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  • 1.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Business Information Technology, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Hels.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    User Experience in Mobile Augmented Reality: Emotions, Challenges, Opportunities and Best Practices2018In: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is gaining a strong momentum to become a major interactive technology that can be applied across domains and purposes. The rapid proliferation of MAR applications in global mobile application markets has been fueled by a range of freely-available MAR software development kits and content development tools, some of which enable the creation of MAR applications even without programming skills. Despite the recent advances of MAR technology and tools, there are still many challenges associated with MAR from the User Experience (UX) design perspective. In this study, we first define UX as the emotions that the user encounters while using a service, a product or an application and then explore the recent research on the topic. We present two case studies, a commercial MAR experience and our own Virtual Campus Tour MAR application, and evaluate them from the UX perspective, with a focus on emotions. Next, we synthesize the findings from previous research and the results of the case study evaluations to form sets of challenges, opportunities and best practices related to UX design of MAR applications. Based on the identified best practices, we finally present an updated version of the Virtual Campus Tour. The results can be used for improving UX design of future MAR applications, thus making them emotionally engaging.

  • 2.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Alamäki, Ari
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Managing Emotional Requirements in a Context-Aware Mobile Application for Tourists2018In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), ISSN 1865-7923, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 177-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to unveil the importance of emotions and feelings in developing mobile-based tourism applications. We gathered and analyzed emotional requirements to develop a mobile context-aware application for tourists. Emotional requirements are non-functional requirements affecting users’ emotional experiences around using applications, which are important for sustainable application usage. Many tourism applications exist, but were designed without considering emotional requirements or related UX factors and emotions. We developed a proof-of-concept prototype service-based context-aware tourism application (SCATA), and users participated in the design and evaluation processes. Emotional requirements are key to sustainable usage, especially regarding security. This paper details the application design and evaluation processes, emotional requirements analysis in each design phase, and the emotional effects of content accessibility in the application’s offline mode in unknown environments. The results show that trust, security, adjustability, and reliability are important factors to users, especially in unknown environments.

  • 3.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    Karlstad universitet.
    Uncanny materialities: Digital Strategies for Staging Supernatural Themes Drawn from Medieval Ballads2017In: Leonardo music journal, ISSN 0961-1215, E-ISSN 1531-4812, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 62-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n the medieval tradition of ballads, a recurring theme is that of transformation. In a staged concert for chamber orchestra, singers and dancers called Varelser och Ballader (Beings and Ballads), we explored this theme using ballads coupled with contemporary poetry and new music. The performance made use of custom-made digital musical instruments, using video analysis and large-scale physical interfaces for transformative purposes. In this article, we describe the piece itself as well as how uncanny qualities of the digital were used to emphasize eerie themes of transformation and deception by the supernatural beings found in the medieval ballads.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Trichon, Vincent
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    Karlstad universitet.
    Kjellström, Hedvig
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Höök, Kristina
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Dancing With Drones: Crafting Novel Artistic Expressions Through Intercorporeality2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement-based interactions are gaining traction, requiring a better understanding of how such expressions are shaped by designers. Through an analysis of an artistic process aimed to deliver a commissioned opera where custom-built drones are performing on stage alongside human performers, we observed the importance of achieving an intercorporeal understanding to shape body-based emotional expressivity. Our analysis reveals how the choreographer moves herself to: (1) imitate and feel the affordances and expressivity of the drones' 'otherness' through her own bodily experience; (2) communicate to the engineer of the team how she wants to alter the drones' behaviors to be more expressive; (3) enact and interactively alter her choreography. Through months of intense development and creative work, such an intercorporeal understanding was achieved by carefully crafting the drones' behaviors, but also by the choreographer adjusting her own somatics and expressions. The choreography arose as a result of the expressivity they enabled together.

  • 5.
    Hedman, John
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Vägen till ett snusfritt liv: Examensarbete i interaktionsdesign2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägen till ett snusfritt liv är ett arbete som formats utifrån idén att med applikationens hjälp skapa en fungerande lösning för att sluta snusa. Idag tar många hjälp av mediciner för att på kemisk väg bli av med sitt beroende. Min idé bygger istället på att med rätt motivation och hjälp klarar alla av att sluta utan dessa hjälpmedel. I arbetet går jag igenom olika lösningar och hur de fungerar samt ställer de mot min lösning för att kunna utvärdera om mina tankar och idéer verkligen fungerar. Det finns även en kortare bakgrundshistoria om snuset och dess påverkan på kroppen samt statistik på hur många som faktiskt använder sig av snus idag. 

