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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Teodor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Sundin, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Database Selection Process in Very Small Enterprises in Software Development: A Case Study examining Factors, Methods, and Properties2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the database model selection process in VSEs, looking into how priorities and needs differ compared to what is proposed by existing theory in the area. 

    The study was conducted as a case study of a two-person company engaged in developing various applications and performing consulting tasks. Data was collected through two semi-structured interviews. The first interview aimed to understand the company's process for selecting a database model, while the second interview focused on obtaining their perspective on any differences in their selection process compared to the theoretical recommendations and suggested methodology. The purpose was to investigate the important factors involved in the process and explore why and how they deviated from what the theory proposes.

    The study concludes that VSEs have different priorities compared to larger enterprises. Factors like transaction amount does not have to be considered much at the scale of a VSE. It is more important to look into the total cost of the database solution, including making sure that the selected technology is sufficiently efficient to use in development and relatively easy to maintain.

    Regarding selection methodology it was concluded that the time investment required to decide what is the best available database solution can be better spent elsewhere in the enterprise, and finding a good enough solution to get the wheels of the ground is likely a more profitable aim.

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  • 2.
    Afremo, Adam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Användbarhet i mobila investeringstjänster2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användbarhet inom digitala tjänster är en faktor som påverkar användares upplevelse i systemet. Detta blir särskilt viktigt för mobila plattformar där skärmstorleken är begränsad och användaren befinner sig i olika miljöer. Det är därför betydelsefullt att system designas för att uppnå god användbarhet. Även om det förekommer generella principer för hur system ska designas för att uppnå god användbarhet saknas det principer för mobila investeringstjänster. I denna studie har en kvalitativ studie genomförts på fem testanvändare med olika investeringserfarenheter. Testanvändarna har blivit intervjuade och utvärderat en mobil investeringstjänst. Även en benchmarking av mobila investeringstjänster på marknaden har genomförts för att jämföra och utvärdera olika system. I analysen framställs sex stycken principer baserat på tidigare forskning och studiens empiri. Studien visar på hur användbarhet kan förbättras i mobila investeringstjänster baserat på utvärderingen av olika investeringstjänster samt testanvändarnas upplevelse med studiens artefakt. Detta vilket även leder till en förbättrad användarupplevelse.

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  • 3.
    Agbo, Friday Joseph
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Suhonen, Jarkko
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Department of Digital Media, Ajou University, 16499, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
    Co-design of mini games for learning computational thinking in an online environment2021In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 5815-5849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the principles of computational thinking (CT), e.g., problem abstraction, decomposition, and recursion, is vital for computer science (CS) students. Unfortunately, these concepts can be difficult for novice students to understand. One way students can develop CT skills is to involve them in the design of an application to teach CT. This study focuses on co-designing mini games to support teaching and learning CT principles and concepts in an online environment. Online co-design (OCD) of mini games enhances students’ understanding of problem-solving through a rigorous process of designing contextual educational games to aid their own learning. Given the current COVID-19 pandemic, where face-to-face co-designing between researchers and stakeholders could be difficult, OCD is a suitable option. CS students in a Nigerian higher education institution were recruited to co-design mini games with researchers. Mixed research methods comprising qualitative and quantitative strategies were employed in this study. Findings show that the participants gained relevant knowledge, for example, how to (i) create game scenarios and game elements related to CT, (ii) connect contextual storyline to mini games, (iii) collaborate in a group to create contextual low-fidelity mini game prototypes, and (iv) peer review each other’s mini game concepts. In addition, students were motivated toward designing educational mini games in their future studies. This study also demonstrates how to conduct OCD with students, presents lesson learned, and provides recommendations based on the authors’ experience.

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  • 4.
    Agbo, Friday Joseph
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Suhonen, Jarkko
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Tukiainen, Markku
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    iThinkSmart: Immersive Virtual Reality Mini Games to Facilitate Students’ Computational Thinking Skills2021In: Koli Calling '21: 21st Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research / [ed] Otto Seppälä; Andrew Petersen, Association for Computing Machinery , 2021, article id 33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents iThinkSmart, an immersive virtual reality-based application to facilitate the learning of computational thinking (CT) concepts. The tool was developed to supplement the traditional teaching and learning of CT by integrating three virtual mini games, namely, River Crossing, Tower of Hanoi, and Mount Patti treasure hunt, to foster immersion, interaction, engagement, and personalization for an enhanced learning experience. iThinkSmart mini games can be played on a smartphone with a Goggle Cardboard and hand controller. This first prototype of the game accesses players' competency of CT and renders feedback based on learning progress.  

     

  • 5.
    Agbo-ola, Adedoyin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Motivating Cybersecurity Awareness within an Organisation: An explorative study from an awareness practitioner’s perspective2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Security awareness has been a popular topic in the last few years for both information systems researchers and organisations. News broadcasts has brought attention to the increase in cyber-attacks, with these reports noting that a significant number of these breaches have been caused by human error, linked to employee’s lack of engagement with their organisations security policies and awareness campaigns. Whilst there is existing research in human factorsand the barriers of security behaviours effect on cybersecurity awareness; in practice we know very little about how employees can be motivated to engage in cybersecurity awareness programs.

    This study aims to explore how information security practitioners motivate interest in cybersecurity awareness. It does this through an exploratory case study approach using qualitative data collected from in-depth interviews of four cybersecurity awareness practitioners that were conducted. From an application perspective, the findings suggest that these practitioners do use a variety of techniques to motivate employee interest in cybersecurity awareness. The study identified four factors used by practitioners to motivate cybersecurity awareness which are 1) using different engaging techniques, 2) making it personable & relatable, 3) utilising leadership commitment and 4) embracing technical controls. This paper discusses these factors and implications for practitioners.

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  • 6.
    Aghaunor, Gabriel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Okojie, Bukky E
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Factors Influencing the Implementation of Information Security Risk Management: A case study of Nigerian Commercial Banks2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The banking industry is one of the critical infrastructures in any economy. The services rendered by banks are systematically based on innovation, products, and technology to leverage their services. Several associated risks come along with the rendering of these banking services. The protection of critical information assets of any banking organization should be a top priority of the management. They must ensure that adequate provision is made to develop a strong strategy to control, reduce, and mitigate tasks, such as fraud, cyber-attacks, and other forms of cybersecurity exploitations. 

    Risk management is a series of actions to identify, assess and control threats and vulnerabilities in an organization's capital investment and revenue. These potential risks arise from diverse sources like credit risk, liquidity risk, financial uncertainties, legal actions, technology failures, business strategic management errors, accidental occurrences, and natural disasters. 

    This research study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the implementation of information security risk management in Nigerian Commercial Banks, using a social-technical system framework to address a fundamental human risk factor, which contributes predominately to the failure in information security risk management. These research was motivated by the fact that Nigerian banking sector is facing serious threats' threat emanate from cyber-attacks. Evidenced by the ever-increasing cyber-attacks, as demonstrated by a total of 1,612 complaints from consumers of financial services over banking fraud and aggressive charges received between July and December 2018 of which 99.38% of these incidences were against the commercial banks. The banks are faced with a lot of vulnerabilities and cybersecurity threats, and most of the attacks that happened within the banking sector are focused on the customers, and employees through phishing and social engineering. These showed weaknesses in information security management within the Nigerian banking industry. 

    However, the study was guided by the social-technical theory that advocates for overall training to the stakeholders that helps in changing their beliefs and norms about organization of IS security. In order to find out the factors influencing the implementation of information security risks management in respect of Nigerian Commercial Banks, this study evaluated the influence of management support, technical experts support, funding and users’ security awareness to curb the cyber-attacks in Nigerian financial sector. The contribution of this research is expected to lead to the improvement in the financial system, and organizations, where cybersecurity and information security risk management processes are taken seriously, to reduce the high level of information security risk, threats, and vulnerabilities. Nigeria is a developing country, and at the same time fighting to develop a more conducive business investment environment to attract both national and international investors. 

