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Early Proterozoic Cu-(Au) and Fe ore deposits associated with regional Na-Cl metasomatism in northern Fennoscandia
Luleå tekniska universitet.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0935-3430
Luleå tekniska universitet.
1997 (English)In: Ore Geology Reviews, ISSN 0169-1368, E-ISSN 1872-7360, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scapolite is widely distributed in 1.9-2.5 Ga volcano-sedimentary rocks and 1.77-2.2 Ga igneous rocks over several hundred square kilometres in northern Fennoscandia, comprising northern Sweden, northern Finland and adjacent parts of Norway and Russia. This region is one of the largest scapolite-bearing Precambrian terranes in the world. Albitization, and to a lesser extent carbonatization, phyllic and tourmaline alteration, are spatially associated with scapolite. A number of epigenetic Cu-(Au) sulphide and Fe oxide deposits in northern Fennoscandia show a spatial and genetic relationship to this type of alteration, mainly scapolitization and albitization. The main metal occurrences are in 2.0-2.5 Ga mafic volcanics and sediments of the Lapponian Greenstone group and in 1.9 Ga intermediate-composition volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Svecofennian Porphyry group. The scapolite is mainly a dipyre-mizzonite with Cl and CO3 and small amounts of SO4 and F, indicating high Na and Cl activity at the time of crystallization. Fluid inclusion data of the Lapponian Pahtohavare and similar Cu-Au deposits indicate formation temperatures of about 300°C and ore deposition from highly saline aqueous solutions. The deposition of copper and gold was in places regulated by a redox barrier; graphite in associated schists controlled the reduction reactions of the ore fluids and metals were precipitated. The Lapponian and Svecofennian sulphide deposits contain tourmaline of the schorl-dravite series. Aitik-Nautanen Cu-(Au) style deposits and in particular some deposits with vein-style iron ore, contain dravite-schorl deficient in Al and enriched in Fe3+, which is due to Fe-Al substitution in an oxidizing, relatively iron-rich environment. Scapolite and, probably also tourmaline, formed by a complex, multistage process. The source of the components in scapolite may have been evaporitic sequences or high salinity brines in Lapponian rift basins that contain 2.0-2.5 Ga mafic volcanics. During low to medium-grade (low P) regional metamorphism, the components that formed scapolite and tourmaline were mobilized and transported to their present positions in several metasomatic phases. Fault zones with fractures and breccias channeled the fluids, resulting in locally developed intense alteration. Gold and copper was transported by saline, high fO2, high temperature solutions as metal-chloride complexes. The ultimate source of fluids and heat sources is uncertain, but deep-seated crustal magmatic processes seem prerequisite. The alteration occurred mainly around 1.9 Ga at the peak of the main regional metamorphism and the intrusion of granitoids through to around 1.8 Ga. Cu-(Au) sulphide and Fe oxide ore deposits associated with large-scale scapolite-forming metasomatic processes are found elsewhere in the world (e.g., Australia, Kazakhstan, Russia) and show similarities with the Cu-(Au) deposits in northern Fennoscandia. However, the close genetic connection between scapolite-albite and ore formation of Fennoscandian deposits is not a common feature in other belts

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1997. Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-34
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-8142DOI: 10.1016/S0169-1368(96)00013-3ISI: A1997XB39500001Local ID: 69d03340-fb50-11dc-a946-000ea68e967bOAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-8142DiVA, id: diva2:981033
Note
Godkänd; 1997; 20080326 (cira)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved

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