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  • 1.
    Albers, Roland
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Andrews, Henrik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 1, Trondheim, 7034, Norway.
    Boccacci, Gabriele
    Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Pires, Vasco D.C.
    DEMec, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, Porto, 4200-465, Portugal; Chair of Designing Plastics and Composite Materials, Department of Polymer Engineering and Science, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Otto Glöckel-Straße 2, Leoben, 8700, Austria.
    Laddha, Sunny
    Space Research Institute Graz, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, Graz, 8042, Austria.
    Lundén, Ville
    Department of Electronics and Nanotechnology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Maarintie 8, Espoo, 02150, Finland.
    Maraqten, Nadim
    University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 29, Stuttgart, 70569, Germany.
    Matias, João
    Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
    Krämer, Eva
    Department of Physics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Schulz, Leonard
    Institute of Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, 38106, Germany.
    Palanca, Ines Terraza
    Faculty of Physics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028, Spain.
    Teubenbacher, Daniel
    Space Research Institute Graz, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, Graz, 8042, Austria; Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Baskevitch, Claire
    UMR8190 LATMOS (CNRS/Sorbonne Université), 4 place Jussieu, Paris, 75252, France; UMR8109, LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, Meudon, 92195, France.
    Covella, Francesca
    Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
    Cressa, Luca
    Advanced Instrumentation for Nano-Analytics (AINA), Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41 Rue du Brill, Belvaux, 4422, Luxembourg.
    Moreno, Juan Garrido
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - BarcelonaTech (UPC), 11 Colom St., Terrassa, 08222, Catalonia, Spain.
    Gillmayr, Jana
    University of Graz, Rechbauerstraße 12, Graz, 8010, Austria.
    Hollowood, Joshua
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.
    Huber, Kilian
    Faculty of Science, Technology and Medicine, University of Luxembourg, 2 Avenue de l’Université, Esch-sur-Alzette, 4365, Luxembourg; Advanced Instrumentation for Nano-Analytics (AINA), Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology, 41 Rue du Brill, Belvaux, 4422, Luxembourg.
    Kutnohorsky, Viktoria
    Institute for Geophysics and Astrophysics, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Lennerstrand, Sofia
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Malatinszky, Adel
    Space Research Laboratory, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly-Thege Miklós út 29-33, Budapest, 1121, Hungary.
    Manzini, Davide
    Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas (LPP), CNRS, École Polytechnique, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris-Saclay, Observatoire de Paris, Palaiseau, 91120, France; Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Pisa, 56127, Italy.
    Maurer, Manuel
    University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 3, Graz, 8010, Austria.
    Nidelea, Daiana Maria Alessandra
    Politehnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania.
    Rigon, Luca
    Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Sinjan, Jonas
    Max–Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 3, Göttingen, 37077, Germany.
    Suarez, Crisel
    Vanderbilt University, 12201 West End Ave, Nashville, 37235, TN, USA; The Center for Astrophysics, Harvard and Smithsonian, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, 02138, MA, USA.
    Viviano, Mirko
    Department of Electronics and Nanotechnology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Maarintie 8, Espoo, 02150, Finland.
    Knutsen, Elise Wright
    LATMOS/IPSL, UVSQ Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universit, CNRS, Guyancourt, France.
    Magnetospheric Venus Space Explorers (MVSE) mission: A proposal for understanding the dynamics of induced magnetospheres2024Ingår i: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, E-ISSN 1879-2030, Vol. 221, s. 194-205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Induced magnetospheres form around planetary bodies with atmospheres through the interaction of the solar wind with their ionosphere. Induced magnetospheres are highly dependent on the solar wind conditions and have only been studied with single spacecraft missions in the past. Without simultaneous measurements of solar wind variations and phenomena in the magnetosphere, establishing a link between both can only be done indirectly, using statistics over a large set of measurements. This gap in knowledge could be addressed by a multi-spacecraft plasma mission, optimized for studying global spatial and temporal variations in the magnetospheric system around Venus, which hosts the most prominent example of an induced magnetosphere in our solar system. The MVSE mission comprises four satellites, of which three are identical scientific spacecraft, carrying the same suite of instruments probing different regions of the induced magnetosphere and the solar wind simultaneously. The fourth spacecraft is the transfer vehicle which acts as a relay satellite for communications at Venus. In this way, changes in the solar wind conditions and extreme solar events can be observed, and their effects can be quantified as they propagate through the Venusian induced magnetosphere. Additionally, energy transfer in the Venusian induced magnetosphere can be investigated. The scientific payload includes instrumentation to measure the magnetic field, electric field, and ion–electron velocity distributions. This study presents the scientific motivation for the mission as well as requirements and the resulting mission design. Concretely, a mission timeline along with a complete spacecraft design, including mass, power, communication, propulsion and thermal budgets are given. This mission was initially conceived at the Alpbach Summer School 2022 and refined during a week-long study at ESA's Concurrent Design Facility in Redu, Belgium.