    A mixed approach research (qualitative and quantitative) method was used to validate this research study. Data collection tools used included interviews and questionnaires. Data analysis was done using the SPSS and logistic regression model. 

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  • 7.
    Agrianidis, Anastasios
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Information Security Training and Serious Games2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital transformation of the 21st century has led to a series of new possibilities and challenges, where one major concern of many major organizations and enterprises is promoting Information Security Awareness and Training (ISAT) for their employees. This aspect of Information Security (IS) can promote cybersecurity in the work environment against threats related to the human factor. Apart from traditional methods as workshops and seminars, researchers study the effect of gamification on ISAT, by proposing customized digital games to train employees regardless their IT skills. This thesis is trying to propose what techniques and approaches can be considered to train people throughout a full threat progression by studying the features of previous efforts. For this purpose, a literature study based on the principles of a systematic literature review (SLR) is essential to gather the available data and review their characteristics. More specifically, the solutions of the researchers are analyzed against the seven steps of the Lockheed Martin Cyber Kill Chain (LM CKC), where each game is classified to one or more phases, according to the training they offer. Thus, some tools can provide a wide range of training, covering many aspects of the CKC, while others are targeting a specific IS topic. The results also suggest that popular attacks involving social engineering, phishing, password and anti-malware software are addressed by many games, mainly in the early stages of the CKC and are focus on trainees without professional IT background. On the other hand, in the last two phases of the CKC, the majority of categorized games involves countermeasures that IS specialists must launch to prevent the security breach. Therefore, this study offers insight on the characteristics of serious games, which can influence an ISAT program, tailored to the enterprise’s distinct IS issue(s) and the IT background of the trainees.

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  • 8.
    Alani, Mohammed M.
    et al.
    School of IT Administration and Security, Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. College of Information Technology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Qena, Egypt; Centre for Security, Communications and Network Research, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    An Intelligent Two-Layer Intrusion Detection System for the Internet of Things2023In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 683-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has become an enabler paradigm for different applications, such as healthcare, education, agriculture, smart homes, and recently, enterprise systems (E-IoTs). Significant advances in IoT networks have been hindered by security vulnerabilities and threats, which, if not addressed, can negatively impact the deployment and operation of IoT-enabled systems. This study addresses IoT security and presents an intelligent two-layer intrusion detection system for IoT. The system's intelligence is driven by machine learning techniques for intrusion detection, with the two-layer architecture handling flow-based and packet-based features. By selecting significant features, the time overhead is minimized without affecting detection accuracy. The uniqueness and novelty of the proposed system emerge from combining machine learning and selection modules for flow-based and packet-based features. The proposed intrusion detection works at the network layer, and hence, it is device and application transparent. In our experiments, the proposed system had an accuracy of 99.15% for packet-based features with a testing time of 0.357 μs. The flow-based classifier had an accuracy of 99.66% with a testing time of 0.410 μs. A comparison demonstrated that the proposed system outperformed other methods described in the literature. Thus, it is an accurate and lightweight tool for detecting intrusions in IoT systems.

  • 9.
    Alani, Mohammed M.
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Toronto Metropolitan University, Toronto, ON, Canada; School of IT Administration and Security, Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology, Toronto, ON M2J 2X5, Canada.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. College of Information Technology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Qena 83513, Egypt; Centre for Security, Communications and Network Research, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, U.K..
    PAIRED: An Explainable Lightweight Android Malware Detection System2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 10, p. 73214-73228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With approximately 2 billion active devices, the Android operating system tops all other operating systems in terms of the number of devices using it. Android has gained wide popularity not only as a smartphone operating system, but also as an operating system for vehicles, tablets, smart appliances, and Internet of Things devices. Consequently, security challenges have arisen with the rapid adoption of the Android operating system. Thousands of malicious applications have been created and are being downloaded by unsuspecting users. This paper presents a lightweight Android malware detection system based on explainable machine learning. The proposed system uses the features extracted from applications to identify malicious and benign malware. The proposed system is tested, showing an accuracy exceeding 98% while maintaining its small footprint on the device. In addition, the classifier model is explained using Shapley Additive Explanation (SHAP) values.

  • 10.
    Albshri, Adel
    et al.
    School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; College of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Alzubaidi, Ali
    College of Computing, Umm Al-Qura University, Al-Lith, Saudi Arabia.
    Alharby, Maher
    Department of Computer Science, College of Computer Science and Engineering, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia.
    Awaji, Bakri
    College of Computer Science and Information Systems, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Mitra, Karan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Solaiman, Ellis
    School of Computing, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.
    A conceptual architecture for simulating blockchain-based IoT ecosystems2023In: Journal of Cloud Computing: Advances, Systems and Applications, E-ISSN 2192-113X, Vol. 12, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the convergence between Blockchain and IoT has been appealing in many domains including, but not limited to, healthcare, supply chain, agriculture, and telecommunication. Both Blockchain and IoT are sophisticated technologies whose feasibility and performance in large-scale environments are difficult to evaluate. Consequently, a trustworthy Blockchain-based IoT simulator presents an alternative to costly and complicated actual implementation. Our primary analysis finds that there has not been so far a satisfactory simulator for the creation and assessment of blockchain-based IoT applications, which is the principal impetus for our effort. Therefore, this study gathers the thoughts of experts about the development of a simulation environment for blockchain-based IoT applications. To do this, we conducted two different investigations. First, a questionnaire is created to determine whether the development of such a simulator would be of substantial use. Second, interviews are conducted to obtain participants’ opinions on the most pressing challenges they encounter with blockchain-based IoT applications. The outcome is a conceptual architecture for simulating blockchain-based IoT applications that we evaluate using two research methods; a questionnaire and a focus group with experts. All in all, we find that the proposed architecture is generally well-received due to its comprehensive range of key features and capabilities for blockchain-based IoT purposes.

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  • 11.
    Alcazar, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    "Ideas are simple. Implementation is Hard.": En Fallstudie om Nyckelfaktorer för Implementering av Planeringssystem inom Hemtjänsten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Home care are a very common form of care and many prefer this form of care in front of hospitalized care. The home care service is therefore in need of a planning system in order to plan its work as efficiently as possible. Many of these implementations fail.

    Purpose: Many implementations in the home care service fail. The purpose of this paper is therefore to investigate what critical success factors project managers should focus on to achieve a successfull implementation.

    Method: This study has been conducted with a qualitative study as research method. A literature study was carried out by finding previous research in the field, which was then used as a theoretical framework. This was then compared with the empirical evidence acquired through semi-structured interviews with people with experience of implementations in the home care industry.

    Result: The result shows that the CSF’s that appeared in the literature study should also be used in practice. In addition, three new factors were identified

    Conclusion: All of the CSF’s presented in the literature study were reinforced by the interviews conducted with the informants in this study. References to how these should be used have also been developed. For example, the focus on the factor resources should primarily be put on the resource time.This study also concludes that depending on the type of organization it is about, such as small private companies, private medium-sized companies or municipal-owned businesses, focus should be on different CSF’s.

