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MASCOT Follow-on Mission Concept Study with Enhanced GNC and Propulsion Capability of the Nano-lander for Small Solar System Bodies (SSSB) Missions
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. University of Toulouse Paul Sabatier, M2TSI Course (2018-19).
2020 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the design, implementation and analysis for a preliminary study for DLR's MASCOT lander's next mission to Small Solar System Bodies (SSSB). MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) is a nano-lander that flew aboard Hayabusa2 (JAXA) to an asteroid, Ryugu. It is a passive nano-spacecraft that can only be deployed ballistically from a hovering spacecraft. Current research focusses on optimizing similar close-approach missions for deploying landers or small cubesats into periodic orbits but does not provide solutions with semi-autonomous small landers deployed from farther distances. This study aims to overcome this short-coming by proposing novel yet simple Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) and Propulsion systems for MASCOT.

Due to its independent functioning and customisable anatomy, MASCOT can be adapted for several mission scenarios. In this thesis, a particular case-study is modelled for the HERA (ESA) mission. The first phase of the study involves the design of a landing trajectory to the moon of the Didymos binary asteroid system. For a preliminary analysis, the system - Didymain (primary body), Didymoon (secondary body) and MASCOT (third body) - are modelled as a Planar Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (PCR3BP). The numerical integration methodology used for the trajectory is the variable-step Dormand–Prince (Runge Kutta) ODE-4,5 (Ordinary Differential Equation) solver. The model is built in MATLAB-Simulink (2019a) and refined iteratively by conducting a Monte Carlo analysis using the Sensitivity Analysis Tool. Two models - a thruster-controlled system and an alternative hybrid propulsion system of solar sails and thrusters - are simulated and proven to be feasible. The results show that the stable manifold near Lagrange 2 points proposed by Tardivel et. al. for ballistic landings can still be exploited for distant deployments if a single impulse retro-burn is done at an altitude of 65 m to 210 m above ground with error margins of 50 m in position, 5 cm/s in velocity and 0.1 rad in attitude. The next phase is the conceptual design of a MASCOT-variant with GNC abilities. Based on the constraints and requirements of the flown spacecraft, novel GNC and Propulsion systems are chosen. To identify the overriding factors in using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) for MASCOT, a market survey is conducted and the manufacturers of short-listed products are consulted. The final phase of the study is to analyse the proposed equipment in terms of parameter scope and capability-oriented trade-offs. Two traceability matrices, one for devised solutions and system and another for solutions versus capabilities, are constructed.

The final proposed system is coherent with the given mass, volume and power constraints. A distant deployment of MASCOT-like landers for in-situ observation is suggested as an advantageous and risk-reducing addition to large spacecraft missions to unknown micro-gravity target bodies. Lastly, the implications of this study and the unique advantages of an enhanced MASCOT lander are explored for currently planned SSSB missions ranging from multiple rendezvous, fly-by or sample-return missions. Concluding, this study lays the foundation for future work on advanced GNC concepts for unconventional spacecraft topology for the highly integrated small landers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020. , p. 67
Keywords [en]
Nanolander, small spacecraft technology, self-navigating lander, self-propelling lander, Small Solar System Body (SSSB), MASCOT, Didymos, Planar Circular Restricted Three Body Problem (Planar CR3BP or PCR3BP), GNC, Propulsion, Mission Design, Binary Asteroids, Asteroids, Comets, Microlander, Solar Sail, Phobos, Lagrange 2 Stable Manifold
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78599OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-78599DiVA, id: diva2:1425765
External cooperation
DLR (German Aerospace Centre) - Institute of Space Systems, Bremen, Germany
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Space Engineering, master's level (120 credits)
Supervisors
Examiners
Projects
MASCOT team, DLR
Note

This thesis is submitted as per the requirements for the Spacemaster (Round 13) dual master's degree under the Erasmus Mundus Joint Master's Degree Programme. 

Available from: 2020-04-24 Created: 2020-04-22 Last updated: 2020-04-24Bibliographically approved

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The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-01 12:00
Available from 2020-10-01 12:00

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