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  • 2.
    Alho, Markku
    et al.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Maarinkatu 8, PO Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 68, FI-00014 Helsingin Yliopisto, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jarvinen, Riku
    School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Maarinkatu 8, PO Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Finnish Meteorological Institute, PO BOX 503, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, AT-8042 Graz, Austria.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, PO Box 812, SE-981 28 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Kallio, Esa
    School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Maarinkatu 8, PO Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland.
    Pulkkinen, Tuija I.
    School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Maarinkatu 8, PO Box 15500, FI-00760 Aalto, Finland; Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, US.
    Remote sensing of cometary bow shocks: modelled asymmetric outgassing and pickup ion observations2021Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 506, nr 4, s. 4735-4749Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the long escort by the ESA Rosetta mission, direct observations of a fully developed bow shock around 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have not been reported. Expanding on our previous work on indirect observations of a shock, we model the large-scale features in cometary pickup ions, and compare the results with the ESA Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyser ion spectrometer measurements over the pre-perihelion portion of the escort phase. Using our hybrid plasma simulation, an empirical, asymmetric outgassing model for 67P, and varied interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angles, we model the evolution of the large-scale plasma environment. We find that the subsolar bow shock standoff distance is enhanced by asymmetric outgassing with a factor of 2 to 3, reaching up to 18 000 km approaching perihelion. We find that distinct spectral features in simulated pickup ion distributions are present for simulations with shock-like structures, with the details of the spectral features depending on shock standoff distance, heliocentric distance, and IMF configuration. Asymmetric outgassing along with IMF clock angle is found to have a strong effect on the location of the spectral features, while the IMF clock angle causes no significant effect on the bow shock standoff distance. These dependences further complicate the interpretation of the ion observations made by Rosetta. Our data-model comparison shows that the large-scale cometary plasma environment can be probed by remote sensing the pickup ions, at least when the comet’s activity is comparable to that of 67P, and the solar wind parameters are known.

  • 3.
    Andersen, Torben
    et al.
    Lund Observatory (Sweden) .
    Owner-Petersen, Mette
    Lund Observatory (Sweden) .
    Enmark, Anita
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Image-based wavefront sensing for astronomy using neural networks2020Ingår i: Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, ISSN 2329-4124, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 034002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the potential of non-diffraction limited, real-time computational image sharpening with neu7 ral networks in astronomical telescopes, we have studied wavefront sensing with convolutional neural networks basedon a pair of in-focus and out-of-focus point spread functions. By simulation, we generated a large dataset for trainingand validation of neural networks, and trained several networks to estimate Zernike polynomial approximations forthe incoming wavefront. We included the effect of noise, guide star magnitude, blurring by wide band imagining, andbit depth. We conclude that the “ResNet” works well for our purpose, with a wavefront RMS error of 130 nm forr0 = 0.3 m, guide star magnitudes 4–8, and inference time of 8 ms. It can also be applied for closed-loop operation inan adaptive optics system. We also studied the possible use of a Kalman filter or a recurrent neural network and foundthat they were not beneficial to performance of our wavefront sensor

