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• 1.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Discovery of recurring slope lineae candidates in Mawrth Vallis, Mars2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 2040Article in journal (Refereed)

utside of established RSL regions and further prompt the inclusion of a new geographical region within the RSL candidate group. Our inferences on the RSL candidates are based on several morphological and geophysical evidences and analogies: (i) the dimensions of the RSL candidates are consistent with confirmed mid-latitude RSL; (ii) albedo and thermal inertia values are comparable to those of other mid-latitude RSL sites; and (iii) features are found in a summer season image and on the steep and warmest slopes. These results denote the plausible presence of transient liquid brines close to the previously proposed landing ellipse of the ExoMars rover, rendering this site particularly relevant to the search of life. Further investigations of Mawrth Vallis carried out at higher spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to identify more of such features at local scales to maximize the scientific return from the future Mars rovers, to prevent probable biological contamination during rover operations, to evade damage to rover components as brines can be highly corrosive, and to quantify the ability of the regolith at mid-latitudes to capture atmospheric water which is relevant for in-situ-resource utilization.

• 2.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
Distribution and Morphologies of Transverse Aeolian Ridges in ExoMars 2020 Rover Landing Site2019In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 912Article in journal (Refereed)

Aeolian processes are believed to play a major role in the landscape evolution of Mars. Investigations on Martian aeolian landforms such as ripples, transverse aeolian ridges (TARs), and dunes, and aeolian sediment flux measurements are important to enhance our understanding of past and present wind regimes, the ongoing dust cycle, landscape evolution, and geochemistry. These aeolian bedforms are often comprised of loose sand and sharply undulating topography and thus pose a threat to mobility and maneuvers of Mars rovers. Here we present a first-hand account of the distribution, morphologies, and morphometrics of TARs in Oxia Planum, the recently selected ExoMars 2020 Rover landing site. The gridded mapping was performed for contiguous stretches of TARs within all the landing ellipses using 57 sub-meter high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) scenes. We also provide the morphological descriptions for all types of TARs present within the landing ellipses. We use HiRISE digital terrain models (DTMs) along with the images to derive morphometric information for TARs in Oxia Planum. In general, the average areal TAR coverage was found to be 5.4% (±4.9% standard deviation), increasing from west to east within the landing ellipses. We report the average TAR morphometrics in the form of crest–ridge width (131.1 ± 106.2 m), down-wind TAR length (17.6 ± 10.1 m), wavelength (37.3 ± 11.6 m), plan view aspect ratio (7.1 ± 2.3), inter-bedform spacing (2.1 ± 1.1), slope (10.6° ± 6.1°), predominant orientations (NE-SW and E-W), and height (1.2 ± 0.8 m). While simple TARs are predominant, we report other TAR morphologies such as forked TAR, wavy TAR with associated smaller secondary ripples, barchan-like TAR, networked TAR, and mini-TARs from the region. Our results can help in planning the rover traverses in terms of both safe passage and scientific returns favoring aeolian research, particularly improving our understanding of TARs.

• 3.
UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK; Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Granada, Spain . Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
Subsurface scientific exploration of extraterrestrial environments (MINAR 5): analogue science, technology and education in the Boulby Mine, UK2019In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 157-182Article in journal (Refereed)

The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.

• 4.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Contribution from dimers to the collision-induced absorption spectra in an Ar–Kr gas mixture2019In: International Conference on Spectral Lines Shapes: 17–22 June 2018, Dublin City University, Ireland / [ed] John Costello, 2019, Vol. 1289, article id 012021Conference paper (Refereed)
• 5.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
MARSWRF Prediction of Entry Descent Landing Profiles: Applications to Mars Exploration2019In: Earth and Space Science, E-ISSN 2333-5084, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1440-1459Article in journal (Refereed)

In this paper we use the Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting model, MarsWRF, to simulate the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) vertical profiles from six past missions: Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and SpiritPhoenix, Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and ExoMars 2016 (Schiaparelli), and compare the results with observed data. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the model predictions to the atmospheric dust distribution, MarsWRF is run with two prescribed dust scenarios. It is concluded that the MarsWRF EDL predictions can be used for guidance into the design and planning stage of future missions to the planet, as it generally captures the observed EDL profiles, although it has a tendency to underestimate the temperature and overestimate the density for heights above 15 km. This could be attributed to an incorrect representation of the observed dust loading. We have used the model to predict the EDL conditions that may be encountered by two future missions: ExoMars 2020 and Mars 2020. When run for Oxia Planum and Jezero Crater for the expected landing time, MarsWRF predicts a large sensitivity to the dust loading in particular for the horizontal wind speed above 10‐15 km with maximum differences of up to ±30 m s‐1 for the former and ±15 m s‐1 for the latter site. For both sites, the best time for EDL, i.e. when the wind speed is generally the weakest with smaller shifts in direction, is predicted to be in the late morning and early afternoon.

• 6.
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA.
Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, USA. LATMOS, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UVSQ, Paris, France. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. College of Arts and Sciences, Misericordia University, Dallas, PA, USA. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC‐UGR), Granada, Spain. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Houston, TX, USA. Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA. Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA‐CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
Seasonal Variations in Atmospheric Composition as Measured in Gale Crater, Mars2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 3000-3024Article in journal (Refereed)

The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover measures the chemical composition of major atmospheric species (CO2, N240Ar, O2, and CO) through a dedicated atmospheric inlet. We report here measurements of volume mixing ratios in Gale Crater using the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer, obtained over a period of nearly 5 years (3 Mars years) from landing. The observation period spans the northern summer of MY 31 and solar longitude (LS) of 175° through spring of MY 34, LS = 12°. This work expands upon prior reports of the mixing ratios measured by SAM QMS in the first 105 sols of the mission. The SAM QMS atmospheric measurements were taken periodically, with a cumulative coverage of four or five experiments per season on Mars. Major observations include the seasonal cycle of CO2, N2, and Ar, which lags approximately 20–40° of LS behind the pressure cycle driven by CO2 condensation and sublimation from the winter poles. This seasonal cycle indicates that transport occurs on faster timescales than mixing. The mixing ratio of O2 shows significant seasonal and interannual variability, suggesting an unknown atmospheric or surface process at work. The O2 measurements are compared to several parameters, including dust optical depth and trace CH4 measurements by Curiosity. We derive annual mean volume mixing ratios for the atmosphere in Gale Crater: CO2 = 0.951 (±0.003), N2 = 0.0259 (±0.0006), 40Ar = 0.0194 (±0.0004), O2 = 1.61 (±0.09) x 103, and CO = 5.8 (±0.8) x 104.

• 7.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
History of Globulettes in the Milky Way2018In: Astrophysics and Space Science, ISSN 0004-640X, E-ISSN 1572-946X, Vol. 363, no 2, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)

Globulettes are small (radii $< 10$ kAU) dark dust clouds, seen against the background of bright nebulae.

A majority of the objects have planetary mass.

These objects may be a source of brown dwarfs and free floating planetary mass objects in the galaxy.

In this paper we investigate how many globulettes could have formed in the Milky Way and how they could contribute to the total population of free floating planets.

In order to do that we examine H-alpha images of 27 H~II regions. In these images, we find 778 globulettes.

We find that a conservative value of the number of globulettes formed is $5.7\times 10^{10}$.

If 10 \% of the globulettes form free floating planets then they have contributed with $5.7\times 10^{9}$ free floating planets in the Milky Way. A less conservative number of globulettes would mean that the globulettes could contribute $2.0\times 10^{10}$ free floating planets.

Thus the globulettes could represent a non-negligible source of free floating planets in the Milky Way.

• 8.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Hydrogen dimer features in low temperature collision-induced spectra2017In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 810, no 1, article id 012017Article in journal (Refereed)

The absorption of radiation in pure hydrogen (H2) gas around the S(0) and S(1) rotational transitions is computed at 20 K and compared with laboratory data. All transitions involving free state are included in the calculations of the absolute absorption. These calculations are done with an isotropic approximation for the H2–H2 pair potential. Agreement with the experiment is observed around the S(0) transition, while the computational approach appears to be slightly worse around the S(1) transition. The positions for bound-to-bound transitions are computed including the full anisotropic pair potential. The anisotropy seems to be crucial to achieve agreement with the measured bound-to-bound transition frequencies. However, those transitions contribute little to the total absorption. The present computed absolute absorptions will provide improved input for radiative transfer models of planetary atmospheres.

• 9.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
University of Leicester. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
A computational study of hydrogen dimers in giant-planet infrared spectra2019In: International Conference on Spectral Lines Shapes : 17–22 June 2018, Dublin City University, Ireland, 2019, Vol. 1289, article id 012010Conference paper (Refereed)
• 10.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Galaxies, High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology at Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie.
Investigating super-Eddington accretion flows in Ultraluminous X-ray sources2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

