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Stabilization of sulfide soil with by-product originated hydraulic binder in a region with seasonal frost - a field investigation
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8864-5596
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6797-9300
Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1935-1743
2022 (English)In: Transportation Geotechnics, ISSN 2214-3912, Vol. 34, article id 100735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fine-grained soils often show a low bearing capacity as well as a high frost susceptibility. These aspects are a challenge for the needs of infrastructure. The addition of hydraulic binder to fine-grained soils is common worldwide to improve the soil properties for engineering purposes. The classical hydraulic binders are lime and cement, but nowadays more and more by-producs are used as well like e. g. fly ash, slag or filter dust. The binders are called “hydraulic” because they react with water. By this reaction new minerals are formed, connecting the soil particles together. This improves the properties of the soil: A strength increase is even visible when the curing takes place in cold environment or after freezing and thawing cycles. Another challenge that occurs in fine-grained sulfidic soils is their possible acidification, when aerated due to e. g. excavation or drainage. Sulfide minerals in contact with oxygen produce sulfuric acid. The low pH caused by this oxidation can mobilize metals from the soil minerals, with harmful consequences for the environment. The addition of lime or calcite is one possible action to improve acid sulphate soils for agricultural and aqua-cultural purposes. The high pH of the lime and calcite increases the buffer capacity of the soil. However, the addition of hydraulic binder to a fine-grained sulfide soil in order to improve both the engineering properties and to buffer the potential acidification is sparsely investigated. In the present publication a field investigation is described where a cement mixture with cement kiln dust (CKD) is used alone and in combination with a calcite-rich by-product from the paper industry to improve a fine-grained sulfide soil for possible usage in earthworks. Samples taken from the surface after one year show a buffering of the potential acidification. Additionally, a strength increase can be seen in the stabilized soil when compressed and stored in a tube in field conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022. Vol. 34, article id 100735
Keywords [en]
Soil stabilization, Hydraulic binder, By-product, Sulfide soil, Seasonal frost
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Building Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83884DOI: 10.1016/j.trgeo.2022.100735ISI: 000793763800002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85127656606OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-83884DiVA, id: diva2:1546518
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, BVFF: 2018:2-22
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-04-22 Created: 2021-04-22 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Stabilization of fine-grained soils in cold environment and exposed to seasonal frost: By-products as hydraulic binders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stabilization of fine-grained soils in cold environment and exposed to seasonal frost: By-products as hydraulic binders
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Stabilisering av finkorniga jordar i kalla miljöer med årstidsbunden tjälning : biprodukter som hydrauliska bindemedel
Abstract [en]

This doctoral thesis deals with the stabilization of fine-grained soils using by-product originated hydraulic binders. The use of fine-grained soils as subsoil for infrastructure projects is often limited because of the risk for instability. Another reason why building on these soils is not desired is insuÿcient serviceability of the final structure caused by settlements or frost heave that occur in fine-grained soils. Therefore, these soils are often excavated, transported and landfilled. By means of stabilization with hydraulic binder, fine-grained soils can be improved and thereby utilized on site. In case by-products can be used as binders, the method of stabilization combines di˙erent sustainability aspects (reduced carbon footprint of the binder, reduced need of excavation, transport and landfilling as well as quarrying). The method of deep stabilization is often used in Sweden to increase the bearing capacity and to reduce settlements. In countries with more moderate climate than Sweden, stabilization is regularly used also to reduce the frost susceptibility of fine-grained soils in the frost active part of the subsoil.However, the influence of the combination of low curing temperature and freezing and thawing on stabilized soils is unclear, which leads to reduced applicability of this method of stabilization in regions with longer seasonal frost and low annual mean temperature. This thesis focuses on how curing at low temperatures (mean temperature +4› to+7› ) combined with freezing and thawing cycles influences the stabilizing reaction of by-product originated hydraulic binders in fine-grained soil.Three di˙erent combinations of inorganic fine-grained soils with by-product originated hydraulic binders were investigated in laboratory studies. The testing program included curing at +4› for 14, 28 and 90 days, twelve freezing and thawing cycles as well as 28 days of additional curing time after the last thawing. The results of the three laboratory studies were analyzed statistically regarding the varied influence factors (binder content, days of curing before and after freezing and thawing).In a field study, stabilized uncompacted fine-grained sulfide soil was used as cover mate-rial on a landfill. By-products from paper and cement industry were used as hydraulic binders. Samples were taken from the stabilized sulfidic fine-grained soil one year after the installation. Mainly geotechnical aspects as particle size distribution (PSD) and un-confined compressive strength (UCS) were investigated. In addition, the bu˙ering e˙ect of the binder was tested by pH measurements. Moreover, the mineral composition was investigated by X-ray di˙raction (XRD) and the micro-structure of some samples was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Parallel to the field study, samples were taken from the stabilized material directly after the installation of the field test. These samples were cured for one year in the laboratory under conditions comparable to those in the field. The testing program for these samples was similar to that for the field study.The main findings of this research can be summarized as follows:If fine-grained soil is mixed with the chosen by-products and compacted, the strength will increase compared to unstabilized soil even in cold environment and frost. The strength increase is slower in cold environment compared to reference values from literature for higher temperature.The chosen by-products bu˙er the potential acidification of the sulfide soil in cold en-vironment and frost. At the same time strength increase of stabilized sulfide soil in cold environment and frost can be achieved if compacted and protected against water percolation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
soft soil, clay, silt, silty sand, soil stabilisation, hydraulic binder, cement, lime, by-product, cement kiln dust (CKD), cold climate, frost, freeze-thaw, laboratory test, field test, subsoil, road construction, feinkörninge Böden, Ton, Schluff, schluffiger Sand, Bodenstabilisierung, hydraulische Bindemittel, Zement, Kalk, Nebenprodukt, Zementofenstaub, kaltes Klima, Frost, Frost-Tau, Laborversuche, Feldversuche, Verkehrsbau, Dauerhaftigkeit, finkornig jord, lera, silt, siltig sand, jordstabilisering, hydraulisk bindemedel, cement, kalk, biprodukt, cement kiln dust (CKD), kallt klimat, frost, frysning-tining, laboratorieanalyser, fältförsök, vägterrass
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83887 (URN)978-91-7790-832-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-833-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-06-17, F1031, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, BVFF: 2018:2-22
Available from: 2021-04-22 Created: 2021-04-22 Last updated: 2021-05-27Bibliographically approved

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Rothhämel, MirjaTole, IldaLaue, Jan

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