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  • 12.
    Al-Dhaqm, Arafat
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, School of Computing, Computer Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia. Computer Science Department, Aden Community College, Aden 999101, Yemen.
    Razak, Shukor
    Faculty of Engineering, School of Computing, Computer Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia.
    Ikuesan, Richard A.
    Department of Cybersecurity and Networking, School of Information Technology, Community College Qatar, Doha 7344, Qatar.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. Department of Computer Science and Media Technology Department, Malmö Universitet, Nordenskiöldsgatan 1, 21119 Malmö, Sweden.
    Othman, Siti H.
    Faculty of Engineering, School of Computing, Computer Science Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia.
    Face validation of database forensic investigation metamodel2021In: Infrastructures, E-ISSN 2412-3811, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a face validity approach, this paper provides a validation of the Database Forensic Investigation Metamodel (DBFIM). The DBFIM was developed to solve interoperability, heterogeneity, complexity, and ambiguity in the database forensic investigation (DBFI) field, where several models were identified, collected, and reviewed to develop DBFIM. However, the developed DBFIM lacked the face validity-based approach that could ensure DBFIM’s applicability in the DBFI field. The completeness, usefulness, and logic of the developed DBFIM needed to be validated by experts. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to perform the validation of the developed DBFIM using the qualitative face validity approach. The face validity method is a common way of validating metamodels through subject expert inquiry on the domain application of the metamodel to assess whether the metamodel is reasonable and compatible based on the outcomes. For this purpose, six experts were nominated and selected to validate the developed DBFIM. From the expert review, the developed DBFIM was found to be complete, coherent, logical, scalable, interoperable, and useful for the DBFI field.

  • 13.
    Alhussein, Nawras
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Investigation of the variables that govern user behaviors related to e-crime attacks2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The users´ behaviors play an important role in securing information systems. At the same time, the users´ bad behaviors end-up in making them victims to e-crime attacks. To emphasize the positive side of users´ behaviors, the reasons for the bad behaviors must be investigated. In this research, e-crimes on users in Sweden were studied using the protection motivation theory and the theory of planned behavior in order to understand what variables govern the user behaviors. The information retrieved from the literature review and the web survey were used to answer the research question about which variables within the two used theories affect the user behaviors in connection to e-crimes. It turned out that perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, and user-efficacy have significant effect on the selected user behavior. Besides, the analysis of the results showed that IT/IS-knowledge is a determinant factor that affects all the variables of the protection motivation theory.

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  • 14.
    Altin, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Bremstedt Pedersen, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    En policy är bara så bra som personens förmåga att efterleva den: Ett arbete om informationssäkerhetspolicys och hur de följs på arbetsplatsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today new applications are used by companies in order to save money and streamline the business process. The advantages are plenty, but considerations have to be made to ensure that the company’s information does not end up in the wrong hands. The aim of this paper is to examine how employees view company policy, in order to figure out whether it is bad policies or the human factor that is the culprit behind information leaks. Earlier studies have shown that more than 50% of information breaches are a result of internal mishappenings. How can companies use policies to ensure that this does not happen? How can they motivate their employees to adhere to such policies? In this paper we conclude, by interviewing employees that regardless of how good a policy is written, it cannot possibly be effective unless the employees are knowledgeable or motivated to adhere to it.

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  • 15.
    Aminoff, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Wallén, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Gamifications påverkan på motivation att läsa hos barn2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avser att undersöka tillämpningen av gamification för att främja motivationen hos barn till att läsa böcker. För att mäta den upplevda inre och yttre motivationen användes det populära ramverket Self-determination theory. I studien undersöktes effekterna de tre frekvent använda designelementen poäng, ledartavla och avatarer genom att implementeras i en webbtjänst som användes för att registrera lästa böcker. Poängen samlades ihop genom att deltagaren läste och recenserade böcker, progressionen visualiserades på en ledartavla där poängen jämfördes med andra klasser, och avatarerna kunde uppgraderas successivt allt eftersom poängen stiger. 

    Analysen visade hur respondenterna uppfattade respektive spelelement i tjänsten utifrån motivationsteorin Self-determination theory. Den visade även hur deras upplevelser skiljer sig i samband med de olika elementen, men att den överlag stämmer överens med den tidigare forskning som gjorts inom andra kontext. 

    Slutsaten som drogs från studien var att resultatet och analysen indikerade att spelelementen avatarer, leaderboards och poäng kan skapa motivation att läsa hos elever mellan 7-11 år. Den visade även på att eleverna hade olika uppfattningar och påverkades olika av de olika elementen i tjänsten.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Christoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Government 2.0 och medborgarmedverkan vid utveckling av offentliga digitala tjänster: Möjligheter och utmaningar med medborgarmedverkan i en offentlig organisation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen har som syfte att identifiera utmaningar som medborgarmedverkan medför inom en offentlig verksamhet vid utveckling av offentliga digitala tjänster. Utifrån dessa utmaningar diskuteras potentiella möjligheter som uppstår när utmaningarna klaras av samt vilken roll IKT och Government 2.0 har i dessa utmaningar och möjligheter. Vidare diskuteras även Participatory Design som tjänstedesignansats utifrån identifierade utmaningar och potentiella möjligheter vid utveckling av offentliga digitala tjänster. Uppsatsens teoretiska referensram redogör främst för forskningsämnena e-Government och Government 2.0 samt tjänstedesignansatser så som Participatory Design och User-Centered Design, samskapande och vikten av att involvera användare. En fallstudie har genomförts i en svensk kommun för att öka förståelsen om medborgarmedverkan vid utveckling av offentliga digitala tjänster. Genom förståelsen av kommunens kontext identifieras nio olika utmaningar:

    Utmaningar:

    1. Arbete för öppenhet och transparens mot medborgare
    2. Skapa mångfald i utvecklingsprojekt
    3. Identifiera fler faktorer, utöver mångfald, för en lyckad medborgarmedverkan
    4. Sprida kunskapen om vilka faktorer som är viktiga för lyckad medborgarmedverkan
    5. Tillfoga sig kunskapen om hur man når ut till medborgare på bästa sätt
    6. Motivera medborgare till att medverka (kommunicera vilket värde medverkan ger för varje enskild medborgare – dvs. kunna svara på frågan ”Varför ska just jag medverka i detta projekt?”)
    7. Bibehålla medverkande medborgare
    8. Öka datakunnigheten hos medborgare och andra aktörer
    9. Använda IKT och Webb 2.0 till dess fulla potential

    Dessa utmaningar ligger sedan till grund för potentiella möjligheter. Möjligheter som innebär öppenhet och transparens där offentliga digitala tjänster kan utvecklas utifrån medborgares och användes behov. Detta genom att använda sig av PD som tjänstedesignansats, IKT och Webb 2.0 – plattformar för samskapande, nätverkande, dialog och kunskapsspridning. 

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Problems in information classification: insights from practice2023In: Information and Computer Security, E-ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 449-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to identify problems connected to information classification in theory and to put those problems into the context of experiences from practice.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Five themes describing problems are discussed in an empirical study, having informants represented from both a public and a private sector organization.

    Findings

    The reasons for problems to occur in information classification are exemplified by the informants’ experiences. The study concludes with directions for future research.

    Originality/value

    Information classification sustains the basics of security measures. The human–organizational challenges are evident in the activities but have received little attention in research.

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  • 18.
    Andersson, Simon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Trust as a factor in the information classification process2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Risk management is an important part of every business. In order to properly conduct it, risk assessment and within it, information classification is needed. The information classification produces a list of information assets and states how they are valued within the organization. That is then used as an important part of the risk assessment process. In order to conduct such a valuation, users are consulted as they often times understand the value of information. However, using the CIA-Triad when communicating has proved to be difficult for users not knowledgeable in information security. Trust as a concept has been proven to have some connection to the concepts of the CIA-Triad and has been proposed as a possible translator in order to ease the communication of information value in the process of information classification.

