Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Towards automated 'ground truth' snow measurements: a review of operational and new measurement methods for Sweden, Norway, and Finland
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
Division of Biogeophysics, The Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
2010 (English)In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 14, p. 1955-1970Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Manual snow measurements are becoming increasingly expensive and climate-change-imposed snow alterations are affecting run-off and frost patterns; snow observations are included in run-off modelling, making reliable snow observations of utmost importance. Multiple new and modified ground-based techniques for monitoring snow depth, density, snow water equivalent (SWE), wetness, and layering have been tested over the last decade, justifying a review of such methods. Techniques based on snow mass, electrical properties, attenuation of radioactivity, and other miscellaneous properties are reviewed. The following sensors seem suitable for registration of temporal variations: ultrasonic (depth) and terrestrial laser scanning (depth), several snow pillows at the same location (SWE), Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory/Natural Resources Conservation Service weighing sensor (SWE), Snowpower (depth, density, SWE, and wetness), active and passive (cosmic) γ-ray attenuation (SWE), and adjusted time domain reflectometry probes (density and wetness). Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is, depending on the design and operation modes, suitable for different purposes; when arrays of antennas are pulled by a snowmobile, the technique is suitable for monitoring of spatial variations in depth, density, and SWE for dry snow. Techniques are under development, which will hopefully improve the accuracy for wet snow measurements. Frequency-modulated continuous wave GPRs seem fit for measurement of snow layering. Some suggested techniques are not operational yet. Copyright

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 24, no 14, p. 1955-1970
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6338DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7658ISI: 000280140700004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77954377479Local ID: 491501d0-948c-11df-8806-000ea68e967bOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-6338DiVA, id: diva2:979215
Note
Validerad; 2010; Bibliografisk uppgift: 66th Annual Eastern Snow Conference Niagara on the Lake, CANADA, JUN 09-11, 2009; 20100721 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Lundberg, AngelaGranlund, Nils

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lundberg, AngelaGranlund, Nils
By organisation
Geosciences and Environmental Engineering
In the same journal
Hydrological Processes
Geochemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 24 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf