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  • 1.
    Abdi, Mohamed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Ali, Mahammed
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Hur prototyper kan användas i arbetet med applikationer riktade till ungdomar2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Using prototypes when developing IT artifacts is not something new. With the help of prototypes, developers get a chance to show what the IT artifact can look like without investing too much time or money. The end user also gets the chance to see the IT artifact before it has been developed and gets a chance to add or remove features and requirements. This study examines how to use prototypes and how the use of prototypes improves the experience of mobile application interfaces for young people. In the study, young people from a leisure center were interviewed regarding the development of a mobile application. Three different prototypes have been presented and data has been collected on those prototypes to then see how the different prototypes can be used in a development process. After data collection, it turned out that the Lo-fi prototype did not contribute as much as the Hi-fi prototypes, so there is no need to develop Lo-fi prototypes in order to obtain data on user experience.

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  • 2.
    Al-Azzawi, Sana Sabah Sabry
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Kovács, György
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mokayed, Hamam
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chronéer, Diana
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.
    Liwicki, Foteini
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Innovative Education Approach Toward Active Distance Education: a Case Study in the Introduction to AI course2022Ingår i: Conference Proceedings. The Future of Education 2022, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we first describe various synchronous and asynchronous methods for enhancing student engagement in big online courses. We showcase the implementation of these methods in the “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI)” course at Luleå University of Technology, which has attracted around 500 students in each of its iterations (twice yearly, since 2019). We also show that these methods can be applied efficiently, in terms of the teaching hours required. With the increase in digitization and student mobility, the demand for improved and personalized content delivery for distance education has also increased. This applies not only in the context of traditional undergraduate education, but also in the context of adult education and lifelong learning. This higher level of demand, however, introduces a challenge, especially as it is typically combined with a shortage of staff and needs for efficient education. This challenge is further amplified by the current pandemic situation, which led to an even bigger risk of student-dropout. To mitigate this risk, as well as to meet the increased demand, we applied various methods for creating engaging interaction in our pedagogy based on Moor’s framework: learner-to-learner, learner-to-instructor, and learner-to-content engagement strategies. The main methods of this pedagogy are as follows: short, and interactive videos, active discussions in topic-based forums, regular live sessions with group discussions, and the introduction of optional content at many points in the course, to address different target groups. In this paper, we show how we originally designed and continuously improved the course, without requiring more than 500 teaching hours per iteration (one hour per enrolled student), while we also managed to increase the successful completion rate of the participants by 10%, and improved student engagement and feedback for the course by 50%. We intend to share a set of best-practices applicable to many other e-learning courses in ICT.

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  • 3.
    Bergerstam, Fanny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Enhancing information mediation to employees at Willys: How a analysis of Willys onboarding process led to a mobile application for employees2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En väl genomtänkt introduktionsprocess är idag ett vanligt tillvägagångssätt för att göra det möjligt för nyamedarbetare att bli effektiva i sin nya roll. Axfood är en svensk koncern som verkar inomdetaljhandel. Igruppen ingår bland annat kedjor som Willys & Hemköp. Med över tiotusen anställda och ett växande företagfinns alltid behovet av rekrytering. Axfood håller för närvarande på att genomföra ett koncernövergripande projekt för att effektivisera och utveckla introduktionsprocesserna. Detta examensarbete har varit en del avdetta större initiativ och har fokuserat på introduktionsprocessen på butikskedjan Willys.Projektet har följt en användar centrerad designprocess utvecklad av IDEO. Denna process inkluderar de trefaserna, inspiration, ideation och implementation.

    Metoderna som används för att nå ett slutresultat har varit intervjuer, user journey maps, kreativ workshop, idégenererings metoder, wireframing, prototyper och användartestning. I inspirationsfasen undersöktes det nuvarande läget och användarnas upplevelser av introduktionsprocessen.Detta gjorde det möjligt att identifiera förbättringsmöjligheter, en av dem var det faktum att ingen av de tillfrågade medarbetarna kontinuerligt använde Willys intranät. I beslut med Axfood valdes denna möjlighet som fokusför lösningsförslaget. När projektet nådde den kreativa fasen fanns därför en ny inriktning som löd: hur kan Axfood använda digitala verktyg för att nå anställda och distribuera information på ett attraktivt sätt?

    Under kreativitets- och implementeringsfasen undersöktes, prototypades, testades och förbättrades en lösning för detta problem. Projektet resulterade i ett lösningsförslag i form av en mobilapplikation riktad till anställda. Lösningen fungerar som inspiration för hur Axfood kan förmedla information till anställda på ett attraktivt och användarvänligt sätt. Innehållet har utvecklats baserat på användargruppernas åsikter och behov, vilket ger dem information och stöd som gör dem effektivare i sin roll. Utöver det slutliga resultatet har projektet också bidragit till Axfood med värdefull data om deras anställdas behov och kunskap om hur användarcentrerade metoder kan användasi företaget i framtiden.

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  • 4.
    Booth, Frederick
    et al.
    Department of Accounting, Finance & Economics, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Potts, Courtney
    School of Psychology, Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.
    Bond, Raymond
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    School of Computing, Ulster University, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Omvårdnad och medicinsk teknik.
    Dhanapala, Indika
    Nimbus Research Centre, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.
    Vakaloudis, Alex
    Nimbus Research Centre, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.
    Cahill, Brian
    Nimbus Research Centre, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.
    Kuosmanen, Lauri
    Department of Nursing Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ennis, Edel
    School of Psychology, Ulster University, Coleraine, United Kingdom.
    A Mental Health and Well-Being Chatbot: User Event Log Analysis2023Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 11, artikel-id e43052Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Conversational user interfaces, or chatbots, are becoming more popular in the realm of digital health and well-being. While many studies focus on measuring the cause or effect of a digital intervention on people’s health and well-being (outcomes), there is a need to understand how users really engage and use a digital intervention in the real world.

    Objective: In this study, we examine the user logs of a mental well-being chatbot called ChatPal, which is based on the concept of positive psychology. The aim of this research is to analyze the log data from the chatbot to provide insight into usage patterns, the different types of users using clustering, and associations between the usage of the app’s features.

    Methods: Log data from ChatPal was analyzed to explore usage. A number of user characteristics including user tenure, unique days, mood logs recorded, conversations accessed, and total number of interactions were used with k-means clustering to identify user archetypes. Association rule mining was used to explore links between conversations.

    Results: ChatPal log data revealed 579 individuals older than 18 years used the app with most users being female (n=387, 67%). User interactions peaked around breakfast, lunchtime, and early evening. Clustering revealed 3 groups including “abandoning users” (n=473), “sporadic users” (n=93), and “frequent transient users” (n=13). Each cluster had distinct usage characteristics, and the features were significantly different (P<.001) across each group. While all conversations within the chatbot were accessed at least once by users, the “treat yourself like a friend” conversation was the most popular, which was accessed by 29% (n=168) of users. However, only 11.7% (n=68) of users repeated this exercise more than once. Analysis of transitions between conversations revealed strong links between “treat yourself like a friend,” “soothing touch,” and “thoughts diary” among others. Association rule mining confirmed these 3 conversations as having the strongest linkages and suggested other associations between the co-use of chatbot features.

    Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the types of people using the ChatPal chatbot, patterns of use, and associations between the usage of the app’s features, which can be used to further develop the app by considering the features most accessed by users.

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  • 5.
    Boyd, Kyle
    et al.
    Ulster University, School of Art, Belfast, UK.
    Potts, Courtney
    Ulster University, School of Computing, Belfast, UK.
    Bond, Raymond
    Ulster University, School of Computing Belfast, UK.
    Mulvenna, Maurice D
    Ulster University, School of Computing Belfast, UK.
    Broderick, Thomas
    Munster Technological University, Department of Sport, Leisure and Childhood Studies, Cork, Ireland.
    Burns, Con
    Munster Technological University, Department of Sport, Leisure and Childhood Studies, Cork, Ireland.
    Bickerdike, Andrea
    Munster Technological University, Department of Sport, Leisure and Childhood Studies, Cork, Ireland.
    McTear, Michael F
    Ulster University, School of Computing Belfast, UK.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Omvårdnad och medicinsk teknik.
    Vakaloudis, Alex
    Munster Technological University, Nimbus Research Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Dhanapala, Indika
    Munster Technological University, Nimbus Research Centre, Cork, Ireland.
    Ennis, Edel
    Ulster University School of Psychology Coleraine, UK.
    Booth, Frederick
    Ulster University, School of Computing Belfast, UK.
    Usability testing and trust analysis of a mental health and wellbeing chatbot2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 33rd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE 2022): Evaluating the Reality–Virtuality Continuum / [ed] Achim Ebert; Thomas Lachmann, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, artikel-id 18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health chatbots are particularly useful for those who are isolated and may have difficulty attending services or for those who are reluctant to speak to a professional. In this study, the usability and trust of a chatbot known as ’ChatPal’ has been assessed. ChatPal has been developed by an interdisciplinary team encompassing health service providers, local authorities, charities and universities to promote positive mental wellbeing among individuals in rural areas across Europe. This study employed a usability test protocol to recruit representative users to complete a set of tasks using the ChatPal chatbot. Usability issues were assessed along with trust and users’ satisfaction on the System Usability Scale and the Chatbot Usability Questionnaire. The study shows the usability issues and trust with a mental health chatbot and highlights recommendations for improvement.