    Semi-structured interviews were held with information security professionals in order to further understand the connection between the CIA-triad concepts and trust as well as to gain further understanding in the important parts of information classification. A thematic analysis showed how confidentiality and integrity are prominent factors that connect to trust, with availability, while still being mentioned as having a connection, was not as prominent. Further, the empirical data was used to build a model based on trust and importance that allows for a translation of the CIA-triad concepts. This resulted in a classification-scheme based model that allows trust as a concept to be used as a translator of the CIA-concepts, thus including trust as a concept in the information classification process.

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  • 19.
    Andersson Vestman, Filip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Experimentell studie av prestandaskillnader mellan native Android och Xamarin för mobilapplikationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the last decade the mobile phone market has grown rapidly and with it, the need for mobile applications has grown as well. When the development process for a mobile application starts, a developer must review various factors that can affect the mobile applications usage or performance, for example the development platform to use which is the focus of this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the difference in performance between native Android and Xamarin cross-compile with the use of an experimental study. The hypothesis of this study is based on previous research which shows that cross-platform and Xamarin cross-compile have worse performance than native Android, the result of this study can contribute can help a developer make the decision on what development platform to choose. The delimitations have been chosen as Android as platform, execution time, CPU-usage and RAM-usage for performance testing. The algorithms that were chosen were an iterative bubble sort, in form of best case, worst case and random case with varying numbers, and a recursive Fibonacci sequence with different starting points. The result of this study is consistent with the hypothesis, Xamarin shows worse performance than native Android. 

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  • 20.
    Atsa'am, Donald Douglas
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Informatics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Samson, Balogun Oluwafemi
    School of Computing, Kuopio Campus, University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Wario, Ruth
    Department of Computer Science and Informatics, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of the Free State, South Africa .
    Blamah, NV
    Department of Computer Science, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria .
    K-means cluster analysis of the West African species of cereals based on nutritional value composition2021In: African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, ISSN 1684-5358, E-ISSN 1684-5374, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17195-17212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The K-means algorithm was deployed to extract clusters within the prevalent cereal foods in West Africa. The West Africa Food Composition Table (WAFCT) presents all the 76 food sources in the cereals class as a single group without considering the similarity or dissimilarity in nutritional values. Using K-means clustering, the Euclidean distance between nutritional values of all cereal food items were measured to generate six subgroups based on similarity. A one-way analysis to validate the results of the extracted clusters was carried out using the mean square values. For every nutrient, the “within groups” and “between groups” values of the mean squares were examined. This was done to ascertain how similar or dissimilar data points in the same or different clusters were to each other. It was discovered that the P values for all “between groups” and “within groups” mean squares for every nutrient was P < 0.01. Additionally, it was observed thatin all cases, the mean square values of the “within groups” were significantly lower than those of the “between groups”. These outcomes are indications that clustering was properly done such that the variability in nutrient values for all food sources within the same clusters was significantly low, while those in different clusters were significantly high. Thus, the ultimate objective of clustering, which is to maximize intra-cluster similarity and minimize inter-cluster similarity was effectively achieved. Cluster analysis in this study showed that all food items within a particular cluster are similar to each other and dissimilar to food items in a different cluster. These findings are valuable in dietaries, food labeling, raw materials selection, public health nutrition, and food science research, when answering questions on the choice of alternative food items. Where original choices are not available or unaffordable, the clusters can be explored to select other similar options within the same cluster as the original choice.

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  • 21.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Qena, Egypt.
    Furnell, Steven
    School of Computer Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Paprzycki, Marcin
    Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Sharma, Sudhir Kumar
    Institute of Information Technology and Management, New Delhi, India.
    Preface2021In: Security in Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations and Applications / [ed] Ali Ismail Awad; Steven Furnell; Marcin Paprzycki; Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Springer Nature, 2021, Vol. 339, p. v-ixChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Barton, Amy J.
    et al.
    Data and Metadata Services Group, Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, IN, United States.
    Dixon, Brian E.
    Health Informatics, Indiana University School of Informatics and Computing, Indianapolis, IN, United States.
    Skopelja, Elaine Noonan
    Ruth Lilly Medical Library, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.
    Javed, Salman
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.
    A Case Study of a Semantically Enhanced Public Health Digital Collection2013In: Journal of Library Metadata, ISSN 1938-6389, E-ISSN 1937-5034, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 367-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A historic public health digital collection, developed by the Ruth Lilly Medical Library's Digital Initiatives Group, includes full-text public health bulletin issues; historic photos, drawings, and images; and a vital statistics database. Each content component resides in its own digital space and each has to be separately searched. This paper will discuss the development of a prototype system that integrates and relates digital content within a dispersed collection using Semantic Web technologies. The search result sets are presented as a collection of interrelated content on a scatter graph that spatially indicates the degree of contextual relevancy.

  • 23.
    Barza, Marianna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Investigating Privacy Design Frameworks for Mobile Applications: The Developers’ Perspective2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, humans have become dependent on mobile apps for all aspects of their life. This means that apps are used more and more in everyday life, which has led to a boost in mobile app development. However, a big aspect of mobile apps is user privacy. Having a more digitalized society means that privacy plays a huge role in people’s everyday lives and users are becoming increasingly more concerned about it. What’s interesting about this topic is how privacy is actually designed when developing a new mobile application. This means that it all comes down to the mobile app developers and the privacy design frameworks that they use. This research paper focuses on privacy design for mobile app development and investigates how mobile app developers experience adopting and implementing the existing privacy design frameworks. This paper also investigates the barriers of adoption that developers might face. In other words, mobile app developers are interviewed in order to gather a deeper understanding on how those frameworks are adopted and implemented, if at all, and what adoption barriers could exist. In order to investigate the adoption barriers, the diffusion of innovation theory was used and specifically the innovation decision process. This theory combines the technical and social aspects that are crucial when investigating this topic. The results showcased a number of barriers that could be resolved by the different parties involved, such as the companies, the framework creators, as well as the developers themselves. The results also highlighted that the innovation decision process is not linear, because some of the stages are skipped when it comes to the adoption of the privacy design frameworks.

  • 24. Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Landström, Daniel
    Coding in a discrete multitone modulation system1996Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Multitone (DMT) modulation is a multicarrier technique which makes efficient use of the channel, maximizing the htroughput by sending different numbers of bits on different subchannels. The number of bits on each subchannel depends in the Signal-to-Noise Ratio of the subchannel. The performance of a DMT system can be further increased by using powerful coding techniques. This thesis investigates an implementation of coding for a DMT system. The coding techniques considered are Ree-Solomon coding combined with interleaving, and Trellis Coded Modulation. Wei's 4-dimensional 16-state coder combined with trellis shaping is the suggested trellis code. A single encoder is used which codes across the tones of each DMT-symbol. At a bit error probability of 10 -7 the suggested codes gain 3-6 dB over uncoded transmission. Hardware complexity and algorithmic aspects of coding are covered, as well as simulations to verify it.