  • 4.
    Anthony, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Frostevarg, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Suhonen, Heikki
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Finland.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014, Finland.
    Laboratory experiments with a laser-based attachment mechanism for spacecraft at small bodies2021Ingår i: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, E-ISSN 1879-2030, Vol. 189, s. 391-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of two sets of experiments that investigate laser-based metal-to-rock attachment techniques. Asteroids and comets have low surface gravity which pose a challenge to landers with moving parts. Such parts can generate torques and forces which may tip the lander over or launch it into deep space. Thus, if a lander on a small body is to have moving parts, the spacecraft must be equipped with an anchoring mechanism. To this end, we sought to use a laser to melt and bind a piece of metal mimicking a part of a spacecraft to a rock mimicking the surface of a typical asteroid. In the first set of experiments, extra material was not fed in during the processing. The second set were performed using a standard wire feeder used in laser welding, which added metal to the experiment during processing. During the first experiments, we discovered that a traditional weld, where two melt pools mix and solidify to form a strong bond, was not possible—the melt pools would not mix, and when they did, the resulting weld was extremely brittle. The second set of experiments resulted in a physico-mechanical bond, where a hole was drilled with a laser, and a wire was melted and fed into the hole. These latter experiments were successful in forming bonds as strong as 115 N. Such an attachment mechanism can also be used to maneuver small boulders on asteroid surfaces, to redirect small, monolithic asteroids, or in space-debris removal.

  • 5.
    Antoja, T.
    et al.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Zwitter, T.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gaia Early Data Release 3: The Galactic anticentre2021Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 649, artikel-id A8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We aim to demonstrate the scientific potential of the Gaia Early Data Release 3 (EDR3) for the study of different aspects of the Milky Way structure and evolution and we provide, at the same time, a description of several practical aspects of the data and examples of their usage.

    Methods. We used astrometric positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and photometry from EDR3 to select different populations and components and to calculate the distances and velocities in the direction of the anticentre. In this direction, the Gaia astrometric data alone enable the calculation of the vertical and azimuthal velocities; also, the extinction is relatively low compared to other directions in the Galactic plane. We then explore the disturbances of the current disc, the spatial and kinematical distributions of early accreted versus in situ stars, the structures in the outer parts of the disc, and the orbits of open clusters Berkeley 29 and Saurer 1.

    Results. With the improved astrometry and photometry of EDR3, we find that: (i) the dynamics of the Galactic disc are very complex with oscillations in the median rotation and vertical velocities as a function of radius, vertical asymmetries, and new correlations, including a bimodality with disc stars with large angular momentum moving vertically upwards from below the plane, and disc stars with slightly lower angular momentum moving preferentially downwards; (ii) we resolve the kinematic substructure (diagonal ridges) in the outer parts of the disc for the first time; (iii) the red sequence that has been associated with the proto-Galactic disc that was present at the time of the merger with Gaia-Enceladus-Sausage is currently radially concentrated up to around 14 kpc, while the blue sequence that has been associated with debris of the satellite extends beyond that; (iv) there are density structures in the outer disc, both above and below the plane, most probably related to Monoceros, the Anticentre Stream, and TriAnd, for which the Gaia data allow an exhaustive selection of candidate member stars and dynamical study; and (v) the open clusters Berkeley 29 and Saurer 1, despite being located at large distances from the Galactic centre, are on nearly circular disc-like orbits.

    Conclusions. Even with our simple preliminary exploration of the Gaia EDR3, we demonstrate how, once again, these data from the European Space Agency are crucial for our understanding of the different pieces of our Galaxy and their connection to its global structure and history.

  • 6.
    Arenou, F.
    et al.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France; GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Barstow, M. A.
    School of Physics and Astronomy/Space Park Leicester, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Faigler, S.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Jorissen, A.
    Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Kervella, P.
    LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Mazeh, T.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Sahlmann, J.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692, Madrid, Spain.
    Shahaf, S.
    Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Bauchet, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Damerdji, Y.
    CRAAG – Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique, Route de l’Observatoire Bp 63 Bouzareah, 16340 Algiers, Algeria; Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Gavras, P.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692, Madrid, Spain.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Gosset, E.
    Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium; F.R.S.-FNRS, Rue d’Egmont 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Halbwachs, J.-L.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Holl, B.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; University of Turin, Department of Physics, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Morel, T.
    Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; F.R.S.-FNRS, Rue d’Egmont 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Re Fiorentin, P.
    INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Sadowski, G.
    Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ségransan, D.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Siopis, C.
    Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692, Madrid, Spain.
    Zwitter, T.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Planquart, L.
    Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF – Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Biermann, M.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Creevey, O. L.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Ducourant, C.
    Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Eyer, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692, Madrid, Spain.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692, Madrid, Spain.
    Jordi, C.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U. L.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692, Madrid, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Randich, S.
    INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Soubiran, C.
    Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Tanga, P.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bastian, U.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Katz, D.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF – Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castañeda, J.
    DAPCOM for Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Fabricius, C.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Frémat, Y.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Heiter, U.
    Observational Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Masana, E.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Nicolas, C.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Sednai Sàrl, Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Zucker, S.
    Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Gaia Data Release 3: Stellar multiplicity, a teaser for the hidden treasure2023Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 674, artikel-id A34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The Gaia DR3 catalogue contains, for the first time, about 800 000 solutions with either orbital elements or trend parameters for astrometric, spectroscopic, and eclipsing binaries, and combinations of these three.

    Aims. With this paper, we aim to illustrate the huge potential of this large non-single-star catalogue.

    Methods. Using the orbital solutions and models of the binaries, we have built a catalogue of tens of thousands of stellar masses or lower limits thereof, some with consistent flux ratios. Properties concerning the completeness of the binary catalogues are discussed, statistical features of the orbital elements are explained, and a comparison with other catalogues is performed.

    Results. Illustrative applications are proposed for binaries across the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD). Binarity is studied in the giant branch and a search for genuine spectroscopic binaries among long-period variables is performed. The discovery of new EL CVn systems illustrates the potential of combining variability and binarity catalogues. Potential compact object companions are presented, mainly white dwarf companions or double degenerates, but one candidate neutron star is also found. Towards the bottom of the main sequence, the orbits of previously suspected binary ultracool dwarfs are determined and new candidate binaries are discovered. The long awaited contribution of Gaia to the analysis of the substellar regime shows the brown dwarf desert around solar-type stars using true rather than minimum masses, and provides new important constraints on the occurrence rates of substellar companions to M dwarfs. Several dozen new exoplanets are proposed, including two with validated orbital solutions and one super-Jupiter orbiting a white dwarf, all being candidates requiring confirmation. Besides binarity, higher order multiple systems are also found.

    Conclusions. By increasing the number of known binary orbits by more than one order of magnitude, Gaia DR3 will provide a rich reservoir of dynamical masses and an important contribution to the analysis of stellar multiplicity.

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  • 7.
    Athanasiou, Eleni
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Studies of the orbital background noise and the detector characteristics for the MeVCube mission2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A space camera is a promising candidate to address the non-stop rising interest for astrophysics research in the Compton regime. The MeVCube mission is intended to be launched in 2022, hosting an on-board Compton Camera. To better support the development of the instrument in this early stage, a series of feasibility studies to assess two potential launch orbits were performed. The studies were composed by a series of mission analysis simulations which permitted the characterisation of the orbital environments for the two orbital options. Several sources of background noise to the instrument were identified. The population of trapped protons and trapped electrons were simulated for the periods of Solar Minimum and Solar Maximum, as well as the levels of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux. The performance of trade-off studies concluded that an equatorial orbit is more preferable for reducing the influence of background noise. To better estimate the environment effects at the equatorial orbit, the number of particles which can penetrate the detector shielding were simulated. The next step was to perform a series secondary studies whose aim were to simulate the induced current on the electrodes, produced by the interactions occurring within the detector. The actualisation of these simulations required the study of photon interaction with matter, the various Cadmium-Zink-Telluride (CZT) types and the how they operate, and the use of a sophisticated software to perform the appropriate simulations. COMSOL, which allows the method of FEA, was chosen as the tool to perform the simulations. The geometry of the detector voxel was primarily designed in SIEMENS NX. The geometry was inserted into COMSOL, where a number of iterations were performed to finalise the appropriate mesh size, which ensured an accurate representation of the Electric field and the Weighting potential within the detector voxel. The induced current on the electrodes was decided to be calculated via MATLAB. As a verification step it was thought useful to firstly plot the weighting potential of the three electrodes under test; the chosen anode pixel, the steering grid and the cathode. The process revealed a series of numerical errors, most likely introduced by the type of mesh chosen or by the data manipulation process via MATLAB. Significant reduction of the numerical errors would lead to more accurate values for the induced current. Unfortunately, due to time constraints this was a task that was not completed. Solving this problem would be optimal for future studies with MATLAB, as the induced current on the electrodes can be correctly calculated based on charge transport within the detector bulk.