  • 6.
    Burlin, Celina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Explainability to enhance creativity: A human-centered approach to prompt engineering and task allocation in text-to-image models for design purposes2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrkan, användbarheten och utbredningen av generativa AI-teknologier fortsätter att växa och debatten om huruvida designers bör integrera text-bildmodeller i designprocessen blir alltmer i focus. För att säkerställa produktivitet, kreativitet och mänskliga värden blir det väsentligt att fokusera på designaspekterna av interaktionen och uppgiftsfördelningen mellan designers och generativa AI-modeller. ”Explainability” är ett växande område inom AI forskning där många av förbättringarna av tolkningsbarhet och transparens i ML-modeller riktar sig till ML-ingenjörer snarare än slutanvändare. Detta projekt undersöker vilken typ av förklaringar designers skulle behöva för att framgångsrikt kommunicera med modellerna. Genom en användardeltagande designmetodik resulterade projektet i några viktiga slutsatser om den kreativa aspekten av att använda ”natural language” för att uttrycka design, hur erfarenhet av att använda generativa AI- modeller påverkar hur de används och hur designers kan dra nytta av att erkänna modellen som kreativ. Projektet resulterade i två koncept för att förbättra användarupplevelsen av ”prompt engineering,” ett som fokuserar på användarbeteende och ett annat som förbättrar förklarbarhet och transparens i bildgenerativa AI-modeller.

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  • 7.
    Colombo, Simone
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyström, Markus B.T.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Mining players’ experience in computer games: Immersion affects flow but not presence2023Ingår i: Computers in Human Behavior Reports, E-ISSN 2451-9588, Vol. 12, artikel-id 100334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how different levels of immersion influence the experiences of flow and presence can shed light on the intricate interplay between these constructs and provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to engaging and immersive gameplay. The independent variable, immersion, was manipulated in three conditions (high, moderate, and low) in a between-subject design within the video game Minecraft. Participants were asked to complete 15 min of gameplay and then fill out the questionnaires concerning flow and presence. The experiment was conducted remotely on a video-sharing platform. Bayesian analysis revealed an effect of immersion level on flow, while no evidence of an effect was found for the experience of presence. This study provides evidence in favor of a relation between flow and immersion while supporting a presumed double dissociation of immersion from presence. Future research using a Bayesian approach is encouraged to build further knowledge on this research topic.

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  • 8.
    Compierchio, Angelo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Human Factors Evaluation of Shared Real and Virtual Environments2022Ingår i: Human Interaction, Emerging Technologies and Future Systems V: Proceedings of the 5th International Virtual Conference on Human Interaction and Emerging Technologies, IHIET 2021, August 27-29, 2021 and the 6th IHIET: Future Systems (IHIET-FS 2021), October 28-30, 2021, France / [ed] Tareq Ahram; Redha Taiar, Springer, 2022, s. 745-751Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased pace of adopting virtual reality (VR) technology in the digital age as a new way of communication, enabled the decision-making concept to evolve in environments influenced by improved technologies and operational processes. Human Factors pertinent to team members sharing a real and a virtual environment (VE) have been examined by capturing the interaction capabilities to gain and maintain individual situation awareness (SA) impacting the team SA level. This baseline has been explored with a Joint Cognitive System foundation and integrated in a modified cyclical model with different modes to measure the level of immersion required for achieving higher levels of SA. In addition, a modified Observe, Orient, Decide and Act (OODA) model is introduced to address how information is collected, processed, and conveyed through the interchange of individual and shared mental models of one user immersed in the real world and one user immersed in virtual reality. 

  • 9.
    Compierchio, Angelo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Quantum Reality Perspectives in Dyadic Interactions2022Ingår i: Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies (IHIET 2022): Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Redha Taiar, AHFE Open Access , 2022, Vol. 68, s. 510-517Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Virtual Reality (VR) system is introduced in a modified Observe, Orient, Decide and Act (OODA) model for supporting information sharing and situational awareness in a complex environment. At the same time the cooperation and interaction with technical systems provided organizational process support, guidance, and monitoring of system critical functions.The OODA-VR combination enabled bringing together theoretical discussion and practicality responses in dyadic interactions. With the integration of simulation and reality metaphors the reasoning process takes advantage of environmental and cognitive knowledge constructed from complexity tasks. From an interaction viewpoint a more holistic view has been performed in relation to the problem space to articulate the thinking and decision-making process.The provision of the VR interaction capability has been extended to reshape quantum formalism and reality and complement the measurement collapse theory. This baseline has been explored through the Theory of Decoherence and Everettian quantum mechanics representing different measurements outcomes on a system.

  • 10.
    Compierchio, Angelo
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Illankoon, Prasanna
    University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.
    Augment-Me: An Approach for Enhancing Pilot’s Helmet-Mounted Display Visualization for Tactical Combat Effectiveness and Survivability2023Ingår i: Applications of Augmented Reality - Current State of the Art / [ed] Pierre Boulanger, IntechOpen , 2023Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A learning framework for combining state-of-the-art augmented reality (AR) technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) for helmet-mounted display applications in combat aviation has been proposed to explore perceptual and cognitive performance factors and their influence on mission needs. The analysis originated through examining helmet-mounted display (HMD) design features and their configurations for tactical situational awareness (SA). In accomplishing this goal, the relationship between the pilot visual search and recent advancements in AI have been gauged as a background source to unlock pilot’s uncued visual search limit. In this context, the Augment-Me framework is introduced with the ability to view and organize SA information in a predictive way. The provisioning of AI-augmented fixation maps could effectively outperform current AR-HMD capabilities, facilitating human decision while pursuing the detection and compensation of the mechanisms of human error.

  • 11.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Business Information Technology, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Hels.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    User Experience in Mobile Augmented Reality: Emotions, Challenges, Opportunities and Best Practices2018Ingår i: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikel-id 33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is gaining a strong momentum to become a major interactive technology that can be applied across domains and purposes. The rapid proliferation of MAR applications in global mobile application markets has been fueled by a range of freely-available MAR software development kits and content development tools, some of which enable the creation of MAR applications even without programming skills. Despite the recent advances of MAR technology and tools, there are still many challenges associated with MAR from the User Experience (UX) design perspective. In this study, we first define UX as the emotions that the user encounters while using a service, a product or an application and then explore the recent research on the topic. We present two case studies, a commercial MAR experience and our own Virtual Campus Tour MAR application, and evaluate them from the UX perspective, with a focus on emotions. Next, we synthesize the findings from previous research and the results of the case study evaluations to form sets of challenges, opportunities and best practices related to UX design of MAR applications. Based on the identified best practices, we finally present an updated version of the Virtual Campus Tour. The results can be used for improving UX design of future MAR applications, thus making them emotionally engaging.

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  • 12.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Alamäki, Ari
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Managing Emotional Requirements in a Context-Aware Mobile Application for Tourists2018Ingår i: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 177-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to unveil the importance of emotions and feelings in developing mobile-based tourism applications. We gathered and analyzed emotional requirements to develop a mobile context-aware application for tourists. Emotional requirements are non-functional requirements affecting users’ emotional experiences around using applications, which are important for sustainable application usage. Many tourism applications exist, but were designed without considering emotional requirements or related UX factors and emotions. We developed a proof-of-concept prototype service-based context-aware tourism application (SCATA), and users participated in the design and evaluation processes. Emotional requirements are key to sustainable usage, especially regarding security. This paper details the application design and evaluation processes, emotional requirements analysis in each design phase, and the emotional effects of content accessibility in the application’s offline mode in unknown environments. The results show that trust, security, adjustability, and reliability are important factors to users, especially in unknown environments.

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  • 13.
    Edberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Schulz, Madelene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Backup opening of automatic doors in autonomous vehicles: A usability study2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delade autonoma fordon erbjuder en framtida lösning för hållbara och tillgängliga transportsystem i urbana miljöer, med avseende på både social- och ekologisk hållbarhet. Dessa fordon möter dock andra typer av utmaningar än privat ägda fordon, exempelvis behöver de tillgodose behoven hos ett större antal användare med olika förutsättningar så som ålder, begränsad rörlighet och styrka samt begränsad synförmåga.  