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  • 25.
    Bennheden, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Ärendehantering genom maskininlärning2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how artificial intelligence can be used to automatically categorize faultreports that are processed in a case management system by using machine learning and techniquessuch as text mining. The study is based on Design Science Research Methodology and Peffer's sixsteps of design methodology, which in addition to design of an artifact concerns requirements andevaluation. The machine learning models that were developed were trained on historical data fromthe case management system Infracontrol Online, using four types of algorithms, Naive Bayes,Support Vector Machine, Neural Network, and Random Forest. A web application was developed todemonstrate how one of the machine learning models trained works and can be used to categorizetext. Regular users of the system have then had the opportunity to test the performance of themodel and evaluate how it works by marking where it categorizes text prompts correctly.The results show that it is possible to solve the task using machine learning. A crucial part of thedevelopment was the selection of data used to train the model. Different customers using thesystem use it in different ways, which made it advantageous to separate them and train models fordifferent customers independently. Another source of inconsistent results is how organizationschange their processes and thus case management over time. This issue was addressed by limitinghow far back in time the model retrieves data for training. The two strategies for solving the issuesmentioned have the disadvantage that the amount of historical data available for training decreases,but the results do not show any clear disadvantage for the machine learning models trained onsmaller data sets. They perform well and tests show an acceptable level of accuracy for theirpredictions

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  • 26.
    Berg, Louise
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Lindh, Rebecca
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Kommunikation med hjälp av sociala nätverkssidor: En kvalitativ studie om nyblivna pensionärers uppfattning av social närvaro på sociala nätverkssidor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av kommunikation har alltid varit en viktig del av människans sociala liv. Den tekniska utvecklingen har möjliggjort nya kommunikationsvägar och sättet att kommunicera har därför förändrats. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga hur yngre pensionärer upplever social närvaro och tillhörighet på sociala nätverkssidor. Målsättningen med studien är att identifiera hur tekniken upplevs möjliggöra eller begränsa graden av social närvaro för yngre pensionärer vid kommunikation över sociala nätverkssidor. 

    Studien tillämpade en kvalitativ metod där semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att samla in data. Intervjuerna transkriberades enskilt för att i en helhetsanalys tolkas och bilda en samlad bild över det empiriska materialet. Urvalet bestod av yngre pensionärer mellan 66–75 år som använder sociala nätverkssidor. Totalt deltog åtta respondenter. 

    Den insamlade empirin visar att samtliga respondenter är aktiva användare av Facebook men orsakerna till användningen samt vilken typ av aktiviteter som utförs skiljer sig mellan deltagarna. Samtliga respondenter uppger att de använder sociala nätverkssidor för att följa och ta del av familjens- och vännernas liv samt som informationskälla. Respondenternas upplevelse är att sociala nätverkssidor utgör ett komplement till annan kommunikation där den sociala närvaron är lägre på sociala nätverkssidor jämfört med fysiska möten eller telefonsamtal. Empirin visar också att sociala nätverkssidor för yngre pensionärer ger en lägre grad av social närvaro och tillhörighetskänsla än annan kommunikation i textform som SMS eller e-post. Den generella bild som respondenterna uppvisar är att sociala nätverkssidor möjliggör för snabb och flexibel kommunikation men där den lägre graden av social närvaro utgör en begränsning som gör att sociala nätverkssidor inte kan likställas vid fysiska möten. 

    Slutsatsen är att sociala nätverkssidor upplevs ha en lägre grad av social närvaro än annan kommunikation vilket empirin uppvisar med stöd av den teoretiska referensramen. Tekniken som komplement till annan kommunikation erbjuder en upplevelse av tillhörighet och gemenskap och skapar möjligheter för yngre pensionärer att vara sociala. Tekniken som ersättning för alternativ kommunikation skapar istället en begränsning i vad sociala nätverkssidor kan erbjuda för upplevelsen av social närvaro.

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  • 27.
    Bernsmed, Karin
    et al.
    SINTEF Digital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bour, Guillaume
    SINTEF Digital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Lundgren, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Bergström, Erik
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    An evaluation of practitioners’ perceptions of a security risk assessment methodology in air traffic management projects2022In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 102, article id 102223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber security is a key enabler for safe Air Traffic Management (ATM). This paper presents results from an empirical study, in which we have investigated and evaluated the use of the Security Risk Assessment Methodology for SESAR (SecRAM) in European ATM research and development projects. The study was performed with the intention to find and document common issues and aspects that could be improved in the methodology. The results from the study reveal that while most of the practitioners had a positive perception of the methodology itself, they were less satisfied with the process of applying it in their projects. Based on the results, we provide a number of recommendations, which aim to improve the security risk assessment process in the ATM domain.

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  • 28.
    Bikis, Tilemachos
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    SAFe and DevSecOps in Governmental Organizations: A case study for benefits and challenges2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis conducted a case study in order to identify and analyze the benefits andthe challenges of SAFe and DevSecOps adoption in governmental organizations. Ithas been identified that governmental organizations are falling behind the market inrespects of SAFe and DevSecOps adoption while in the same time not much researchhas been done in the specific market area, aim of this study is to provide moreinsights in the subject. In particular this research is trying to answer the followingquestions, how are the Governmental Organizations benefit from the DevSecOps andSAFe adoption and why is the adoption of DevSecOps and SAFe challenging forGovernmental Organizations.From the conducted case study identified clear benefits on the SAFe and DevSecOpsadoption for Governmental Organizations which are summed up to the bettermanagement of existing demand, increased transparency and compliance, bettersecurity assurance. At the same time challenges also surfaced in the scope of thestudy related with organization’s culture, administrative challenges related withorganization processes and security ones. Most of the results are in line with previousresearch on the broader market though specific challenges observed in correlationwith governmental organizations in particular.

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  • 29.
    Björk, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Johnsson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Navigation i komplexa miljöer med hjälp av digitala tjänster och IoT2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research and implementation of use when it comes to outdoor navigation and GPS systems have come quite far compared to their indoor alternatives. Pedestrian friendly wayfinding solutions for indoor use are still lagging behind, and even more so when it comes to recommendations on implementation of best practice.

    One of our goals during the research process was aimed at finding the most adequate ways of conveying wayfinding solutions to end-users in different situations. In order to perform this task, we used a benchmarking process on a selection of wayfinding alternatives. The goal of this process have been focused on finding out which solutions are available at this moment, what they offer the users in terms of wayfinding support, and where issues might arise based on cognitive user theory, wayfinding best practice and technological limitations concerning mobile devices or different digital platforms.

    During our research we found that there are several different solutions that are available for implementation, but that they all come with their own specific strengths and limitations on both the technological side and for the end-users concerning usability.

    The result of our research has been a collection of qualitative data, and recommendations concerning digital and user limitations connected to our specific case. However, the result of this research should not be limited to our case alone, but rather as a reference point for organizations or developers that wish to implement indoor solutions for users, or for future research within the area of indoor navigation and wayfinding.

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  • 30.
    Björklund, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    GNSS Safety and Handling2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite navigation (such as GPS) has become widely successful and is used by billions of users daily. Accuratepositioning and timing has a wide range of applications and is increasingly being integrated in safety criticalsystems such as autonomous operations, traffic management, navigation for airplanes and other vehicles. Thesecurity and vulnerabilities of satellite navigation is however often not considered in the same way as for exampledata security, even though the high efficacy of spoofing with off-the-self software-defined radio (SDR) has beendemonstrated repeatedly. The lack of concern comes partially from the lack of options as satellite navigationauthentication has not previously existed in the civil domain.This work benchmarks the anti-spoofing and signal level measurements of commercial receivers in both simulatedand real-world scenarios and implements additional anti-spoofing measures. The additional anti-spoofingmeasures are implemented using no additional information than what the receiver should already have accessto in any modern commercial vehicle. Upcoming EU regulation 2021/1228 for vehicles used in internationaltransport will also mandate the use of these three anti-spoofing measures by August 2023. Here receiver time isverified by the means of Network Time Protocol (NTP) and real time clock (RTC); receiver motion is verifiedby the means of dead reckoning and inertial measurement unit (IMU); receiver navigation data is verified by themeans of asymmetric cryptography and Galileo Open Service Navigation Message Authentication (OSNMA).The computational overhead is analyzed as well as cost and worldwide Market feasibility. We estimate thateven basic timing devices would only have to perform one NTP request every 17 days and a microcontrollerpowerful enough to do OSNMA costs less than $2. Finally, the benefits of multi-band receivers and futuredevelopments in both the user and space segments are discussed.

