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Fresnel absorption of 1 μm- and 10 μm-laser beams at the keyhole wall during laser beam welding: Comparison between smooth and wavy surfaces
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3569-6795
2012 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 8, p. 3354-3363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The angle-dependent absorption of laser beams at metal surfaces is described by the Fresnel-equations. During keyhole laser welding the essential interaction takes place at very striping angles of incidence of the order of 1-8 degrees at the front of the vapour capillary, called the keyhole. For a smooth vapour capillary, laser beams with a wavelength of about 1 μm operate in a Fresnel-regime where the absorptance increases with the angle of incidence at the wall, towards the weak Brewster-angle maximum. In contrast, for 10 μm-lasers high absorptance around the more pronounced Brewster-angle peak takes place. From high speed imaging keyhole surface waves were observed. Mathematical modelling of the laser-keyhole interaction demonstrates that already relatively little waviness of the melt surface at the keyhole strongly modulates the angles of incidence and in turn the Fresnel-absorption due to varying angles of incidence, soon also leading to shadow zones. Due to this local variation of the angle of incidence the absorptance tends towards the angle-averaged value, with the consequence that for 1 μm-lasers the direct absorptance and in turn the penetration depth increases, particularly at low welding speed, while for 10 μm-lasers it generally decreases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 258, no 8, p. 3354-3363
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Manufacturing Systems Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-7457DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.08.086Local ID: 5d6e6263-be38-4950-82b8-b9c0cb4ac45eOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-7457DiVA: diva2:980346
Note
Validerad; 2012; 20110829 (ysko)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved

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