It is now widely known that most of the large galaxies we observe (e.g. the Milky Way) host in their center a supermassive black hole ($10^{6}-10^{9}$ $M_\odot$). Several relationships between the central black hole mass and the properties of the stars in the central part of the galaxy have been established in the past 3 decades indicating that the central black hole is able to efficiently structure the matter around it due to episodes of accretion of matter onto the black hole. Recent infrared and optical sky surveys have detected supermassive black holes with masses around $10^{8-9}$ $M_\odot$ when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age and current theories have difficulties explaining how such massive objects could have formed over such short timescales. The goal of the present work is to shed light on the properties of a still largely unknown extreme accretion regime, the so called super-Eddington accretion regime. If such accretion regime could be sustained over sufficient timescales, it could play an important role in both the rapid growth of supermassive black holes as well as its co-evolution with its host galaxy. The aim of this work is therefore to apply high resolution spectroscopy to Ultraluminous X-ray sources in order to identify narrow spectral features to derive constrains on the outflows expected from super-Eddington accreting sources using data from the XMM-Newton observatory. For this purpose I developed a framework to analyse low count background dominated spectra that uses a Monte Carlo approach to detect these narrow features. After analysis of the source Holmberg II X-1, I identify 7 unresolved discrete features with a 3$\sigma$ confidence level that can be tentatively identified with ionic species. Furthermore, the instrumental resolution allows us to put upper limits on the broadening of the lines. This findings will allow us to probe the properties of the outflows of the super-Eddington regime and by extending the analysis to other sources we will able to characterize the observational properties of this accretion regime.

• 11.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
Test Of Cosmological Models With Variable G2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 12.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
The Klein-Alfven Cosmology Revisited2019Report (Other academic)
• 13.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
The Klein-Alfvén cosmology revisited2019In: Journal of Physics Communication, E-ISSN 2399-6528, Vol. 3, no 11, article id 115001Article in journal (Refereed)

The Klein-Alfvén model is based on the pragmatic belief that also cosmology, just like all other fields of physics, should be based on physical laws independently tested in the laboratory. It actually has a number of attractive features, described in this article. As almost all matter in the known universe is in the plasma state, the model is by necessity based on both gravity and electromagnetism, and as most cosmic plasmas are inhomogeneous and magnetized, it is automatically inhomogeneous (as is the real universe). It is not perfect (no models are), but many of the outstanding unsolved 'problems' of the contemporary standard big bang-model of cosmology are either solved/sidestepped by, or non-existent in, the Klein-Alfvén model. One should remember that the standard model of cosmology also is just that—a model, and highly idealized at that, with many ad hoc ingredients and a large number of free parameters and hypothetical ingredients that are fixed only through comparison with cosmological data in a global best-fit fashion. It is not, and should never be considered to be, sacrosanct. If a comparable number of man-hours had been invested in the direction of the Klein-Alfvén model it is plausible that it would describe the real observed universe as good as, or even better than, the big bang-model—with much fewer speculative additions to known physics.

• 14.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Nonlinear Effects of Gravity in CosmologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

We investigate some nonlinear effects of gravity in cosmology. Possible physically interesting consequences include: non-requirement ofdark matter and dark energy, asymmetric gravitational matter-creation,emergent homogeneity/isotropy & asymptotic flatness, resolution of“cosmic coincidence” Ωm∼Ω, effective cutoff of gravitational inter-action at the scale of cosmic voids.

• 15.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
Nonlinear Effects of Gravity in Cosmology2018In: Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics, ISSN 1313-1311, E-ISSN 1314-7609, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)

We consider some nonlinear effects of gravity in cosmology. Possible physically interesting consequences include: non-requirement of dark matter and dark energy, asymmetric gravitational matter-creation, emergent homogeneity/isotropy & asymptotic flatness, resolution of "cosmic coincidence" Omega_m \sim Omega_lambda, effective cutoff of gravitational interaction at the scale of cosmic voids.

• 16. Korablev, Oleg
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
No detection of methane on Mars from early ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter observations2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 568, p. 517-520Article in journal (Refereed)

The detection of methane on Mars has been interpreted as indicating that geochemical or biotic activities could persist on Mars today1. A number of different measurements of methane show evidence of transient, locally elevated methane concentrations and seasonal variations in background methane concentrations2,3,4,5. These measurements, however, are difficult to reconcile with our current understanding of the chemistry and physics of the Martian atmosphere6,7, which—given methane’s lifetime of several centuries—predicts an even, well mixed distribution of methane1,6,8. Here we report highly sensitive measurements of the atmosphere of Mars in an attempt to detect methane, using the ACS and NOMAD instruments onboard the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter from April to August 2018. We did not detect any methane over a range of latitudes in both hemispheres, obtaining an upper limit for methane of about 0.05 parts per billion by volume, which is 10 to 100 times lower than previously reported positive detections2,4. We suggest that reconciliation between the present findings and the background methane concentrations found in the Gale crater4 would require an unknown process that can rapidly remove or sequester methane from the lower atmosphere before it spreads globally.