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  • 31.
    Björkman, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Nyttan med Internet of Things i Offentliga Verksamheter: Att identifiera nyttor, fördelar och utmaningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internet of Things (IoT) är ett hett ämne i dagens samhälle då inte bara saker utan även människor kan kopplas upp mot nätet. För verksamheter ses stora fördelar med att använda sig av tekniken i syfte att ligga i framkant och bli effektivare i sina arbetsprocesser. Denna studie fördjupar sig i vilka identifierade nyttor, fördelar och utmaningar som finns samt om det verkligen finns behov av Internet of Things i verksamheter.

    Studien utgår ifrån en av Region Skånes förvaltningar, Regionservice, som befinner sig på en omfattande digitaliseringsresa av att implementera en ny systemlösning. De intervjuer som gjorts med anställda inom förvaltningen har varit i huvudsakligt syfte att skapa en förståelse för hur den nya systemlösningen kommer att fungera samt deras tankar om att använda Internet of Things. Tillsammans med studiens teori, som fokuserat på nyttor, fördelar och utmaningar med IoT, avslutas studien med en slutsats som är grundad i teorin och den empiriska undersökningen på Regionservice. I slutsatsen presenteras egna åsikter och tankar om hur IoT kommer att bidra med något behov och nytta inom verksamheterna samt vilken påverkan och utmaningar som kan uppstå.

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  • 32.
    Bodin, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Dhanrajani, Siddhant
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), wbk Institute of Production Science, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Abdalla, Abdelrahman H.
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via la Masa 1, 20156, Milan, Italy.
    Diani, Marco
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via la Masa 1, 20156, Milan, Italy.
    Klenk, Felix
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), wbk Institute of Production Science, Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Colledani, Marcello
    Politecnico di Milano, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via la Masa 1, 20156, Milan, Italy.
    Palm, Emanuel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Demand-supply matching through auctioning for the circular economy2021In: 10th CIRP Sponsored Conference on Digital Enterprise Technologies (DET 2020) – Digital Technologies as Enablers of Industrial Competitiveness and Sustainability / [ed] Jozsef Vancza; Paul Maropoulos, Elsevier, 2021, p. 82-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy aims to reduce the consumption of resources and energy by exploiting multiple use-cycles of components and materials. The creation of new circular businesses hinges on efficient alignment between market demands of circular products with the supply of End-of-life components and materials. In this paper, we address the digitization of a matchmaking tool for the circular economy by defining demand-supply matching (DSM) in context of business link identification and cross-sectorial matchmaking. We further specify a DSM process and p resent our DSM tool, which facilitates publication and search for supplier offerings and demander needs, selection of auctioning candidates, and digitized auctioning and contract definition. By that, this tool supports the alignment of market demands with matching supply offerings. In particular, it combines the steps of publishing, searching, selecting, auctioning and contract definition into one tool, which we argue can make matchmaking more efficient compared to addressing these steps separately. Finally, we present the design of the tool and discuss its merits in light of the needed acceptance for automating business link identification and contractual interactions.

  • 33.
    Bojrup, Elsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Moestam, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Utmaningar med RPA-implementation i offentlig verksamhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ämnar identifiera utmaningar och aspekter som en offentlig verksamhet behöverta hänsyn till vid en RPA-implementation. Studien har utförts i en offentlig verksamhet som äri behov av att automatisera genom att implementera RPA. Förarbetet till denna RPAimplementation som skett iterativt har i denna studie observerats under workshops, observationoch intervju. Utförandet av studien har skett genom att genomföra en fallstudie i en offentligverksamhet med ett explorativt angreppssätt, kvalitativ datainsamling och en abduktiv ansats.Resultatet från datainsamlingstillfällena analyserades genom tematisk analys med två olikaperspektiv; teoridrivet och datadrivet. Utifrån det teoridrivna perspektivet analyserades empirinmot de teman som utvanns ifrån de teoretiska koncept som sammanfattats från tidigare studierom RPA och RPA-implementation. Efter att ställt teorin mot empirin blev resultatet att falletskaraktär var i linje med nio av de femton teoretiska koncepten. De koncept som inte påträffadesi detta fall samlades under temat ”Det är viktigt att välja rätt process för en RPAimplementation”. Det datadrivna perspektivet identifierade nya aspekter som offentligaverksamheter behöver beakta vid implementation av RPA. Den första slutsatsen är att detviktigt att välja rätt process inför en RPA-implementation. Den andra slutsatsen är aspektenom att offentliga verksamheter måste hantera mycket känsliga uppgifter och att det är enutmaning vid implementation av RPA.

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  • 34.
    Booth, Todd
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Andersson, Karl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    DNS DDoS Mitigation, via DNS Timer Design Changes2017In: Future Network Systems and Security: Third International Conference, FNSS 2017, Gainesville, FL, USA, August 31 - September 2, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Robin Doss, Welwyn Piramuthu, Wei Zhou, Springer, 2017, p. 43-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DDoS attacks have been a problem since 2000. In October 2016, there was a major DDoS attack against the service provider Dyn’s DNS service, which took the service down. This was one of the largest bandwidth DDoS attack ever documented, with attack bandwidth over 650 Gbps. By taking down just Dyn’s DNS service, clients could not obtain the IP addresses, of the organizations hosting their DNS with Dyn, such as Twitter. Our contribution is that we have found a way to mitigate the effect of DDoS attacks against DNS services. We only require some very small algorithm changes, in the DNS protocol. More specifically, we propose to add two additional timers. Even if the end DNS clients don’t support these timers, they will receive our new functionality via the DNS resolvers and recursive servers. In summary, our contributions give much more control to the organizations, as to under which specific conditions the DNS cache entries should be aged or used. This allows the organization to (1) much more quickly expire client DNS caches and (2) to mitigate the DDoS DNS attack effects. Our contributions are also helpful to organizations, even if there are no DDoS DNS attack.

  • 35.
    Bostedt, Emil
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Dinborn, William
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Kravinsamling inom agila BI-projekt: En fallstudie på Agio System och Kompetens AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze how the requirement gathering processfor agile BI-projects works from a developer’s perspective. The theoretical framework of thisstudy is built with theories concerning BI, agile methodologies and requirement gathering. Toanswer the purpose of this study a qualitative case-study was conducted at Agio System ochKompetens AB who works with developing BI-solutions using agile methodologies. Withinthe case-study six interviews were conducted and one workshop to gather data from the chosencase-study company. The data were compiled through a Thematical analysis and categorizedin three general categories that were BI, Agile methodologies within BI and Requirementgathering. This analysis along with the theoretical framework provided the basis for theanalysis and discussion of the study. The conclusion of the study discloses how the requirementgathering process goes from a developer’s perspective. The study highlights 26 challenges thatdevelopers experience within this area, differences between how the work approach and theperceived challenges differ in front- and back-end solutions. The conclusion of the study alsopresents a perspective on what the challenges depends on and the relationships in betweenthem. Finally, based on the identified challenges described in the conclusion, we present acustomized approach to how the case study company can handle them.

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  • 36.
    Bretting, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Digitalisering av manuella processer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 37.
    Brundin, Pontus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Djurberg, Ludwig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Riktlinjer för transformationen av en manuellt utförd process till automatisk med hjälp av RPA2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är utveckla riktlinjer som stöd till utvecklare under förarbetet till att automatisera en process med hjälp av RPA. Det framtagna teoretiska ramverket består av designprinciper för tjänster och interaktiva system, samt av verksamhetsutveckling och mer specifikt hur verksamheter behöver utveckla sina processer och rutiner när automatiserade system som RPA implementeras. En fallstudie utfördes hos Länsstyrelsen som önskade automatisera en arbetsprocess med RPA. Datainsamlingen skedde genom intervjuer och observationer i form av informationstillfällen med informanter från Länsstyrelsen. Resultatet från informationstillfällen analyserades på ett tematiskt sätt till två huvudområden som är förstå processen och utbilda anställda. I analysen jämförs de framtagna riktlinjerna med det teoretiska ramverket och riktlinjer för RPA skapade av konsultföretag. I slutsatsen presenteras och motiveras våra riktlinjer, den första riktlinjen fokuserar på att skapa förståelse för processer och om RPA är ett lämpligt alternativ. Om det är fallet är den andra riktlinjen att utbilda anställda vad RPA är och hur implementationen kommer påverka dem.