    I detta projekt har metoder och interaktioner för att skapa användarvänliga lösningar för reservöppning av automatiska bildörrar i det delade autonoma fordonet CM1e undersökts. Syftet med projektet är att stödja utvecklingen av säkra autonoma fordon genom att implementera användarvänliga och inkluderande lösningar för ett stort antal användare med olika förutsättningar. Projektet har bedrivits i Göteborg hos företaget China Euro Vehicle Technology (CEVT). I slutet av projektet är det förväntat att leverera en kartläggning av situationer när en reservöppning av dörrar kan vara relevant, vilka begräsningar som finns i nuvarande lösningar samt ett förslag på en lösning för reservöppning av dörrar. De levererade lösningsförslaget ska tillgodose de kartlagda situationerna där en reservöppning av dörrar behövs som inte täcks av de nuvarande lösningarna.  

    Tillvägagångsättet av projektet har lagt tyngd på att ha ett helikopterperspektiv med fokus på både situation och kontext samt hur detta påverkar användaren och användbarheten. Det undersökta området är komplext och har många funktioner samt olika medium, vilket också har bidragit till att projektet har förväntats att leverera en lösning som tillgodoser en handling (i detta fall att ta sig ut ur ett fordon) snarare än en enskild interaktion. För att uppnå detta har användningsfall genererats samt kompletterande användarresor med användare med olika förutsättningar. Detta för att uppnå både en objektiv beskrivning av nuvarande funktioner och en subjektiv beskrivning av dess begräsningar beroende på användarnas förutsättningar. För att generera idéer till en framtida idé har ett stort fokus lagts på samskapande med intressenter och berikning av idéer. För att sedan validera den förslagna lösningen har två olika användartest utförts.  

    Det levererade resultatet erbjuder en lösning på användningsfall där de automatiska bildörrarna har förmågan att öppnas men ej tillåter användaren att göra det på grund av olika skäl, exempelvis att bevara funktionaliteten i dörrarna. Detta kan leda till att användaren kan bli instängd i bilen under situationer när hen önskar ta sig ut. Den förslagna lösningen utnyttjar funktionen av dödmansbrytare för att överskrida de satta förutsättningarna (preconditions) för att tillåta öppning och ge användaren kontroll över öppningsprocessen av bildörren, samt erbjuda en möjlighet att ta sig ut ur fordonet utan att dörrarna behövs öppnas 100%. I lösningen inkluderas även kommunikation via skärmar (visuellt och audiellt) och aktivering av dödmansbrytar-funktionaliteten för att skapa en användarvänlig, tillgänglig och säker reservöppning. Detta presenteras genom CAD-modeller och renderingar i form av storyboards. 

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  • 14.
    Eidet, Maya
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Bergman, Sara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    CHECK this out: Designing a resource planning feature into an existing accounting system2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Oh My is a design and brand agency that has been developing CHECK, an accounting, billing, and time reporting system. CHECK has been developed to ease the billing and accounting process by making a front-shell system that is easier to use than the existing back-end economic system (Fortnox). To further enhance CHECK’s user experience, a need for a resource scheduling feature arose. The mission of this master thesis project is therefore to design a resource scheduling feature by going through the double diamond design process. 

    The double diamond design process consists of four phases, a discovering phase, a defining phase, a developing phase, and a delivering phase. The discovering phase consisted of a literature review, interviews, user observations, a market analysis, and workshops to discover the current resource scheduling market and Oh My’s resource scheduling needs. The defining phase consisted of collecting and sorting the information gathered in the previous phase, which were conducted by using a design specification. The developing phase was the creative phase where solutions were beginning to emerge through paper prototyping. The delivering phase was the iterative phase where user tests were conducted, and the design was changed and improved. The delivering phase contained 4 different user test that resulted in the final version of a resource planning system. 

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  • 15.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    Karlstad University, 65188 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Uncanny materialities: Digital Strategies for Staging Supernatural Themes Drawn from Medieval Ballads2017Ingår i: Leonardo music journal, ISSN 0961-1215, E-ISSN 1531-4812, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 62-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the medieval tradition of ballads, a recurring theme is that of transformation. In a staged concert for chamber orchestra, singers and dancers called Varelser och Ballader (Beings and Ballads), we explored this theme using ballads coupled with contemporary poetry and new music. The performance made use of custom-made digital musical instruments, using video analysis and large-scale physical interfaces for transformative purposes. In this article, we describe the piece itself as well as how uncanny qualities of the digital were used to emphasize eerie themes of transformation and deception by the supernatural beings found in the medieval ballads.

  • 16.
    Erhard, Annalena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    The Cost of Algorithmic decisions: A Systematic Literature Review2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions have been automated since the early days. Ever since the rise of AI, ML and DataAnalytics, algorithmic decision-making has experienced a boom time. Nowadays, using AI withina company is said to be critical to the success of a company. Considering the point that it can bequite costly to develop AI/ ML and integrating it into decision-making, it is striking how littleresearch was put into the identification and analysis of its cost drivers by now. This thesis is acontribution to raise and the awareness of possible cost drivers to algorithmic decisions. Thetopic was divided in two subgroups. That is solely algorithms and hybrid decision-making. Asystematic literature review was conducted to create a theoretical base for further research. Thecost drivers for algorithms to make decisions without human interaction, the identified costdrivers identified can be found at Data Storage (including initial, floor rent, energy, service,disposal, and environmental costs), Data Processing, Transferring and Migrating. Additionally,social costs and the ones related to fairness as well as the ones related to algorithms themselves(Implementation and Design, Execution and Maintenance) could be found. Business Intelligenceused for decision making raises costs in Data quality, Update delays of cloud systems, Personneland Personnel training, Hardware, Software, Maintenance and Data Storage. Moreover, it isimportant to say that the recurrence of some costs was detected. Further research should go inthe direction of applicability of the theoretical costs in practice.

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  • 17.
    Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Höök, Kristina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shusterman, Richard
    Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
    Svanaes, Dag
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Musik, medier och teater.
    Ethics in Movement: Shaping and Being Shaped in Human-Drone Interaction2020Ingår i: CHI‘20: Proceedings ofthe 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, artikel-id 549Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How is ethics shaped by the particularities of a design? Through a detailed video analysis, we explore how ethicality is shaped in interaction between a choreographer, a performer and a choir of five drones, performing together on the opera stage. We pinpoint how movements enabled by the human-drone assemblage may limit or liberate artistic expressions vis-à-vis the norms of operatic performance. From a somaesthetics perspective on ethics, we show how the process of crafting rich experiences together with drones can deepen sensory appreciation skills, leading to an increased understanding of underlying somatic drivers and imposed norms. Somatic awareness thereby enables a richer repertoire of movements, expanding the ability to freely choose how to act, and cultivating empathy towards others. This shifts our understanding of ethics in HCI as solely about abstract rules or policies 'out there' to also concern the specifics of how technology informs or dictates movement and experience.  

     

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik, medier och teater.
    Trichon, Vincent
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    Karlstad universitet.
    Kjellström, Hedvig
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Höök, Kristina
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Dancing With Drones: Crafting Novel Artistic Expressions Through Intercorporeality2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement-based interactions are gaining traction, requiring a better understanding of how such expressions are shaped by designers. Through an analysis of an artistic process aimed to deliver a commissioned opera where custom-built drones are performing on stage alongside human performers, we observed the importance of achieving an intercorporeal understanding to shape body-based emotional expressivity. Our analysis reveals how the choreographer moves herself to: (1) imitate and feel the affordances and expressivity of the drones' 'otherness' through her own bodily experience; (2) communicate to the engineer of the team how she wants to alter the drones' behaviors to be more expressive; (3) enact and interactively alter her choreography. Through months of intense development and creative work, such an intercorporeal understanding was achieved by carefully crafting the drones' behaviors, but also by the choreographer adjusting her own somatics and expressions. The choreography arose as a result of the expressivity they enabled together.

  • 19.
    Frishammar, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Industriell ekonomi.
    Essen, Anna
    House of Innovation, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simms, Christopher
    University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, U.K..
    Edblad, Rebecka
    Sopra Steria, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hardebro, Veronica
    Northvolt AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Older Individuals and Digital Healthcare Platforms: Usage Motivations and the Impact of Age on Postadoption Usage Patterns2023Ingår i: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 70, nr 8, s. 2903-2919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital healthcare platforms have enabled patients to receive healthcare in ways that were impossible previously—for example, by providing a “safer” way to meet, as underscored by the Covid-19 pandemic. This article investigates whether older and younger primary care users display behavioral differences on digital healthcare platforms. The article adopts a mixed-method approach in which one-way ANOVA analysis on a sample of 152 000 patient journeys was combined with qualitative interview data. The findings highlight significant differences in usage between elderly and younger patients. The elderly spends more time during use—for example, during anamnesis, onboarding, and in queues. We also outline how the key antecedent factors that are most central to platform usage, such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, digital maturity, and trust, play out in the elderly user context. The study contributes to the nascent literature on digital healthcare platforms and the postadoption usage of information and communication technologies by the elderly. The article also outlines research implications in the area of DHPs and mHealth for elderly users, and it discusses the practical implications for both platform owners and healthcare professionals, where platform design and information management are particularly important for elderly users.