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  • 8. Atkinson, K. R.
    et al.
    Zarnecki, J. C.
    Towner, M. C.
    Ringrose, T. J.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Ball, A. J.
    Leese, M. R.
    Kargl, G.
    Paton, M. D.
    Lorenz, R. D.
    Green, S. F.
    Penetrometry of granular and moist planetary surface materials: Application to the Huygens landing site on Titan2010Ingår i: Icarus, Vol. 210, nr 2, s. 843-851Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Bagnulo, Stefano
    et al.
    Armagh Observatory & Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG, UK.
    Gray, Zuri
    Armagh Observatory & Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG, UK; Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, UK.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, PO Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Cellino, Alberto
    INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Kolokolova, Ludmilla
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421, USA.
    Muinonen, Karri
    Department of Physics, PO Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Muñoz, Olga
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada, Spain.
    Opitom, Cyrielle
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Penttilä, Antti
    Department of Physics, PO Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Snodgrass, Colin
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Optical Spectropolarimetry of Binary Asteroid Didymos-Dimorphos before and after the DART Impact2023Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 945, nr 2, artikel-id L38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have monitored the Didymos-Dimorphos binary asteroid in spectropolarimetric mode in the optical range before and after the DART impact. The ultimate goal was to obtain constraints on the characteristics of the ejected dust for modeling purposes. Before impact, Didymos exhibited a linear polarization rapidly increasing with phase angle, reaching a level of ∼5% in the blue and ∼4.5% in the red. The shape of the polarization spectrum was anticorrelated with that of its reflectance spectrum, which appeared typical of an S-class asteroid. After impact, the level of polarization dropped by about 1 percentage point (pp) in the blue band and about 0.5 pp in the red band, then continued to linearly increase with phase angle, with a slope similar to that measured prior to impact. The polarization spectra, once normalized by their values at an arbitrary wavelength, show very little or no change over the course of all observations before and after impact. The lack of any remarkable change in the shape of the polarization spectrum after impact suggests that the way in which polarization varies with wavelength depends on the composition of the scattering material, rather than on its structure, be this a surface or a debris cloud.