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  • 38.
    Brunlöf, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Wilander, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Tidregistrering med hjälp av digital positionering: Att underlätta tidrapportering för konsulter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis handles the area around time reporting within the consulting field and how it can be facilitated. Time reporting is a must for every employee in the consulting business. In today’s society, a problem exists as the employees sees this to be a demanding extra chore. To manage employees to execute this is a challenge for every business. If this is not done correctly, the business can face huge economic consequences.

    The purpose with this thesis is to facilitate time reporting for consultants. This will be done by developing a Mobile IT-Artifact. The application which will be developed will serve as a support for time reporting and its goal is to minimize the human-computer interaction. The artefact that will be developed uses the phones build in GPS function to achieve this.

    Action Design Research (ADR) is the research method used to complete the development of the artifact and the thesis. This thesis is built around a case in cooperation with the consulting company Knowit. The result of this essay will generate an IT-artifact along with 10 design principles which provides guidelines on how to develop a system of similar character

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  • 39.
    Brännlund, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Standardisering av informationssäkerhet: Hur påverkar ett ledningssystem organisationen? En fallstudie hos ett svenskt SME2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi befinner oss idag i informationseran och i denna tidsålder ökar både tillgängligheten och riskerna med teknologin och den data den hanterar. Organisationer av alla typer och branscher står inför samma utmaning, att skydda deras verksamhetskritiska data från illvilliga aktörer. Genom att införa ett standardiserat arbetssätt för informationssäkerhet kan många risker minimeras för organisationer av alla storlekar. Denna studie ämnar beskriva hur en certifiering mot en internationell standard för informationssäkerhet leder till förändring av organisationen och ledningssystemet hos ett svenskt SMF (små och medelstora företag) inom IT-sektorn. Studien genomförs med en enskild fallstudie med en kvalitativ metodologi, datainsamling och analys. Teori för informationssäkerhet, risker, kontroller och standardisering står som grund för undersökningen och empirin ställd mot den i analysen. Studiens slutsatser är att det sker en viss förändring av organisationen vid införandet av en standard och ett ledningssystem. Det införlivas ett säkerhetstänk i alla processer och rutiner i verksamheten. Studien framför även vikten av att ett ledningssystem för informationssäkerhet är anpassat efter och införlivat i organisationen. Efterlevnaden av systemet är centralt eftersom om det inte efterlevs så är investeringen bortkastad och förändringen oväsentlig. Övergripande syn på fallstudieobjektets inställning till standardiserad informationssäkerhet är positiv. 

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  • 40.
    Cacciarelli, Davide
    et al.
    Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; Department of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kulahci, Murat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark; .
    Tyssedal, John Sølve
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Stream-based active learning with linear models2022In: Knowledge-Based Systems, ISSN 0950-7051, E-ISSN 1872-7409, Vol. 254, article id 109664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proliferation of automated data collection schemes and the advances in sensorics are increasing the amount of data we are able to monitor in real-time. However, given the high annotation costs and the time required by quality inspections, data is often available in an unlabeled form. This is fostering the use of active learning for the development of soft sensors and predictive models. In production, instead of performing random inspections to obtain product information, labels are collected by evaluating the information content of the unlabeled data. Several query strategy frameworks for regression have been proposed in the literature but most of the focus has been dedicated to the static pool-based scenario. In this work, we propose a new strategy for the stream-based scenario, where instances are sequentially offered to the learner, which must instantaneously decide whether to perform the quality check to obtain the label or discard the instance. The approach is inspired by the optimal experimental design theory and the iterative aspect of the decision-making process is tackled by setting a threshold on the informativeness of the unlabeled data points. The proposed approach is evaluated using numerical simulations and the Tennessee Eastman Process simulator. The results confirm that selecting the examples suggested by the proposed algorithm allows for a faster reduction in the prediction error.

  • 41.
    Ceder, Jasmine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Integrationsplattformar inom hälso- och sjukvård: Avgörande egenskaper vid investering av integrationsplattform2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate and create a better understanding of why the different regions of Sweden have chosen their integration platform within the healthcare sector. Due to the decentralisation and political governance there is a complexity within the healthcare sector various integration platforms. The author has looked at the choices that the different regions have made based on strategic, economical, technical, operational and cultural characteristics. The various regions size is also investigated as a factor, making a distinction between higher and lower populated regions.

     

    An integration platform acts as an intermediary, allowing the various systems to communicate with each other without having a point-to-point connection. At present there is no integration platform at the forefront of supporting all the different needs of the different regions, each region finds the solution that is best for itself.

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  • 42.
    Chiquito, Eric
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Bodin, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Schelén, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Survey on Decentralized Auctioning Systems2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 51672-51688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electronic auction (e-auction) is an efficient negotiation model that allows multiple sellers or buyers to compete for assets or rights. Such systems have become increasingly popular with the evolution of the internet for commerce. In centralized auctioning systems, the presence of a governing third party has been a major trust concern, as such a party may not always be trustworthy or create transaction fees for the hosted auctions. Distributed and decentralized systems based on blockchain for auctions of nonphysical assets have been suggested as a means to distribute and establish trust among peers, and manage disputes and concurrent entries. Although a blockchain system provides attractive features such as decentralized trust management and fraud prevention, it cannot alone support dispute resolutions and adjudications for physical assets. In this paper, we compare blockchain and non-blockchain decentralized auctioning systems based on the identified functional needs and quality attributes. We contrast these needs and attributes with the state-of-the-art models and other implementations of auctioning systems, and discuss the associated trade-offs. We further analyze the gaps in the existing decentralized approaches and propose design approaches for decentralized auctioning systems, for both physical and nonphysical assets, that support dispute resolution and adjudication based on collected evidence, and dispute prevention based on distributed consensus algorithms.

  • 43.
    Corselli, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    The dark side of AI: A systematic literature review2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is currently experiencing an extraordinary explosion of data due to the advancements in digitalization, this has made the decision-making processes become increasingly complex. Modern decision-making incorporates various technologies such as AI, big data, and machine learning and they offer significant advantages in terms of speed, scalability, and granularity. However, the adoption of AI technology also has drawbacks. This paper sheds light on the potential negative outcomes that AI can produce, by systematically reviewing and synthesizing the literature. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of privacy, aversion, accountability, transparency and explainability, and bias, to give insight on the dark side of using AI in decision-making. The findings indicate that to address these issues in the dark side of AI, transparency and explainability are central. By providing explanations, ensuring privacy, and promoting transparent algorithms, we can mitigate these problems and create sustainable AI. Allowing us to embrace its potential while minimizing risks and maximizing benefits. In this paper, the aim is to contribute to the existing literature on AI-supported decision-making by presenting a broad picture and understanding of this area. Based on the findings, directions for future research in AI decision-making are presented to improve the knowledge about how to mitigate the risks of using AI in decision-making.

