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On the Interaction Between Efficient Light Bulbs and Photovoltaic Systems in Low-Voltage Networks
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. (Electric Power Engineering)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4079-4776
2018 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Thanks to the continuous technological development, from time-to-time, new devices emerge in the market to improve our daily life in several ways. Two of these technologies are addressed in this work, in the power quality context on consumption and generation, and in their integration with the electric power system.

The first refers to the energy efficient lamps, which are massively represented by the LED lamps, found in almost every household, industry or commercial installation.The second is about photovoltaic (PV) power generation, which is less in numbers compared to the first, but still presents a continuous growing in popularity and already a substantial amount in terms of installed capacity. Both technologies have benefits to the environment. LED lamps are more efficient compared to earlier technologies, helping to reduce the global power consumption. PV generation allows producing electricity from an environment friendly source.

Research and development result in continuous improvements in both technologies. Also, phenomena related to compatibility with grid and performance for individual devices are reasonably well understood.However, there is no such general understanding on the electrical interactions between these two devices (i.e between LED lamps and PV inverters). For instance, it is still not clear how the control from both LED lamps and PV inverters are affected under parallel operation, or how the performance and lifetime changes due the mutual impact the devices have on each other.

This half-way report addresses a number of issue related to the electrical interactions between PV generation and LED lamps in low-voltage networks; specifically with respect to harmonics and supraharmonics.

Power quality analysis has been performed in the time and frequency-domain covering different frequencies ranges. Investigation methodology includes the use of simulation and measurements in realistic scenarios, in a controllable laboratory environment. For this, a set of LED lamps and PV Inverters currently found in the market are used to characterize the operation of the devices in terms of current emission and equivalent impedance.

For the LED lamps, primary current emission is evaluated and correlated with the different circuit topologies. The impedance characterization is performed by invasive measurement methods described in the literature, in combination with a proposed method for estimation of the internal capacitances. For the latter, a non-invasive capacitance measurement is presented, followed by experimental measurements. Some of the results show that the equivalent input capacitances of LED lamps are a few tens of nF. Furthermore, from the circuit analysis, some of the most common topologies in terms of EMI filters topologies, and AC/DC converters are revealed.

Regarding PV inverters, simulations for different topologies and modulation strategies are performed under external influence from the source supply. Characterization of the grid variations and its impact on inverters is performed through quantification of harmonics and supraharmonics.Some of the results have revealed the low-order harmonics sensitivity when the source supply is not purely sinusoidal, besides dependence of the supraharmonic emissions on the inverter topology. Additionally, the study includes a set of PV inverters impedance measurements in order to understand the common association with the rest of the system.

As a third part, the influence of the low-voltage network impedance is examined. From simulation of real networks, the network impedance is analyzed and of the results are discussed with respect to resonances for harmonic propagation and stability of power converters. A method was developed to determine the harmonic impedances in low-voltage networks in a stochastic way by using Monte Carlo simulation with the customer impedance as the random variable. The method is applied to two existing low-voltage networks in Sweden. Results show the variation of resonant frequencies as a function of the PV penetration, besides the uncertainties in network impedance for the individual customer connections.

Finally, preliminary results from a study case to investigate the interaction between PV inverters and LED lamps is presented. Emission and propagation of power quality disturbances for different equipment combinations and operating conditions are analyzed and results discussed. Results have revealed the harmonic interdependency and its consequences for the total harmonic distortion, next to interactions in the supraharmonic range. This work presents several findings and a comprehensive discussion serving as a guideline for future work on interaction analysis and its consequences for devices in the low-voltage network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skellefteå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018. , p. 133
Series
Gula serien, ISSN 1400-4003
Keywords [en]
Electric power system, power quality, power electronics, harmonic analysis
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77662OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-77662DiVA, id: diva2:1392154
Available from: 2020-02-06 Created: 2020-02-06 Last updated: 2020-02-06

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