• 17.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Evaluation Analysis of the UV-detector on the Mini-EUSO Space Telescope2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Extragalactic charged particles, each with energies rising up to and beyond 1 Joule, have been studied for almost a century. Yet, no precise evidence have proven to show where they might originate from as their energy levels rise above the current familiar acceleration sources in outer space. The highly energetic particles have been given the name Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and investigations of particle properties such as primary energy, mass composition and direction can be made through indirect measurements of the interaction between the UHECR and Earth's atmosphere. The considered interaction induces an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) which emits fluorescent light in the Ultraviolet (UV) range. The probability of detecting such events is, however, as low as a few particles per km2 per century. Making observations more sufficient therefore requires larger detection volumes.

By introducing the Mini-EUSO instrument, a telescope of which the main purpose is to measure the UV-light radiated from the Earth in the wavelength range of 300-400 nm, allows just for this. To be accommodating the International Space Station and targeting Earth in the nadir direction, the Mini-EUSO instrument will allow for a higher exposure to the interactions than what is currently available. The use of two Fresnel lenses provides the instrument with a large field of view (±22o) and the detections are made through multiple photomultiplier tubes.

The scope of this thesis is to evaluate the main detector of the Mini-EUSO instrument (i.e. the UV-detector) through ground-based tests. The procedures involved in the evaluation have consisted of; validating the statistical distributions of the signals, implementing dark field and flat field calibrations, and radiations measurements with three kinds of radiation sources. The data from the tests were provided during two periods and the visualization was made by adapting an already existing piece of code, using Python and ROOT Cern, to perform step by step procedures such that all operations are overlooked properly.

The analysis showed that the implementation of the dark field and flat field procedures improved the original image significantly. It also showed that both the lower and higher photon count values in a pixel indeed gave the expected statistical behaviours, with a Poissonian distribution for low values and a Gaussian distribution for higher values. The flat fielding screen did however show unknown fluctuations in the emitted light and further tests have to be implemented to assure its functionality. Under proper covering, almost no dark current was found, however, observation tests showed that the borders of the Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs) gave higher photon count values than the center part even when they were emitted with Lambertian light.

• 18.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
The transmission spectrum of WASP-121b in high resolution with HARPS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 19.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
MAC-E-Filter characterization for PTOLEMY: a relic neutrino direct detection experiment2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis

The cosmic neutrino background (CNB) can be composed of both active and hypothetical sterileneutrinos. At approximately one second after big bang, neutrinos decoupled from radiationand matter at a temperature of approximately one MeV. Neutrinos played an important role inthe origin and evolution of our universe and have been indirectly verified by cosmological dataon the BBN (Big Bang nucleosynthesis) of the Big Bang.It was Steven Weinberg in 1962 that first theorized on the direct detection of relic neutrinos.The signal of the relic neutrino capture on a tritium target can be observed by studying theendpoint of the electrons kinetic energy that are above the endpoint energy of the beta decayspectrum. The PTOLEMY project aims to archive direct detection of the relic neutrinobackground with a large tritium target of 100 gram, MAC-E-Filter, RF-tracking, Time of flighttracking and a cryogenic calorimetry.In this thesis the MAC-E-Filter have been simulated in two filter configurations. In the firstconfiguration, the electron were simulated five times in the filter. Two in the opposite sideof the detector, one in the middle, and two at the detector. In the second configuration theelectrons was simulated in the entrance solenoid at a fixed position of y = -0.19634954 m fromthe center of the filter and in random positions. Both multiple electrons and single electronswere simulated in the second configuration.In the single electron configuration the electron had a starting position of y = -0.19634954 mfrom the center of the filter, and an initial kinetic energy of 18.6 KeV. The first filter configurationsuccessfully accomplished to simulate the electron track, as the electron was reflectedback and forth between the entry and detector solenoid. The electric and magnetic field profilediered at the entry and detector solenoid. The second filter configuration successfully showedthat the electron will reach the end solenoid, when the filter length was 0.5 m. When the filterlength was increased to 0.7 m, then the electron was reflected in the middle of the filter. Thesimulation showed that the electron energy dropped below 1 eV from 18.6 KeV as the electronpropagated through the filter. The magnetic and electric fields decreased exponentially in thedirection of the detector solenoid. The Simulation of multiple electrons showed mixed resultsand would need more modifications in order to come to a final conclusion.

