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Evaporation of intercepted snow: review of existing and new measurement methods
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
1993 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 151, no 2-4, p. 267-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of the annual water balance within a catchment is still hampered by an insufficient understanding of winter conditions. The least known term of the winter water balance is evaporation - particularly that from intercepted snow. Methods to measure interception and evaporation are reviewed. Undisturbed meteorological conditions, high time resolution and continuous measurements of intercepted mass were taken as criteria for an ideal method. The ideal method should work during periods of melt and sublimation and above rough forest surfaces. None of the existing methods fulfils all the criteria. Most traditional hydrological methods to estimate winter-time evaporation, such as runoff and snow-course studies, non-weighing lysimeters, and precipitation and throughfall measurements, produce too little information to distinguish the causes of the observed changes. Among micrometeorological methods, only the eddy-correlation technique is suitable, and should be used in combination with interception measurements. Of the methods primarily designed to quantify interception, i.e. collection of intercepted snow, visual or photographic observations, displacement transducers, weighing of branches and trees and gamma-ray attenuation, only the last two yield continuous interception records. In combination with continuous measurements of throughfall and drip, these methods can be used to study the evaporation process. The gamma-ray method can be used to measure whole-canopy losses, whereas the other two methods deal only with losses from a branch or a single tree. The weighing-lysimeter technique produces the same information as the method of weighing a cut tree but employs a more complex set-up. The weighing-tree method combined with measurement of drip is one of the current methods that is most suitable for process studies. A new device for this purpose is presented, which differs from earlier designs by allowing a continuous weighing of drip in a tray of 2m width placed around the tree. The tray was fastened to the tree with wires and was automatically raised and lowered, thus allowing continuous measurements of both intercepted mass (with the tray raised) and evaported mass (with the tray lowered). A maximum evaporation rate of 0.3 mm h-1 was recorded with this device on 22-23 March 1990 at a site close to Luleå in northern Sweden. This maximum value was measured when wet snow was present, and confirmed earlier reports of high evaporation rates. The maximum evaporated mass during 24 h was 3.3 mm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1993. Vol. 151, no 2-4, p. 267-290
National Category
Geochemistry Water Engineering
Research subject
Applied Geology; Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-2530DOI: 10.1016/0022-1694(93)90239-6ISI: A1993MP97200009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-0027789474Local ID: 025ef7a0-e75b-11db-8a98-000ea68e967bOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-2530DiVA, id: diva2:975382
Note
Godkänd; 1993; 20070410 (pafi)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved

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Lundberg, Angela

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