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  • 10.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A.L.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Delchambre, L.
    Institut d Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Ducourant, C.
    Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Garabato, D.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 15783 Athens, Greece; National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, Palaia Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrabe 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, Palaia Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece.
    Carballo, R.
    Dpto. de Matemática Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computación, Univ. de Cantabria, ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carnerero, M. I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Diener, C.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Galluccio, L.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Gavras, P.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edif. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal; Department of Informatics, Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, 5226 Donald Bren Hall, 92697-3440 CA, Irvine, USA.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Teixeira, R.
    Instituto de Astronomia, Geofìsica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Brown, A. G.A.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    De Bruijne, J. H.J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Arenou, F.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Creevey, O. L.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Eyer, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Jordi, C.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Lammers, U. L.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Institut d Astronomie et d Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; F.R.S.-FNRS, Rue d Egmont 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Soubiran, C.
    Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Tanga, P.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Bastian, U.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Katz, D.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; University of Turin, Department of Physics, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy.
    Van Leeuwen, F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castañeda, J.
    DAPCOM for Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Fabricius, C.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Frémat, Y.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Heiter, U.
    Observational Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Masana, E.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nicolas, C.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Sednai Sàrl, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Panuzzo, P.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Roux, W.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Thévenin, F.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Gaia DPAC Project Office, ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Portell, J.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Benson, K.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Berthier, J.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P. W.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Busso, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Cánovas, H.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Carry, B.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Institut d Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium; CRAAG Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique, Route de l Observatoire Bp 63 Bouzareah, 16340 Algiers, Algeria.
    Davidson, M.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ UK.
    De Teodoro, P.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Nuñez Campos, M.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Dell Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Fernández-Hernández, J.
    ATG Europe for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    García-Lario, P.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    Institut d Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium; F.R.S.-FNRS, Rue d Egmont 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Haigron, R.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Halbwachs, J. L.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Hambly, N. C.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ UK.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK; Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Hernández, J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Holl, B.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Janen, K.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Jevardat De Fombelle, G.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jordan, S.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Ettore Majorana, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Löffler, W.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy; Space Science Data Center ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Moitinho, A.
    CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edif. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Muinonen, K.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, 02430 Masala, Finland.
    Osborne, P.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy; Space Science Data Center ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Reylé, C.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Riello, M.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Rybizki, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sarro, L. M.
    Dpto. de Inteligencia Artificial, UNED, c/ Juan del Rosal 16, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Institut d Astronomie et d Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Van Leeuwen, M.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Ábrahám, P.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117, Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    ATG Europe for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Aerts, C.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, PO Box 9010 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Aguado, J. J.
    Dpto. de Inteligencia Artificial, UNED, c/ Juan del Rosal 16, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ajaj, M.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Aldea-Montero, F.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy; Space Science Data Center ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Álvarez, M. A.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Alves, J.
    University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Trkenschanzstrabe 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    Institute of Physics, Laboratory of Astrophysics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Baines, D.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Balaguer-Núñez, L.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Balbinot, E.
    Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Balog, Z.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Barache, C.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barros, M.
    CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edif. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    School of Physics and Astronomy/Space Park Leicester, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH UK.
    Bartolomé, S.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. L.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Bauchet, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Depto. Estadística e Investigación Operativa, Universidad de Cádiz, Avda. República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Bernet, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000, Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD, USA; GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 698, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, 20771 MD, Greenbelt, USA.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX S.r.l., Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, 10128, Torino, Italy.
    Binnenfeld, A.
    Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS 15, Cambridge, MA, 02138 USA.
    Boch, T.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal.
    Bouquillon, S.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France; LFCA/DAS, Universidad de Chile, CNRS, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Breedt, E.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; University of Turin, Department of Physics, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    Telespazio for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    University of Turin, Department of Computer Sciences, Corso Svizzera 185, 10149 Torino, Italy.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France; GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Charlot, P.
    Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Centro de Astronomía CITEVA, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avenida Angamos 601, Antofagasta, 1270300 Chile.
    Chiaramida, V.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Chornay, N.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; DLR Gesellschaft für Raumfahrtanwendungen (GfR) mbH, Münchener Strabe 20, 82234 Webling, Germany.
    Contursi, G.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Cooper, W. J.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, AL10 9AB Hatfield, UK.
    Cornez, T.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Cowell, S.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Crifo, F.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Cropper, M.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; University of Turin, Mathematical Department G. Peano, Via Carlo Alberto 10, 10123 Torino, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Dafonte, C.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Dapergolas, A.
    National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, Palaia Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece.
    David, P.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