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  • 20.
    Grahn, Mia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Hur femåringar i förskolan interagerar med digital programmering: En kvalitativ studie om programmering i förskolan2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utifrån barns perspektiv, synliggöra hur femåringar i förskolan interagerar med varandra och artefakter som till exempel en robot när de programmerar. Vidare syftar studien till att beskriva och diskutera barns erfarenheter och förhållningssätt till programmering i förskolan. Studien vilar på en sociokulturell teori och ett socialsemiotiskt multimodalt perspektiv. De metoder som användes vid datainsamling var deltagande observatör, videoobservationer och kvalitativ ostrukturerad intervju, vidare medverkade fem barn i studien. Empirin analyserades med hjälp av ett designteoretiskt, multimodalt analyssätt. Resultatet visar att barnen interagerar med varandra genom kommunikation och gester, de har en varierad förförståelse till programmering och använder sig av olika tillvägagångssätt att programmera roboten. Barnen är engagerade vid programmeringen och anser att det är roligt men svårt.

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  • 21.
    Harju, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Designing User Interfaces for Increased Depth Perception in Remote Crane Operation2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates different design choices for graphical user interfaces meant to improve depth perception in remote crane operation through measuring efficiency and user experience. To achieve this, three different graphical user interface designs were created and implemented into a cargo port simulator within the game engine Unity. These GUIs consists of a top-down shadow overlay, a guideline overlay and one overlay that would display held containers as see-through, called X-ray overlay. The three GUIs were then tested in a user study along a blank interface which had no overlay, in order to compare task efficiency, accuracy and usability among the four interfaces. In total, 15 participants took part in the user study in which none had any previous experience in using heavy machinery such as cargo cranes. These 15 participants were of various ages between 22-59 and of various genders. The results from the user study shows that the shadow overlay and the guideline overlay were more favoured among the participants who took part in the experiment, as well as more usable in comparison towards the X-ray overlay and having no overlay. The participants were also more accurate and efficient in placing containers while using the shadow overlay and the guideline overlay.

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  • 22.
    Hedman, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle.
    Vägen till ett snusfritt liv: Examensarbete i interaktionsdesign2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (konstnärlig kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vägen till ett snusfritt liv är ett arbete som formats utifrån idén att med applikationens hjälp skapa en fungerande lösning för att sluta snusa. Idag tar många hjälp av mediciner för att på kemisk väg bli av med sitt beroende. Min idé bygger istället på att med rätt motivation och hjälp klarar alla av att sluta utan dessa hjälpmedel. I arbetet går jag igenom olika lösningar och hur de fungerar samt ställer de mot min lösning för att kunna utvärdera om mina tankar och idéer verkligen fungerar. Det finns även en kortare bakgrundshistoria om snuset och dess påverkan på kroppen samt statistik på hur många som faktiskt använder sig av snus idag. 

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  • 23.
    Horvat, Nikola
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kunnen, Steffen
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Product Engineering, Duisburg, Germany.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Nagarajah, Arun
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Product Engineering, Duisburg, Germany.
    Škec, Stanko
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Immersive virtual reality applications for design reviews: Systematic literature review and classification scheme for functionalities2022Ingår i: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 54, artikel-id 101760Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of immersive virtual reality (IVR) applications for design reviews is a major trend in the design field. While many different applications have been developed, there is little consensus on the functionalities necessary for these applications. This paper proposes a classification scheme for IVR functionalities related to design reviews (DRs), combining conceptual-to-empirical and empirical-to-conceptual strategies. The classification scheme consists of eight class categories (Input, Representation, Navigation, Manipulation, Collaboration, Edit, Creation, and Output), 22 class subcategories, and 55 classes. The classification scheme has been validated by analysing several commercial IVR applications for DRs. As part of the classification scheme development, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was utilised to review 70 articles that develop IVR applications for DRs. The results from systematic literature reviews suggest the development of solutions that integrate several class categories, are better connected to current design workflows, include various design information, support a DR planning cycle, and support distributed work. The proposed classification scheme helps to orient the future development of IVR applications for DRs and provides a framework to systematically accumulate evidence on the effect of such applications on DRs.

  • 24.
    Jingili, Nuru
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Oyelere, Solomon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Malmström Berghem, Simon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Brännström, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Department of Digital Media, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering. Department of Health, Education and Technology, Division of Health Medicine and Rehabilitation, Luleaa University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    A Two-Stage co-Design Process of Battleship-AST Persuasive Game for Active School Transportation in Northern Sweden2024Ingår i: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research delves into the dynamics of active school transport (AST) by utilizing a two-stage co-design process and leveraging persuasive technology within a game for promoting AST called Battleship-AST. The primary aim of this research is to thoroughly investigate the two-stage game co-design process employed in creating a Battleship-AST game. Moreover, our research aims to evaluate participants’ perceptions regarding the motivating and engaging potential of the persuasive technology and gamification features embedded within the final iteration of the game. This evaluation aims to understand how these features influence participants’ motivation to increase their usage of AST through gameplay. In pursuit of these objectives, the research builds upon the existing Battleship-AST prototype and actively engages school children in a collaborative two-stage co-design process. Their valuable insights and preferences were harnessed in refining the game, which was subsequently tested during a tech event in Skellefteå, Sweden. The findings shed light on various aspects of the game’s impact, from its reception to the gamification features integrated within. Notably, the research highlights the positive impact of the co-design process, with increased motivation and engagement observed among the participants. Their involvement in shaping the game’s design resulted in a more engaging and enjoyable experience. The persuasive technology features, encompassing competition, collaboration, auditory cues, a virtual reward system, and an emphasis on similarity, played a pivotal role in sustaining engagement and motivating players. Elements such as rewards, leaderboard progression, and badges proved highly effective in encouraging continued participation and fostering a positive feedback loop. However, the study also identifies areas for potential improvement, including the need to measure real-life progress and refine the game’s levelling system. The research indicates that refining feedback mechanisms and tailoring game content to individual preferences could create an even more engaging experience. Additionally, long-term playtesting is proposed to assess the game’s extended impact. The findings offer promising avenues for enhancing motivation and engagement in AST, which can contribute to the promotion of healthier and more sustainable transportation choices among school children.

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  • 25.
    Kim, Jihoon
    et al.
    University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Lindqvist, Anna Karrin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Castelli, Darla M.
    Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Feasibility of utilizing gamified learning as a motivational strategy for promoting physical activity participation and healthy eating among college students2024Ingår i: Journal of American College Health, ISSN 0744-8481, E-ISSN 1940-3208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Kim, Joo Chan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Department of Digital Media, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Multimodal Interaction Systems Based on Internet of Things and Augmented Reality: A Systematic Literature Review2021Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikel-id 1738Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology developments have expanded the diversity of interaction modalities that can be used by an agent (either a human or machine) to interact with a computer system. This expansion has created the need for more natural and user-friendly interfaces in order to achieve effective user experience and usability. More than one modality can be provided to an agent for interaction with a system to accomplish this goal, which is referred to as a multimodal interaction (MI) system. The Internet of Things (IoT) and augmented reality (AR) are popular technologies that allow interaction systems to combine the real-world context of the agent and immersive AR content. However, although MI systems have been extensively studied, there are only several studies that reviewed MI systems that used IoT and AR. Therefore, this paper presents an in-depth review of studies that proposed various MI systems utilizing IoT and AR. A total of 23 studies were identified and analyzed through a rigorous systematic literature review protocol. The results of our analysis of MI system architectures, the relationship between system components, input/output interaction modalities, and open research challenges are presented and discussed to summarize the findings and identify future research and development avenues for researchers and MI developers.

  • 27.
    Kim, Joo Chan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Acceptability of a Health Care App With 3 User Interfaces for Older Adults and Their Caregivers: Design and Evaluation Study2023Ingår i: JMIR Human Factors, E-ISSN 2292-9495, Vol. 10, artikel-id e42145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The older population needs solutions for independent living and reducing the burden on caregivers while maintaining the quality and dignity of life.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to design, develop, and evaluate an older adult health care app that supports trained caregivers (ie, formal caregivers) and relatives (ie, informal caregivers). We aimed to identify the factors that affect user acceptance of interfaces depending on the user’s role.

    Methods: We designed and developed an app with 3 user interfaces that enable remote sensing of an older adult’s daily activities and behaviors. We conducted user evaluations (N=25) with older adults and their formal and informal caregivers to obtain an overall impression of the health care monitoring app in terms of user experience and usability. In our design study, the participants had firsthand experience with our app, followed by a questionnaire and individual interview to express their opinions on the app. Through the interview, we also identified their views on each user interface and interaction modality to identify the relationship between the user’s role and their acceptance of a particular interface. The questionnaire answers were statistically analyzed, and we coded the interview answers based on keywords related to a participant’s experience, for example, ease of use and usefulness.

