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Chromium geochemistry and speciation in natural waters, Iceland
Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
Reykjavík Energy.
Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3382-1764
Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland.
2015 (English)In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 62, p. 200-206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural waters in Iceland were collected and analyzed for chromium concentration and speciation (CrIII, CrVI and CrTOT). The water sampled included non-thermal surface and spring water, surface geothermal water, and single and two-phase geothermal well discharges with sampling temperatures of 0-178°C, pH of 2.0-9.5, and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 35-4030ppm. The total Cr concentration was between <0.01 and 660ppb with highest concentrations in waters with the lowest pH. At pH>4 the measured CrIII concentration was low, generally <1ppb but with decreasing pH higher CrIII concentrations were observed reaching values of hundreds of ppb. At pH<6 no measurable CrVI was detected whereas in neutral to alkaline waters measured CrVI concentrations were as high as 3ppb, frequently dominating over CrIII. The Cr chemistry in natural waters associated with mafic rocks in Iceland is largely influenced by the water pH. At low pH Cr-containing minerals are unstable and Cr leaches into the waters as CrIII. Possible oxidation of CrIII to CrVI is minimized thermodynamically and the mobility of CrVI is further reduced by surface complexation reactions. At neutral to alkaline pH the primary Cr-containing mineral phases like titanomagnetite and chromite may be stable, limiting Cr-rock leaching. Solubility of secondary CrIII-FeIII-mineral phases may further reduce and/or limit the CrIII availability. In contrast, CrVI mobility is enhanced at a pH>8 associated with decreasing importance of mineral surface complexation. Hence, CrVI becomes an increasingly dominant form of dissolved Cr at pH above 7-8. Many groundwater drinking supplies associated with mafic rocks are characterized by moderately alkaline pH resulting in CrVI concentrations of a few ppb.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 62, p. 200-206
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Tillämpad geokemi
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7279DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2014.07.007Scopus ID: 84943633977Local ID: 59ec40a2-003a-49e2-ad79-33766ef29cb0OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-7279DiVA, id: diva2:980168
Note
Upprättat; 2015; Bibliografisk uppgift: A Special Issue to Honor the Geochemical Contributions of D. Kirk Nordstrom; 20160205 (hankas)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved

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Kaasalainen, Hanna

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