  • 6.
    Kim, Joochan
    et al.
    Department of Life Media, Ajou University.
    Seo, Jungryul
    Department of Computer Engineering, Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Detecting boredom from eye gaze and EEG2018In: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, ISSN 1746-8094, E-ISSN 1746-8108, Vol. 46, p. 302-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent proliferation of affordable physiological sensors has boosted research and development efforts of emotion-aware systems. Boredom has received relatively little attention as a target emotion, and we identified a lack of research on the relationship between eye gaze and electroencephalogram (EEG) when people feel bored. To investigate this matter, we first conducted a background study on boredom and its detection by physiological methods. Then, we designed and executed an experiment that uses a video stimulus – specifically designed for this experiment, yet general enough for other boredom research – with an eye tracker and EEG sensor to elicit and detect boredom. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to confirm the existence of boredom. The experiment was based on a hypothesis that participants may feel bored when their gaze deviates from an expected area of interest, thus indicating loss of attention. The results of the experiment indicated correlations between eye gaze data and EEG data with all participants (N = 13) when they felt bored. This study can be useful for researchers who have interest in developing boredom-aware systems.

  • 7.
    Klang, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Is there a connection between experienced realism, rate of fire and loop length on fully automatic rifles in a first-person shooter game in first-person?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to test if there is a connection between modern day fully automatic rifles rate of fire, used loop length in implementation and experienced realism in a first-person shooter game in first-person, fired by the players own character. With a background consisting of papers, books and lectures/conferences given by experienced people and other experts in the game industry regarding first person shooter games, a listening test was conducted and carried out on a computer using headphones with both trained and untrained subjects since players can be both. A simple firing-range was constructed in Unreal Engine 4 (Epic Games, 2017) where the subjects could switch between two weapons with different rates of fire and three versions of each with different loop lengths, 4, 8 and 16. The sounds were divided into layers, e.g. body, mechanical and bottom, played back using looping as implementation. The subjects were also asked to rate the sounds regarding gameplay and preference to see if the results would differ between the three categories. The results showed a tendency to choose the longer loop for all categories, but only four comparisons gave a significant result when doing t-tests.

  • 8.
    Kovács, György
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. MTA-SZTE Research Group on Artificial Intelligence.
    Tóth, László
    Institute of Informatics, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.
    Van Compernolle, Dirk
    Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Examining the combination of multi-band processing and channel dropout for robust speech recognition2019In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pivotal question in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is the robustness of the trained models. In this study, we investigate the combination of two methods commonly applied to increase the robustness of ASR systems. On the one hand, inspired by auditory experiments and signal processing considerations, multi-band band processing has been used for decades to improve the noise robustness of speech recognition. On the other hand, dropout is a commonly used regularization technique to prevent overfitting by keeping the model from becoming over-reliant on a small set of neurons. We hypothesize that the careful combination of the two approaches would lead to increased robustness, by preventing the resulting model from over-rely on any given band. To verify our hypothesis, we investigate various approaches for the combination of the two methods using the Aurora-4 corpus. The results obtained corroborate our initial assumption, and show that the proper combination of the two techniques leads to increased robustness, and to significantly lower word error rates (WERs). Furthermore, we find that the accuracy scores attained here compare favourably to those reported recently on the clean training scenario of the Aurora-4 corpus.

  • 9.
    Lundberg, Christoffer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    CoFramer: Ett diskussionsformat för djupa diskussioner på publika forum med låg Information Overload inspirerat av Philosophy for Children2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this essay is to develop a design concept for online public discussions with deep discussions and low information overload. The method used is Concept Driven Interaction Design (CDID) which involves constructing a design concept by applying a variety of theories in tangible interaction design. A design concept has three basic parts: a name, high-level goals and outlines generic principles. CDID includes seven steps which is used in this work:

    1.      Concept Generation – Formatted into a table that compare forum discussion (with several hypothesis) compared to discussions with the method Philosophy for Children (P4C) and other theories.

    2.      Concept Exploration – Eight distinct design aspects are identified from the comparison table.

    3.      Internal Concept Critique – The design aspects are compared to three similar discussion formats.

    4.      Design of Artifacts – Design concept version 1 is created.

    5.      External Design Critique – Interviews are conducted to explore their general experience of online discussions, investigate the hypothesis from the comparison table and to seek direct feedback on the first draft of the design concept.

    6.      Concept Revisited – Changes are made to the design concept based on the interview material and the direct feedback.