    Results: We obtained overall positive results in the user evaluation of our app regarding key aspects such as efficiency, perspicuity, dependability, stimulation, and novelty, with an average between 1.74 (SD 1.02) and 2.18 (SD 0.93) on a scale of −3.0 to 3.0. The overall impression of our app was favorable, and we identified that “simple” and “intuitive” were the main factors affecting older adults’ and caregivers’ preference for the user interface and interaction modality. We also identified a positive user acceptance of the use of augmented reality by 91% (10/11) of the older adults to share information with their formal and informal caregivers.

    Conclusions: To address the need for a study to evaluate the user experience and user acceptance by older adults as well as both formal and informal caregivers regarding the user interfaces with multimodal interaction in the context of health monitoring, we designed, developed, and conducted user evaluations with the target user groups. Our results through this design study show important implications for designing future health monitoring apps with multiple interaction modalities and intuitive user interfaces in the older adult health care domain.

  • 28.
    Kim, Joo Chan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Saguna, Saguna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Åhlund, Christer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    The Effects of Augmented Reality Companion on User Engagement in Energy Management Mobile App2024Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikel-id 2621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the impact of global warming on climate change becomes noticeable, the importance of energy efficiency for reducing greenhouse gas emissions grows immense. To this end, a platform, solution, and mobile apps are developed as part of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program to support energy optimization in residences. However, to ensure long-term energy optimization, it is crucial to keep users engaged with the apps. Since augmented reality (AR) and a virtual animal companion positively influenced user engagement, we designed an AR companion that represented the user’s residence states; thereby making the user aware of indoor information. We conducted user evaluations to determine the effect of the AR companion on user engagement and perceived usability in the context of energy management. We identified that the user interface (UI) with AR (ARUI) barely affected user engagement and perceived usability compared to the traditional UI without AR (TUI); however, we found that the ARUI positively affected one of the user engagement aspects. Our results show AR companion integration’s potential benefits and effects on energy management mobile apps. Furthermore, our findings provide insights into UI design elements for developers considering multiple interaction modalities with AR.

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  • 29.
    Kim, Joochan
    et al.
    Department of Life Media, Ajou University.
    Seo, Jungryul
    Department of Computer Engineering, Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Detecting boredom from eye gaze and EEG2018Ingår i: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, ISSN 1746-8094, E-ISSN 1746-8108, Vol. 46, s. 302-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent proliferation of affordable physiological sensors has boosted research and development efforts of emotion-aware systems. Boredom has received relatively little attention as a target emotion, and we identified a lack of research on the relationship between eye gaze and electroencephalogram (EEG) when people feel bored. To investigate this matter, we first conducted a background study on boredom and its detection by physiological methods. Then, we designed and executed an experiment that uses a video stimulus – specifically designed for this experiment, yet general enough for other boredom research – with an eye tracker and EEG sensor to elicit and detect boredom. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to confirm the existence of boredom. The experiment was based on a hypothesis that participants may feel bored when their gaze deviates from an expected area of interest, thus indicating loss of attention. The results of the experiment indicated correlations between eye gaze data and EEG data with all participants (N = 13) when they felt bored. This study can be useful for researchers who have interest in developing boredom-aware systems.

  • 30.
    Klang, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier ljudteknik och upplevelseproduktion och teater.
    Is there a connection between experienced realism, rate of fire and loop length on fully automatic rifles in a first-person shooter game in first-person?2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to test if there is a connection between modern day fully automatic rifles rate of fire, used loop length in implementation and experienced realism in a first-person shooter game in first-person, fired by the players own character. With a background consisting of papers, books and lectures/conferences given by experienced people and other experts in the game industry regarding first person shooter games, a listening test was conducted and carried out on a computer using headphones with both trained and untrained subjects since players can be both. A simple firing-range was constructed in Unreal Engine 4 (Epic Games, 2017) where the subjects could switch between two weapons with different rates of fire and three versions of each with different loop lengths, 4, 8 and 16. The sounds were divided into layers, e.g. body, mechanical and bottom, played back using looping as implementation. The subjects were also asked to rate the sounds regarding gameplay and preference to see if the results would differ between the three categories. The results showed a tendency to choose the longer loop for all categories, but only four comparisons gave a significant result when doing t-tests.

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  • 31.
    Kompatsiari, K.
    et al.
    Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, 16145, Italy; Ludwig-Maximilians-universität (DE), Germany.
    Ciardo, F.
    Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, 16145, Italy.
    De Tommaso, D.
    Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, 16145, Italy.
    Wykowska, Agnieszka
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Människa och teknik. Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, 16145, Italy.
    Measuring engagement elicited by eye contact in Human-Robot Interaction2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), IEEE, 2019, s. 6979-6985Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims at investigating how eye contact established by a humanoid robot affects engagement in human-robot interaction (HRI). To this end, we combined explicit subjective evaluations with implicit measures, i.e. reaction times and eye tracking. More specifically, we employed a gaze cueing paradigm in HRI protocol involving the iCub robot. Critically, before moving its gaze, iCub either established eye contact or not with the user. We investigated the patterns of fixations of participants' gaze on the robot's face, joint attention and the subjective ratings of engagement as a function of eye contact or no eye contact. We found that eye contact affected implicit measures of engagement, i.e. longer fixation times on the robot's face during eye contact. Moreover, we showed that joint attention was elicited only when the robot established eye contact, whereas no joint attention occurred when it did not. On the contrary, explicit measures of engagement with the robot did not vary across conditions. Our results highlight the value of combining explicit with implicit measures in an HRI protocol in order to unveil underlying human cognitive mechanisms, which might be at stake during the interactions. These mechanisms could be crucial for establishing an effective and engaging HRI, and provide guidelines to the robotics community with respect to better robot design.

  • 32.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Castaño, Miguel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Manish
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Granström, Rikard
    Trafikverket, 97125 Luleå, Sweden.
    A Human-Centric Model for Sustainable Asset Management in Railway: A Case Study2022Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikel-id 936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing digital transformation is changing asset management in the railway industry. Emerging digital technologies and Artificial Intelligence is expected to facilitate decision-making in management, operation, and maintenance of railway by providing an integrated data-driven and model-driven solution. An important aspect when developing decision-support solutions based on AI and digital technology is the users’ experience. User experience design process aims to create relevance, context-awareness, and meaningfulness for the end-user. In railway contexts, it is believed that applying a human-centric design model in the development of AI-based artefacts, will enhance the usability of the solution, which will have a positive impact on the decision-making processes. In this research, the applicability of such advanced technologies i.e., Virtual Reality, Mixed Reality, and AI have been reviewed for the railway asset management. To carry out this research work, literature review has been conducted related to available Virtual Reality/Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality technologies and their applications within railway industry. It has been found that these technologies are available, but not applied in railway asset management. Thus, the aim of this paper is to propose a human-centric design model for the enhancement of railway asset management using Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, and Mixed Reality technologies. The practical implication of the findings from this work will benefit in increased efficiency and effectiveness of the operation and maintenance processes in railway

  • 33.
    Kour, Ravdeep
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Karim, Ramin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Patwardhan, Amit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Manish
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Metaverse for Intelligent Asset Management2022Ingår i: 2022 International Conference on Maintenance and Intelligent Asset Management (ICMIAM), IEEE, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Kristoffersson Holmgren, William
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Wahldén, Viktor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Designens påverkan på en offentlig sektorswebbplats: En kvalitativ studie om hur designprinciper kan påverka användbarheten på en webbplats med en bred målgrupp2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of design principles on website usability for a wide target population isexamined in this qualitative study. The study specifically looks at how to develop awebsite to meet the demands of the 55–64 year old older demographic. User testing andinterviews were both used as part of the study's mixed-methods strategy to gather data.The findings demonstrate that following design concepts, such as visual hierarchy,distinct contrast, and the use of suitable color schemes, greatly enhances the seniorpopulation's ability to browse the website. The user experience is also improved byapplying gestalt principles like proximity, resemblance, and closure. According to thestudy's findings, a user-centered approach to website design that incorporates gestaltlaws and design principles can increase usability for a variety of users. 

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  • 35.
    Laine, Teemu H
    et al.
    Department of Digital Media, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
    Duong, Nhi
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lindvall, Helena
    Luleå Municipality, Luleå, Sweden.
    Oyelere, Solomon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    A Reusable Multiplayer Game for Promoting Active School Transport: Development Study2022Ingår i: JMIR Serious Games, E-ISSN 2291-9279, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id e31638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most children and adolescents in Sweden do not meet the recommended daily physical activity levels of the World Health Organization. Active school transport (AST) and gamification are potential methods for increasing children’s daily physical activity. We previously developed a game named Tic-Tac-Training for promoting active transport at workplaces; however, the game has not been applied to AST.