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  • 44.
    Dahlman, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Munkhammar, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Lessons learned i retrospektiv: en fallstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien fokuserar på en praktisk tillämpning av lärdomar från erfarenheter, så kallade lessonslearned, inom kontexten sprintretrospektiv. Genom att studera utvecklingsteam på en svenskmyndighet som använder sig av det agila ramverket Scrum, är syftet att bidra till en utökadförståelse för hur myndighetens arbete med lärande genom sprintretrospektiv sker, samt attföreslå förbättringar. Empiri inhämtas genom en kvalitativ fallstudie och relateras till teorierinom knowledge management och organizational learning, varefter en tankemodell, lessonslearned-tratten, utvecklas. Lessons learned-tratten visar hur sprintretrospektivets struktur kanvara ett stöd i utvecklingsteamets lärande. Den gör detta genom att tydliggöra moment därteammedlemmarna delar med sig av erfarenheter, formaliserar och analyserar dem, beslutarom åtgärder samt möjliggör återkoppling genom en nedskriven åtgärdslista.

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  • 45.
    Dahlström, Viktor
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Stenlund, Sebastian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Autonoma fordons beslutsfattande i nödsituatioiner: Ett etsikt dilemma2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many major car manufacturers predict that autonomous vehicles controlled by AI (Artificial Intelligence) will be the future of the automotive industry. This means that AI makes the decisions even in emergency situations where people can be injured. Therefore, policies and guidelines are required for how autonomous vehicles should act in emergency situations (Faggella, 2020). This study will focus on how young adults view this dilemma.

     

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how young adults believe that an AV (Autonomous Vehicle) should act in emergency situations, and understand what gives rise to their way of thinking.

     

    To achieve the purpose of the survey and answer the research questions, a qualitative data collection through semi-structured interviews has been performed. The data collected was analyzed  with the help of a quantitative data analysis where the themes, patterns and connections that were identified are presented in the results and analyzed in the discussion (chapter 7).

     

    The results generated by the empirical evidence show that young adults' view on how autonomous vehicles should act in emergency situations are largely in line with what previous studies have concluded. The result indicates that young adults find it most important to save as many lives as possible but also to follow the law.

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  • 46.
    Danielsen, Nils
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Fritsch, Maximilian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Platsoberoende Scrum-utveckling: - En fallstudie2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to map how individuals experience remote scrum development, what problems arise and whether efficiency is affected.

    In order to achieve the purpose of the study and answer the research-questions formulated in the report, data has been collected. This data has been partly quantitative, where data has been collected from a business that conducts system development with the methodology scrum. Data has also been qualitative where data in the form of interviews have been collected. The collected data has then been analyzed in order to answer the research questions.

    After completing the analysis, conclusions have been drawn in order to fulfill the thesis' original purpose. The collected empirical evidence indicates that certain problems related to communication become clear when the work is conducted remote. The data collected also indicates a deteriorating experience of the social environment when the work is conducted remote. Finally, the analyzed result also indicates a reduced efficiency when the work has shifted to remote.

    The theoretical framework is the basis for presenting existing theories that are relevant to the study. The report describes existing theories that are related to site-independent work, agile development, scrum development and how the effectiveness of scrum development can be measured.

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  • 47.
    Deng, Jifei
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Sun, Jie
    State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Reinforcement learning for industrial process control: A case study in flatness control in steel industry2022In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 143, article id 103748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strip rolling is a typical manufacturing process, in which conventional control approaches are widely applied. Development of the control algorithms requires a mathematical expression of the process by means of the first principles or empirical models. However, it is difficult to upgrade the conventional control approaches in response to the ever-changing requirements and environmental conditions because domain knowledge of control engineering, mechanical engineering, and material science is required. Reinforcement learning is a machine learning method that can make the agent learn from interacting with the environment, thus avoiding the need for the above mentioned mathematical expression. This paper proposes a novel approach that combines ensemble learning with reinforcement learning methods for strip rolling control. Based on the proximal policy optimization (PPO), a multi-actor PPO is proposed. Each randomly initialized actor interacts with the environment in parallel, but only the experience from the actor that obtains the highest reward is used for updating the actors. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional control methods and the state-of-the-art reinforcement learning methods in terms of process capability and smoothness.

  • 48.
    Don Appuhamilage, Suneth Piumal
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Rathnayake, Rathnayake Mudiyanselage Dineth Udyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Gap Analysis of Information Security Management Systems in Sri Lankan Higher Education Institutes2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an overview of preliminary stages taken towards proper establishment ofan Information Security Management System (ISMS) for Sri Lankan Higher EducationInstitutes (HEIs) based on ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard. This study consists with a gapanalysis conducted on selected HEIs within Sri Lanka to evaluate their compliance withISO/IEC 27001:2013 standards. This analysis aimed at identifying gaps in existing informationsecurity practices and assess associated risks to Sri Lankan HEIs. To provide a more tailoredapproach, Management, Technical, and Operational (MTO) model was introduced, aligningwith institute’s structure and responsibilities. This research also emphasizes on criticality ofprotecting information assets and the need for comprehensive controls to ensureconfidentiality, integrity, and availability. Additionally, the study investigates the level ofinformation security compliance with ISO/IEC 27001:2013 among the selected HEIs. Theresults reveal a maturity level of 2, indicating numerous control weaknesses and highlightingthe need for developing security policies, procedures, and implementing a securitymanagement system and security culture. The research concludes with detailed benchmarkingresults, maturity level measurements for each security control domain, and recommendationsfor improvement.

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  • 49.
    Drugge, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Nyström, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Digitalt mätverktyg inom HR: Mäta mjuka värden2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the opportunities a digital measuring tool for employees' wellbeing has in giving support to HR in small- and medium-sized organizations. The study is aimed to contribute to the research field about digitalization within HR for soft values. In the study, delimitations have been made surrounding the theories, and the selected areas of theories are digitalization, challenges with digitalization, digitalization of HR-systems, organizational decision making based on measuring and the advantages and disadvantages of measuring, motivation with two motivational theories in the form of Herzbergs two factor theory and Maslows Hierarchy of needs, work environment and psychosocial work environment.

    The study has had a qualitative research method where respondents who have experience with the measuring tool and are working with HR issues were selected for the data collection. The respondents have been interviewed, the interviews have been transcribed and coded and lastly themes have been made by using the codes in a thematic analysis. With the help of the theories in the study, three themes were created: changed way of working, challenges with digitalization and decision making based on measuring. These were made to answer the research questions of the study.

    The results of this study have shown that the measuring tool has changed HR’s way of working, that it has functioned as an important support in HR’s work and for making organizational decisions, although a digitalization and implementation of a measuring tool like this also comes with challenges.

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  • 50.
    Edström, Christoffer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Jalsing, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Utvärdering av hybrida ramverk för mobil applikationsutveckling mot småföretag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile industry is constantly changing, which has led to a fragmented market that smallbusinesses have difficulties to successfully establish in. Small businesses have had problemswith developing qualitative applications for different mobile devices. The main reason is theresource intensive process to develop native applications for multiple platforms andmaintaining the different codebases. Thus, smaller companies have usually chosen to developweb applications to deliver services to a more widespread target audience. Hybrid frameworkshave established themselves as a potential solution for developing mobile applications withhigher performance and functionality than web applications, while allowing developers to sharecode between platforms. In this study, employees of three smaller companies were interviewedto identify shared requirements held by small businesses to select a framework for applicationdevelopment. Based on the requirements, three hybrid frameworks were compared with thepurpose to identify which one was most suitable for small businesses. The results showed thatsmall businesses are different with varying needs and that there is no specific framework thatsuits all companies. On the other hand, it was found that all three hybrid frameworks comparedin the study were sufficiently developed to be implemented as potential solutions. With thatsaid, hybrid frameworks are not without flaws. Applications developed with hybrid frameworksdoes not yet achieve the same level of performance as native applications and is not platformindependent to the same extent as web applications.

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