• 20.
Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (IASB-BIRA), Brussels, Belgium.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Univ Granada, Inst Andaluz Ciencias Tierra, Granada, Spain. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Inst Nacl Tecn Aeroespacial CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid, Spain.
Martian dust storm impact on atmospheric H2O and D/H observed by ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter2019In: Nature, ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 568, no 7753, p. 521-525Article in journal (Refereed)

Global dust storms on Mars are rare1,2 but can affect the Martian atmosphere for several months. They can cause changes in atmospheric dynamics and inflation of the atmosphere3, primarily owing to solar heating of the dust3. In turn, changes in atmospheric dynamics can affect the distribution of atmospheric water vapour, with potential implications for the atmospheric photochemistry and climate on Mars4. Recent observations of the water vapour abundance in the Martian atmosphere during dust storm conditions revealed a high-altitude increase in atmospheric water vapour that was more pronounced at high northern latitudes5,6, as well as a decrease in the water column at low latitudes7,8. Here we present concurrent, high-resolution measurements of dust, water and semiheavy water (HDO) at the onset of a global dust storm, obtained by the NOMAD and ACS instruments onboard the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. We report the vertical distribution of the HDO/H2O ratio (D/H) from the planetary boundary layer up to an altitude of 80 kilometres. Our findings suggest that before the onset of the dust storm, HDO abundances were reduced to levels below detectability at altitudes above 40 kilometres. This decrease in HDO coincided with the presence of water-ice clouds. During the storm, an increase in the abundance of H2O and HDO was observed at altitudes between 40 and 80 kilometres. We propose that these increased abundances may be the result of warmer temperatures during the dust storm causing stronger atmospheric circulation and preventing ice cloud formation, which may confine water vapour to lower altitudes through gravitational fall and subsequent sublimation of ice crystals3. The observed changes in H2O and HDO abundance occurred within a few days during the development of the dust storm, suggesting a fast impact of dust storms on the Martian atmosphere.

• 21.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
Influence of the Martian regolith on the atmospheric methane and water vapour cycle2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Context. The Martian methane and water cycle are subject of ongoing research through simulation. Exchange with the subsurface has a potentially strong impact, but is often neglected.

Aims. For methane, I determine if adsorption with an increased enthalpy can explain the observed seasonal variations and conflicting observations by the Trace Gas Orbiter and the Curiosity rover. For water, the impact of adsorption and ice formation in the subsurface on the global cycle is studied. A new way of initializing the soil, by running a decoupled subsurface model, is tested. Depths of stable subsurface ice and subsurface water distributions are studied.

Methods. A General Circulation Model (GCM) is used with a purely diffusive subsurface model. For methane, different initial states, source scenarios, and decay times are tested. For water, a model without an active atmosphere is implemented to provide an initial state. The effect of the subsurface with this initial state on the full atmospheric water cycle is tested.

Results. For methane, a strong influence on the global methane cycle is observed. Seasonal variations measured at Gale Crater are reproduced, but the conflicting observations cannot be explained by adsorption. For water, the new initialization can be used without completely disrupting the water cycle. It leads to a generally wetter atmosphere, in conflict with observations. Found ice table depths do not match well with observations, but ice profiles reproduce previous findings.

Conclusion. Methane adsorption is able to partly explain observed variations, but cannot be the only process to influence methane abundances. The new initialization method for water works well in principle, but a more refined model is needed for more realistic results.

• 22.
Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Formation of CO+ by radiative association II2020In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 492, no 3, p. 3794-3802Article in journal (Refereed)
• 23.
Charles University.
Charles University. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. University of Gothenburg.
Formation of CO+ by radiative association2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 489, no 2, p. 2954-2960Article in journal (Refereed)

We theoretically estimate formation rate coefficients for CO+ through the radiative association of C+(2P) with O(3P). In 1989, Petuchowski et al. claimed radiative association to be the most important route for CO+ formation in SN 1987A. In 1990, Dalgarno, Du and You challenged this claim. Therefore, in this study, we improve previous estimates of the radiative association rate coefficients for forming CO+ from C+(2P) and O(3P). To do this, we perform quantum mechanically based perturbation theory calculations as well as semiclassical calculations, which are combined with Breit–Wigner theory in order to add the effect of shape resonances. We explicitly include four electronic transitions. The required potential energy and transition dipole-moment curves are obtained through large basis set multireference configuration interaction electronic structure calculations. We report cross-sections and from these we obtain rate coefficients in the range of 10 –10 000 K, finding that the CO+ formation rate coefficient is larger than the previous estimate by Dalgarno et al. Still our results support their claim that in SN 1987A, CO is mainly formed through radiative association and not through the charge transfer reaction CO+ + O → CO + Oas earlier suggested by Petuchowski et al.

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