    Objective: The objectives of this study are to investigate how Tic-Tac-Training functions to promote AST among schoolchildren in northern Sweden, improve the game to be more suitable for schoolchildren, and construct a road map for future development based on children’s ideas.

    Methods: First, we developed Tic-Tac-Training using the Scrum agile software development method. Second, we conducted a questionnaire-based formative evaluation of the game with schoolchildren (n=16; 9/16, 56% male; 6/16, 38% female; and 1/16, 6% other aged 11-12 years) in Luleå, Sweden. Third, we conducted focus group interviews with 33 children (13/33, 39% male and 20/33, 61% female aged 12-13 years) to gather ideas for gamifying AST. We mapped the interview results to the Octalysis gamification framework and established a road map for future development.

    Results: The formative evaluation revealed several issues, including a lack of interesting game features, lack of support for continuous engagement, disliked competitive features, and lack of incentives for discourse and participation. New features such as rewards, collectibles, and levels were implemented based on the results. The focus group interviews revealed additional ideas for gamifying AST, such as using avatars, in-game currency and trading, and context-sensitive tasks.

    Conclusions: The results have several potential impacts on how reusable, gamified AST interventions can be developed and what kind of gamification elements schoolchildren in northern Sweden wish to see. These results can interest game researchers and teachers who wish to apply gamification in school contexts. Finally, we aim to continue developing the game based on the road map.

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  • 36.
    Larsson, Linus
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Nilsson, Jonathan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Designförslag för en mobil studentportal2022Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 37.
    Lindblom, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
    Souza Rossi, Henrique
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Investigating Network Performance of a Multi-user Virtual Reality Environment for Mining Education2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2021 15th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication, IEEE, 2021, artikel-id L3-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality provides the ability to immerse users in realistic environments, which enables utilization of the technology as an immersive educational tool. This is particularly useful for educational fields that require students to visit certain locations, or that concern hazardous situations and materials. The EIT Raw Materials Project MiReBooks intends to develop novel augmented and virtual reality teaching tools to mining education. Within the project, we developed an interactive multi-user VR environment, named MiReBooks VR, for teaching mining to students by simulating a VR mine and creating learning scenarios in it. In this paper, we briefly described MiReBooks VR, and then focused on determining the capacity of the server running in a head-mounted display by measuring latency. To assess the system's capacity to handle multiple students connected to a class session, client simulation tests of up to 30 simultaneous connections were conducted. The results suggests performance issues with respect to latency affecting all peers that could cause a negative effect to the VR user experience. In addition, the results indicate that the frame rate requirements for VR applications are difficult to maintain in multi-user environments using current off-the-shelf VR equipment. Based on the development experiences and the tests, we provide five lessons learned that can be of interest to software engineers and researchers working on the development of multi-user VR systems.

  • 38.
    Lindfors, Patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    HälsoHjälparen: En användarvänlig kostprogramsapp2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan starten av coronapandemin har antalet nedladdade hälsoappar ökat med 25 procent (Orcha, 2021). I nuläget finns hundratals hälsoappar till hands. Dessa är dock bristfälliga i flera avseenden. Vissa av dem erbjuder kompletta kostprogram, men då får användaren inte flexibiliteten att själv välja vad som ska ätas. I andra fall får användaren skapa sina egna kostprogram. Då krävs i stället en tidskrävande metod där användaren antingen kritiskt måste analysera olika livsmedel från en databas alternativt själv ange näringsinnehåll för olika livsmedel. Detta har lett till en idé om en app som automatiskt genererar kostprogram som matchar användarens behov av energi och energikällor, utan bekostnad på flexibilitet.

    Detta är ett kandidatexamensarbete inom teknisk design på Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU). Projektet har utförts under tio veckors tid och har motsvarat 15 högskolepoäng. Syftet med projektet var delvis att ge kostintresserade människor möjligheten att snabbt och enkelt kunna ta fram egna, individanpassade kostprogram, som ska leda till mer hälsosamma kostvanor. Projektets mål var att ta fram en prototyp till en app som genererar högkvalitativa och användarvänliga kostprogram med minimal arbetsinsats från användaren.

    Projektet har följt IDEO:s användarcentrerade designprocess. I början av projektetgjordes en projektplan följt av en litteraturstudie som resulterade i en teoretisk referensram. Sedan följde projektet tre större faser; kontextundersökning, idégenerering och konceptframtagning. 

    För att undersöka kontexten utfördes först en enkätundersökning för att utreda människors åsikter gällande dagens kostappar. Vidare utfördes en konkurrentanalysbestående av flera steg, framför allt användartester på konkurrerande produkter. Utifrån den data som togs fram under fasen skapades två personas.

    Idégenereringsfasen inleddes med en brainstorm för att generera dellösningar. Fyralösningsförslag togs sedan fram med en morfologisk matris och utvärderades sedan med en konceptviktning baserad på kriterier hämtade från tidigare insamlat material med stöd från en intervju. På så vis valdes ett koncept ut för vidare implementering. 

    I konceptframtagningen gjordes först pappersskisser för det valda konceptet. Sedan gjordes en tidig prototyp i form av en wireframe i Adobe XD. Utifrån denna wireframe skapades sedan den slutgiltiga prototypen. 

    Det slutgiltiga konceptet blev en prototyp till en app vid namn HälsoHjälparenvars huvudfunktion är att generera individanpassade matscheman som matchar användarens behov av energi och energikällor. Vidare ligger fokus på användbarhet genom implementering av annan funktionalitet baserat på de behov som identifierats under projektets gång. Projektet anses ha uppfyllts sitt syfte genom att ta fram en produkt som potentiellt kan förbättra människors hälsa. 

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  • 39.
    Liwicki, Foteini
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Gupta, Vibha
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Saini, Rajkumar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    De, Kanjar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Rethinking the Methods and Algorithms for Inner Speech Decoding and Making Them Reproducible2022Ingår i: NeuroSci, ISSN 2673-4087, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 226-244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the automatic decoding of inner speech using noninvasive methods, such as Electroencephalography (EEG). While inner speech has been a research topic in philosophy and psychology for half a century, recent attempts have been made to decode nonvoiced spoken words by using various brain–computer interfaces. The main shortcomings of existing work are reproducibility and the availability of data and code. In this work, we investigate various methods (using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), Long Short-Term Memory Networks (LSTM)) for the detection task of five vowels and six words on a publicly available EEG dataset. The main contributions of this work are (1) subject dependent vs. subject-independent approaches, (2) the effect of different preprocessing steps (Independent Component Analysis (ICA), down-sampling and filtering), and (3) word classification (where we achieve state-of-the-art performance on a publicly available dataset). Overall we achieve a performance accuracy of 35.20% and 29.21% when classifying five vowels and six words, respectively, in a publicly available dataset, using our tuned iSpeech-CNN architecture. All of our code and processed data are publicly available to ensure reproducibility. As such, this work contributes to a deeper understanding and reproducibility of experiments in the area of inner speech detection.

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  • 40.
    Loudoun, Fiona M.
    et al.
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Boyle, Bryan
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Children's experiences of play in digital spaces: A scoping review2022Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 8, artikel-id e0272630Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child has substantiated play for play's sake, thus focusing on the doing or being of play rather than any potentially desired outcomes. Examining this type of play from the perspective of the child acknowledges children as meaning-makers. A scoping review was conducted to expose and map the extent of the evidence available in the emerging and diverse field of children's experiences of play in digital spaces. Specifically, the literature was examined with regards to relevance to children's everyday lives, the personal and ecological relevance, and the methods used. A systematic search of the literature over the past fifteen years found thirty-one articles appropriate for inclusion. The analysis of the literature revealed that the articles formed four categories of how play in digital spaces was approached: 'Videogames, behaviours, and societal norms', 'Videogames for its own sake', 'Videogames for learning', and 'Active Videogames for health promotion'. This scoping review has identified a lack of articles focusing on children's experiences of play in a digital space, and these perspectives are essential for parents, professionals, game designers, and policymakers alike to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the role of play in digital spaces.

  • 41.
    Lund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Lööw, Joel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    The Designers’ Perspective on Autonomous Mining Systems and Sociotechnology2024Ingår i: Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, ISSN 2524-3462, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 647-657Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization and automation technology offer new possibilities to increase productivity and obtain higher levels of autonomy in mining operations. Introducing autonomous systems into mining is not only a technical problem in terms of effectiveness and efficiency, nor a problem of safety in human-automation interactions. The systems also need to be designed and developed so that they foster healthy and attractive working environments. The design and development phase of new mining technology has not been extensively studied previously. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated technology developers’ basic assumptions about humans and their interactions with the technology they develop. We conducted five semi-structured workshops within an EU funded project concerned with developing digitalization and automation solutions for the mining industry. The data suggests that many critical functions will still be under human control in future mining systems. The results also indicate increased complexity in the interaction between autonomous systems and humans as the technology becomes more advanced. As a result, we suggest that a human perspective, based on sociotechnical principles, should not only be considered in implementing the technology at mines but also in the early conceptual phases of developing and designing the technology. This will ensure healthy and attractive work environments in the future mining industry.

