broader application and can also potentially be applied to stock market traders and the insurance industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2019.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords [en]
gambling, UTAUT, PLS-SEM, anticipated enjoyment, perceived fairness, DICTION, lexical analysis, hierarchical clustering
National Category
Economics and Business Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75736ISBN: 978-91-7790-431-1 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-432-8 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-75736DiVA, id: diva2:1347342
Public defence
2019-11-27, Luleå, 15:00 (English)
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-02 Created: 2019-08-31 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. No risk, no fun: implications for positioning of online casinos
Open this publication in new window or tab >>No risk, no fun: implications for positioning of online casinos
2017 (English)In: International Gambling Studies, ISSN 1445-9795, E-ISSN 1479-4276, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 144-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study uses textual content analysis of online casinos to provide insights into how operators position themselves in the market. Qualitative data from the About Us pages of 19 online gambling websites is gathered and analysed using DICTION software. The resulting z-scores are further analysed using the Hierarchical Clustering on Principal Components (HCPC) function in the FactoMineR software package. Results indicate that the casinos investigated group into three distinct and meaningful clusters (activity/realism; low certainty; high certainty). The results confirm that this exploratory methodology, which combines computerized lexical analysis using DICTION and HCPC, is able to identify positioning differences. In addition, the presence of a relationship between identified clusters and casino rankings is also considered. Its confirmation suggests that casinos that emphasize risk (low certainty) are more likely to obtain higher rankings. The Web has provided a platform for a global online gambling industry where differentiation and positioning is crucial. Therefore, managers need to emphasize in their online and offline communication the often-held perception that one of the attractions of gambling is the thrill or excitement of beating the odds. Limitations are noted and possible areas for further research are indicated

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62092 (URN)10.1080/14459795.2017.1288754 (DOI)000396684100009 ()2-s2.0-85013083684 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-15 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-02-20 Created: 2017-02-20 Last updated: 2019-08-31Bibliographically approved
2. Fun and fair, and I don’t care: The role of enjoyment, fairness and subjective norms on online gambling intentions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fun and fair, and I don’t care: The role of enjoyment, fairness and subjective norms on online gambling intentions
2018 (English)In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 44, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Online gambling is a fast-growing phenomenon reflected in an industry experiencing rapid growth rates. Effective marketing in the industry requires a better understanding of what drives online gambling intention of recreational gamblers. This study introduces and considers the concept of anticipated enjoyment which, together with perceived fairness and social norm, impact online gambling intention. The resultant research model is tested using mediated-moderated regression among a sample of 270 respondents from an online gambling firm. Results indicate that anticipated enjoyment is an important driver of online gambling intention. Implications for management are discussed and limitations noted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69723 (URN)10.1016/j.jretconser.2018.06.010 (DOI)000441584500010 ()2-s2.0-85048731590 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-20 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2019-08-31Bibliographically approved
3. Fair and easy: the effect of perceived fairness, effort expectancy and user experience on online slot machine gambling intention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fair and easy: the effect of perceived fairness, effort expectancy and user experience on online slot machine gambling intention
2019 (English)In: International Gambling Studies, ISSN 1445-9795, E-ISSN 1479-4276, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 183-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growth of online gambling necessitates that both marketers and regulators have a better understanding of the gambling intention of players. Perceived fairness of customers towards operators has often been raised as a concern in the industry, but it has received limited attention in research on gambling intention. Theories that seek to explain purchase intention are considered and a model is proposed that investigates the role and impact that perceived fairness and system effort expectancy have on online gambling intention together with the moderating influence of user experience. Data from 255 online gambling customers are gathered and analysed using Hayes PROCESS analyses. Results indicate that perceived fairness impacts gambling intention directly, and indirectly strengthening the effect of effort expectancy on gambling intention. However, user experience weakens both these impacts. The research provides support for the inclusion of perceived fairness in theories that consider drivers of online gambling intention. In addition, the important role that perceived fairness plays offers support for gambling regulators who in recent years have sought to promote a fairer and more transparent deal to players. Firms in the online gambling industry can also look positively at activities enhancing fairness as its promotion can also enhance their performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Perceived fairness, effort expectancy, user experience, gambling intention, online gambling
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71354 (URN)10.1080/14459795.2018.1526313 (DOI)000470849500001 ()2-s2.0-85054926682 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-10-26 Created: 2018-10-26 Last updated: 2019-08-31Bibliographically approved
4. Anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness: Drivers of online gambling intention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness: Drivers of online gambling intention
2019 (English)In: Journal of Gambling Studies, ISSN 1050-5350, E-ISSN 1573-3602Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Gambling has been around for hundreds, possibly thousands, of years, and is arguably one of the oldest forms of entertainment. It is a multifaceted phenomenon that has the obvious attraction of allowing a person the chance to win large amounts of money or a significant prize. While being a fascinating aspect of consumer behaviour, marketing scholars have shied away from giving it attention. This research focuses on recreational gambling and pursues a consumer behaviour perspective that seeks better understanding of online gambling intentions, by applying the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Technology – UTAUT/ UTAUT 2, to an online gambling context. It proposes additional hypotheses that account for the role of anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness. Data are collected from 593 casino customers of an online gambling firm and analysed using PLS-SEM via Smart PLS. Results show that perceived fairness and anticipated enjoyment are significant drivers of gambling intention, with perceived fairness being fully mediated by effort expectancy, anticipated enjoyment and social influence. Shorn of drivers and moderators that have not been found to be significant, a gambling intention model titled UTAUT-GIM is proposed. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, limitations are noted and areas for further research are suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
marketing, gambling intention, UTAUT, PLS-SEM, enjoyment, fairness
National Category
Economics and Business Business Administration
Research subject
Industrial Marketing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75735 (URN)
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved

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