    7.      Concept Contextualization – The design concept is related to the original literature.

    The result of the study is a design concept named CoFramer. CoFramer’s generic principles are summarized and contrasted against factors identified from the interview material in this table:

    Tabell 2: CoFramer’s generic principles and interviews about online discussions.

    CoFramer’s generic principles | From interview material on forum discussion

    Organized start and ending | Discussions without clear ending

    Limited number of participants | Large number of participants

    Minimum number of participants | Large number of inactive spectators

    Explicit participants | Low information about participants

    Common conditions | Vagueness in participants conditions

    Limited information density per post | Long posts and/or fast posts

    The red thread and parallel threads | Often parallel threads

    Active facilitator | Unresolved misunderstandings

    The study indicates that CoFramer would create more structured discussions with a lower amount of information overload and less grounding cost compared what normally arise in public online discussions.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Improving the Security of the Android Pattern Lock using Biometrics and Machine Learning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of Android smartphones, the Android Pattern Lock graphical password has become commonplace. The Android Pattern Lock is advantageous in that it is easier to remember and is more complex than a five digit numeric code. However, it is susceptible to a number of attacks, both direct and indirect. This fact shows that the Android Pattern Lock by itself is not enough to protect personal devices. Other means of protection are needed as well.

    In this thesis I have investigated five methods for the analysis of biometric data as an unnoticable second verification step of the Android Pattern Lock. The methods investigated are the euclidean barycentric anomaly detector, the dynamic time warping barycentric anomaly detector, a one-class support vector machine, the local outlier factor anomaly detector and a normal distribution based anomaly detector. The models were trained using an online training strategy to enable adaptation to changes in the user input behaviour. The model hyperparameters were fitted using a data set with 85 users. The models are then tested with other data sets to illustrate how different phone models and patterns affect the results.       

    The euclidean barycentric anomaly detector and dynamic time warping (DTW) barycentric anomaly detector have a sub 10 \% equal error rate in both mean and median, while the other three methods have an equal error rate between 15 \% and 20 \% in mean and median. The higher performance of the euclidean and DTW barycentric anomaly detector is likely because they account for the time series nature of the data, while the other methods do not. Each user in the data set have provided each pattern at most 50 times, meaning that the long-term effects of user adaptation could not be studied.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-09-01 15:49
  • 11.
    Rapp, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Julius-Maximilians University of Würzburg, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Chair of Aerospace Information Technology, Professorship of Space Technology.
    Development and Implementation of a Mission Planning Tool for SONATE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the scope of the master's project which is documented with the present thesis a mission planning tool (MPT) for SONATE was developed and implemented. After a thorough research on the current state of the art of MPTs and taking especially the early stage of the SONATE mission into account, it was decided to develop a generic timeline-based MPT. In contrast to existing MPTs a system is envisioned which is both powerful, regarding advanced features like resource control, and applicable for small satellite missions regarding the overall complexity and the associated configuration and training effort. Although it was obvious from an early stage that this vision cannot be reached in the scope of this project, it was kept during the project definition, object oriented analysis and early design stages in order to allow future extensions. Also the decision to develop the MPT on top of the Eclipse Rich Client Platform is mainly due to the argument of future extensibility.

    The MPT, which is released with this thesis, hence is a very basic generic timeline-based MPT omitting all possible advanced features like resource control or procedure validation, but featuring all essential parts of a MPT, i.e. modelling of procedures, scheduling of activities, and the generation of telecommand sequences. Furthermore, the user is supported by an intuitive graphical user interface. The thesis documents the development process, thus giving a broad understanding of the design and the implementation. For specific details of the implementation one may also refer to the separate technical documentation, while a user handbook included as appendix.

    The characteristics of the SONATE mission as a technology demonstrator for highly autonomous systems raise several important questions regarding the overall mission planning process. Therefore, besides the actual development of the MPT, those questions are discussed in a theoretical manner in the scope of this thesis, taking also account of the general emergence of highly autonomous satellites systems.Three concepts, Safe Planning, Sigma Resource Propagation, and Direct Telemetry Feedback, are proposed to face the challenges rising from the foreseen alternation of phases of classical mission operations and phases of autonomous operations of the satellite.

    Concluding the thesis, the final software product's features and capabilities are verified against the previously defined requirements and thus the overall success of the project is determined to be a 100% success fulfilling all primary project objectives. Finally, several fields for further research on the topic in general and work on the MPT itself are identified and outlined to pave the way for follow-up projects.

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