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  • 42.
    Lundberg, Christoffer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    CoFramer: Ett diskussionsformat för djupa diskussioner på publika forum med låg Information Overload inspirerat av Philosophy for Children2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att presentera ett designkoncept för publika diskussioner på nätet med målet att uppnå djupare diskussioner och minska mängden information overload. Arbetet använder metoden Concept Driven Interaction Design (CDID) som går ut på att skapa ett designkoncept utifrån flera olika teorier som appliceras genom interaktionsdesign. Ett designkoncept innehåller tre delar: ett namn, ett syfte och huvudprinciper. CDID innehåller sju steg som arbetet är utformat efter:

    1.      Concept Generation – Summeras i en tabell som jämför diskussioner i forum (med flera antagande) och diskussioner med hjälp av metoden Philosophy for Children (P4C), samt annan teori.

    2.      Concept Exploration – Åtta olika designaspekter identifieras utifrån jämförelsetabellen.

    3.      Internal Concept Critique – Designaspekterna jämförs med två snarlika diskussionsformat.

    4.      Design of Artifacts – Designkoncept version 1 skapas.

    5.      External Design Critique – Intervjuer utförs för att undersöka intervjupersonerna generella erfarenheter av online diskussioner, testar antagandena från jämförelsetabellen och ge direkt feedback på första versionen av designkonceptet.

    6.      Concept Revisited – Ändringar görs baserat på intervjumaterial och direkt feedback.

    7.      Concept Contextualization – Designkonceptet kopplas tillbaka till litteraturen.

    Studien resulterar i ett designkoncept kallat CoFramer och stödjer dessa huvudprinciper som ställs i kontrast till material som identifierats genom intervjuerna:

    Tabell 1: CoFramers huvudprinciper och faktorer från intervjuer om diskussioner på forum.

    CoFramers huvudprinciper | Från intervjuer om diskussioner på forum

    Strukturerad början och slut | Diskussion utan tydligt slut

    Begränsat antal deltagare | Stor mängd deltagare

    Minimum antal deltagare | Många inaktiva åskådare

    Explicita deltagare | Lite information om deltagare

    Gemensamma förutsättningar | Otydlighet kring deltagares förutsättningar

    Begränsad informationstäthet per inlägg | Långa inlägg och/eller snabba inlägg

    Den röda tråden och parallella trådar | Oftast parallella trådar

    Aktiv samtalsledare | Outredda missförstånd

    Studien indikerar på att CoFramer bör resultera i mer strukturerade diskussioner och som utsätter användaren för en lägre mängd information overload och mindre grounding cost jämfört med vad som vanligtvis uppstår i publika diskussioner online.

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  • 43.
    Lundgren, Hanna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle.
    Streamline the ski rental process using RFID technology: Develop a solution that optimizes the ski rental process and is designed after the customer´s and staff´s needs.2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreställ dig att du har bokat en resa till fjällen och vill uppleva naturen och backarna. Men tyvärr har du ingen egen utrustning och behöver hyra från skiduthyrningen. Som kund hoppas du att uthyrningsprocessen går snabbt, smidigt och effektivt för att slippa stå i långa köer, då det enda du vill är att åka skidor. Det är precis vad det här examensarbetet handlar om, är det möjligt att effektivisera skiduthyrningsprocessen och designa en produktlösning eller tjänst som optimerar flödet. Flaskhalsar är något som stoppar upp och saktar ner en process. Genom att förbättra flaskhalsarna kan förhoppningsvis ett mer optimerat skiduthyrningsflöde uppnås. Det här examensarbetet är ett samarbete med företaget No More Boots. De har tagit fram ett verktyg som heter SkiClicker som gör det lättare att justera skidbindningar. SkiClicker har optimerat skiduthyrningsprocessen med 40 % och det här arbetet handlar om att undersöka om det finns fler lösningar som kan effektivisera skiduthyrningen. 

    Projektet bygger på människocentrerad design och tjänstedesign. IDEO (2015) förklarar att människocentrerad design handlar om att designa lösningar efter användarens behov och inse att användaren som möter problemen varje dag har svaret och nyckeln till lösningen. Utförde intervjuer, enkäter och observationer för att förstå vad personalen och kunderna upplever i en skiduthyrning samt förstå vad de har för problem och behov. Enligt Patnaik & Becker (1999) bör man bygga ett projekt på användarens behov i stället för en specifik lösning eftersom behov varar längre. Vidare skriver Patnaik & Becker (1999) att det också är mer troligt att slutanvändaren kommer att använda lösningen om projekt är byggt på användarens behov. Stickdorn et.al (2018) beskriver att tjänstedesign handlar om att designa en hel tjänst/process efter alla intressenter som berörs av systemet, och genom tjänsten ge värde till alla intressenter.

    Designprocessen Design Thinking från IDEO användes i det här projektet, processen har tre huvud faser att Understand, Explore och Materialize. Den första fasen handlar om att empatisera med användaren och förstå deras problem. Sedan definiera användarens behov och smalna av informationen samt skapa en fortsatt riktning för projekt. Nästa fas handlar om att generera idéer, skapa prototyper och testa idéerna med användarna. Den sista fasen handlar om att materialisera och implementera lösningen.

    Radio Frequency Identification, RFID är en teknik som möjliggör trådlös överföring av data av radiofrekvensvågor, fördelen med RFID är att taggarna kan upptäckas genom objekt och via ett avstånd (Smiley, 2020). Resultatet av det här projekt blev en tjänst för att hyra, prova och lämna tillbaka skidutrustning med hjälp av RFID-teknik. Genom vägledning och rekommendationer är målet att låta kunderna hitta och prova pjäxor själva utan personalens hjälp. Returprocessen är också något som förbättrades i det här projektet. Med den här nya returstation behöver inte kunderna längre ta en kölapp för att lämna tillbaka utrustningen. Kunden kan smidigt och enkelt bara placera utrustningen i returstation för att lämna tillbaka utrustningen. Direkt efter att någon ny utrustning har placerats på returhyllan kommer en ikon upp på en skärm som visar att utrustningen är återlämnad. Alla skidor och pjäxor är märkta med RFID-taggar och returstationen har RFID-läsare för att kunna upptäcka taggarna. Personalen har redan mycket att göra i en skiduthyrning, så genom att låta kunderna utföra fler uppgifter på egen hand kan förhoppningsvis ett mer tidseffektivt flöde uppnås. 

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  • 44.
    Milad, Abdalrhman
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Majeed, Sayf A.
    Technical Computer Engineering, Al-Hadba University College, Mosul 41001, Iraq.
    Ali, Zainab Hasan
    College of Engineering: Civil Engineering Department, University of Diyala, Baqubah, Iraq.
    Solla, Mohmed
    Technical Computer Research and Development Department, Microcorp Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Rahmat, Riza Atiq
    Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Yaseen, Zaher Mundher
    Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam.
    An Educational Web-Based Expert System for Novice Highway Technology in Flexible Pavement Maintenance2021Ingår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, Vol. 2021, artikel-id 6669010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, higher education worldwide is affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It has affected students’ attendance in the universities and causes universities to close down in more than 190 countries. On the other hand, novice engineers studied only a few lectures related to highway engineering. Their lectures have included very little knowledge about asphalt pavement construction as highway engineering consists of many areas that are not studied in detail during their studying years subject to their traditional education. Due to all mentioned, a new drive to promote online learning paves the way to evaluate our future approach to curriculum development and delivery of educational materials for engineering courses. However, experts can offer solutions to these problems using their past experience. Hence, a system that allows experts to share their experience with other engineers after completing a project is needed. Nevertheless, the web-based expert system for maintaining flexible pavement problems in tropical regions (ESTAMPSYS) designed in this study is a novel concept. Prior to developing this system, the need for such a system was determined through literature review and validated through a questionnaire survey. Experts were interviewed, and a questionnaire survey was conducted to construct the knowledge base of the system. Knowledge was presented as rules and coded in software through PHP programming. Web pages that support the user interface were designed using a framework that consists of CSS, HTML, and J-Query. Furthermore, the system was tested by an array of users engaged in highway engineering, namely, experts, teaching experts, novice engineers, and students. The mean values of the overall system evaluation performed by 20 users using a five-point Likert scale were 4, 4.5, 3.75, 4.25, 5, 4, and 3.5. Expert and user satisfaction prove the effectiveness of the proposed system.

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  • 45.
    Mishra, Ashish Ranjan
    et al.
    Rajkiya Engineering College Sonbhadra, UP, India; Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, UP, India.
    Kumar, Rakesh
    Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, UP, India.
    Gupta, Vibha
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Prabhu, Sameer
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Upadhyay, Richa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Chhipa, Prakash Chandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Rakesh, Sumit
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Mokayed, Hamam
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Liwicki, Foteini
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Saini, Rajkumar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    SignEEG v1.0 : Multimodal Electroencephalography and Signature Database for Biometric Systems2023Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Nieminen, H.
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Department Of Nursing Science, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kuosmanen, L.
    University of Eastern Finland, Department Of Nursing Science, Kuopio, Finland.
    Bond, R.
    Ulster University, School Of Computing, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Vartiainen, A-K
    University of Eastern Finland, Department Of Health And Social Management, Kuopio, Finland.
    Mulvenna, M.
    Ulster University, School Of Computing, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Potts, C.
    Ulster University, School Of Computing, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Omvårdnad och medicinsk teknik.
    Coproducing multilingual conversational scripts for a mental wellbeing chatbot - where healthcare domain experts become chatbot designers2022Ingår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 65, nr 1, SI, s. 293-293, artikel-id EPP0517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Digital mental health interventions, such as chatbots that promote mental health and wellbeing are a promising way to deliver low-threshold support 24/7 for those in need. According to current knowledge about the topic, health care professionals should participate in the design and development processes for digital interventions.

    Objectives

    The aim of this presentation is to describe the interdisciplinary content development process of the ChatPal chatbot.

    Methods

    The content development process started in co-operation with mental health professionals and potential users to identify requirements. Content was created, evaluated and tested in international, multi-disciplinary group workshops, and online tools were used to allow the collaboration. Initial conversational scripts were drafted in English, and translated into Finnish, Swedish and Scottish Gaelic.

    Results

    A multilingual chatbot was developed and the conversation scripts were structured and stored using a spreadsheet. The conversation scripts will be made freely available online in due course using this structured approach to formatting chatbot dialogue content. It will allow repurposing the content as well as facilitating studies that wish to assess the design of conversation scripts for mental health chatbots. Conversation design process also highlighted some challenges in turning empathetic and supportive conversations to short utterances suitable for a chatbot.

    Conclusions

    The ChatPal chatbot is now available in four languages. As literature about the topic is still scarce, it is important to describe and document the content development processes of mental health chatbots. Future work will develop a conversational UX toolkit that would allow health professionals to design chatbot scripts using design guidelines.

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  • 47.
    Nilsson, David
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Design och Utveckling Av Gränssnitt för SkiSelector2024Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att skapa förståelse för hur visuell representation av en produkt kan förändras för att förbättra stödet i säljprocessen och ge beslutsstöd för kund utan expertkunskap. Detta involverar tre frågeställningar: 

    Vilka problem finns det med nuvarande visualisering för okunniga?

    Hur kan visualisering användas för att öka användarens förståelse av skidan?

    Hur kan visuell representation av en produkt förändras för att förbättra stödet i säljprocessen och ge beslutsstöd för kund utan expertkunskap?

    Studien har genomförts med användning av design reviews på användare (skidförsäljare) och företaget Elpex som tillverkar verktyget. Metoden som användes för studien var en Design Research Methodology (DRM) och datainsamlingen har gjorts genom design reviews av användare (skidförsäljare) samt företaget Elpex vilket är tillverkarna av verktyget. Slutsatsen av denna studie är att alla förbättringar som utförts har enligt användare ökat förståelsen och läsbarheten av gränssnittet och att detta stöds av nämnd teori. Användarens förståelse och läsbarhet av gränssnittet är direkt knutet till visualisering och applikationens process vilket i detta fall är att välja en skida åt en kund. Att förändra element i ett gränssnitt där all data beror på en så stor och meningsfull graf kan förändra förståelsen på hela gränssnittet, och att bryta ner grafen till enklare visualisering kan öka hur snabbt en säljarprocess utförs genom att snabbare se mönster och dra slutsatser. Små förändringar och missar i ett gränssnitt kan ha stor betydelse på gränssnittets förståelse, likt oanvända grafer och texter som kan ha inverkan på en användares fokus och därmed läsbarhet genom processen. Men även små tillagda texter som tydliggör viss information så användaren inte behöver ha erfarenhet om applikationen.

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  • 48.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Improving the Security of the Android Pattern Lock using Biometrics and Machine Learning2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of Android smartphones, the Android Pattern Lock graphical password has become commonplace. The Android Pattern Lock is advantageous in that it is easier to remember and is more complex than a five digit numeric code. However, it is susceptible to a number of attacks, both direct and indirect. This fact shows that the Android Pattern Lock by itself is not enough to protect personal devices. Other means of protection are needed as well.

    In this thesis I have investigated five methods for the analysis of biometric data as an unnoticable second verification step of the Android Pattern Lock. The methods investigated are the euclidean barycentric anomaly detector, the dynamic time warping barycentric anomaly detector, a one-class support vector machine, the local outlier factor anomaly detector and a normal distribution based anomaly detector. The models were trained using an online training strategy to enable adaptation to changes in the user input behaviour. The model hyperparameters were fitted using a data set with 85 users. The models are then tested with other data sets to illustrate how different phone models and patterns affect the results.       

    The euclidean barycentric anomaly detector and dynamic time warping (DTW) barycentric anomaly detector have a sub 10 \% equal error rate in both mean and median, while the other three methods have an equal error rate between 15 \% and 20 \% in mean and median. The higher performance of the euclidean and DTW barycentric anomaly detector is likely because they account for the time series nature of the data, while the other methods do not. Each user in the data set have provided each pattern at most 50 times, meaning that the long-term effects of user adaptation could not be studied.

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  • 49.
    Oyelere, Amos Sunday
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland.
    Agbo, Friday Joseph
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, FIN-80101, Joensuu, Finland; School of Computing and Data Science, Willamette University, Salem, OR, 97301, USA.
    Oyelere, Solomon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formative evaluation of immersive virtual reality expedition mini-games to facilitate computational thinking2023Ingår i: Computers & Education: X Reality, ISSN 2949-6780, Vol. 2, artikel-id 100016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, virtual reality (VR) technology has shown great potential in advancing education with many pedagogical benefits for building the 21st-century teaching and learning experience. This study conducted a formative evaluation of an immersive VR expedition application with the aim of understanding users' learning processes and how the application facilitates higher education students' computational thinking skills. Six participants were randomly selected to conduct this evaluation. A mixed research approach consisting of quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. The study quantitatively analyzed users' scores from gameplay to understand how the intervention supported computational thinking skills. Participants were also interviewed to collect data after playing the mini-games to investigate users' experiences. The study showcases players' computational thinking competency, assessed automatically during gameplay. Further, this study used inductive content analysis to demonstrate users' reactions to prototyped VR mini-games. The qualitative findings suggest that users found the VR mini-games interactive and immersive, which provided an opportunity to foster learners' computational thinking skills. The quantitative analysis revealed that student's computational thinking competency can be enhanced through consistent playing of the mini-games. Moreover, the expedition aspect of the VR game stimulated learners' curiosity, which sustained their learning progress. Furthermore, users gained new knowledge and found the mini-games educative. Nevertheless, several aspects of the VR mini-games need improvements, according to users' perceptions. This study contributes to the knowledge in terms of the affordances of VR in education research and provides relevant insights that can shape future studies, for example, the recent hype of metaverse in education.

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  • 50.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Berghem, Simon Malmström
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Brännström, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Department of Digital Media, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Korea.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik, Hälsa, medicin och rehabilitering.
    Initial Design and Testing of Multiplayer Cooperative Game to Support Physical Activity in Schools2022Ingår i: Education Sciences, E-ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ecent studies have shown that children are not adequately physically active and there is a need to increase children’s physical activity. This study describes new opportunities and solutions for using existing games and gamification to increase physical activity among children in Sweden. We adopted the principles of Tic-Tac-Training to redesign, build, and test a classical multiplayer cooperative game, Battleship, to create a PA game that children experience as fun and engaging. The low fidelity prototype of the game was developed using an iterative game development life cycle and tested with 13 young male children aged 8–11 in a real-world informal setting. A mixed-method research approach was used to understand the users’ experiences and the impact of the Battleship-PA game on behavior change regarding physical activity. Research data were collected through audio recordings of interactions, direct observation, and a user experience questionnaire. The results of this study indicate both positive and negative feedback that can be used to improve the game and user experiences. The results from the unfiltered recordings revealed that both teams were competitive, cooperated within their team, and became excited whenever they destroyed opponent’s ships or were close to winning. However, the children felt bored and exhausted when many gamification tasks were repeated several times in a game session. Direct observation indicated that the children enjoyed the physical activities resulting from playing the game. However, participants who had not previously played the classical version of Battleship were confused about the objectives and concept of the game. The analysis of the user experience questionnaire indicated that most children found the game easy to play, motivating, engaging, interactive, fun, cooperative, competitive, and visually appealing. Furthermore, most children agreed that the game helped them to be physically active and strongly agreed that they enjoyed performing the physical activities in the game. Future work is needed to improve the game user interface, gamification elements, and prepare additional physical activity tasks for a rewarding experience.

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