    De Laverny, P.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico d Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, 64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    De Ridder, J.
    Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    De Souza, R.
    Instituto de Astronomia, Geofìsica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    De Torres, A.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Del Peloso, E. F.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Delisle, J. B.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Demouchy, C.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Dharmawardena, T. E.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Diakite, S.
    Mésocentre de calcul de Franche-Comté, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy; Space Science Data Center ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
    Fedorets, G.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland; Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN UK.
    Fernique, P.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Fournier, Y.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fouron, C.
    Telespazio for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Fragkoudi, F.
    Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE UK; European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany; Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strabe 1, 85748 Garching, Germany.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Garcia-Gutierrez, A.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    García-Torres, M.
    Data Science and Big Data Lab, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Gavel, A.
    Observational Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gerlach, E.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrabe 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrabe 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Plaça Eusebi Güell 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy.
    Gomel, R.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
    Gomez, A.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    González-Núñez, J.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; ETSE Telecomunicación, Universidade de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    González-Santamaría, I.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    González-Vidal, J. J.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Guillout, P.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Guy, L. P.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Vera C. Rubin Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719 USA.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; TRUMPF Photonic Components GmbH, Lise-Meitner-Strabe 13, 89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Helmer, A.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Helmi, A.
    Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Sarmiento, M. H.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Hidalgo, S. L.
    IAC Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, 38200 La Laguna S.C., Tenerife, Spain; Department of Astrophysics, University of La Laguna, Via Láctea s/n, 38200 La Laguna S.C., Tenerife, Spain.
    Hilger, T.
    National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, Palaia Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece.
    Håadczuk, N.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft, The Netherlands.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Holland, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT UK.
    Jardine, K.
    Radagast Solutions, Simon Vestdijkpad 24, 2321 WD Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, CNRS Université Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC72, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.
    Jean-Antoine Piccolo, A.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 1401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Jiménez-Arranz, Ó.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Juaristi Campillo, J.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Julbe, F.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Karbevska, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Université de Caen Normandie, Côte de Nacre Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14032 Caen, France.
    Kervella, P.
    LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Khanna, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Kontizas, M.
    Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 15783 Athens, Greece.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Korn, A. J.
    Observational Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kóspál, Á.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117, Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands; SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Niels Bohrweg 4, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Kruszyåska, K.
    Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland.
    Kun, M.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Laizeau, P.
    Scalian for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Lambert, S.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Le Campion, J. F.
    Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; Université Rennes, CNRS, IPR (Institut de Physique de Rennes) UMR 6251, 35000 Rennes, France.
    Lebzelter, T.
    University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Trkenschanzstrabe 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai, 200030 PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing, 100049 PR China.
    Licata, E. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Lindstrøm, H. E.P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen , Denmark; DXC Technology, Retortvej 8, 2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740, Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta, CA, 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 15783 Athens, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lorca, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Loup, C.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Madrero Pardo, P.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Magdaleno Romeo, A.
    Telespazio for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ UK.
    Manteiga, M.
    CIGUS CITIC, Department of Nautical Sciences and Marine Engineering, University of A Coruña, Paseo de Ronda 51, 15071 A Coruña, Spain.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF UK.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy.
    Marcos, J.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Marcos Santos, M. M.S.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Marín Pina, D.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy; Space Science Data Center ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Marocco, F.
    IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA, 91125 USA.
    Marshall, D. J.
    IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, 9 Av. Colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.
    Martin Polo, L.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Martín-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Marton, G.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Masip, A.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Massari, D.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Mazeh, T.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Millar, N. R.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Mints, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Molina, D.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy.
    Molnár, L.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117, Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary; MTA CSFK Lendület Near-Field Cosmology Research Group, Konkoly Observatory, MTA Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Monari, G.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Monguió, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Montero, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Mor, R.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Institut d Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ UK.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Murphy, C. P.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy.
    Nagy, Z.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Ocaña, F.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; Departmento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ogden, A.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Osinde, J. O.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Pagani, C.
    School of Physics and Astronomy/Space Park Leicester, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH UK.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Palaversa, L.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK; Ruer Boškovic Institute, Bijenička Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palicio, P. A.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Pallas-Quintela, L.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Panahi, A.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
    Payne-Wardenaar, S.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Peñalosa Esteller, X.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Penttilä, A.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Pichon, B.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico d Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, 64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. X.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Plachy, E.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117, Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary; MTA CSFK Lendület Near-Field Cosmology Research Group, Konkoly Observatory, MTA Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Prša, A.
    Villanova University, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, 800 E Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA, 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Roma, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; Departmento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rainer, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi, 46, 23807 Merate, LC, Italy.
    Ramos, P.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Re Fiorentin, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Regibo, S.
    Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Didcot, OX11 0QX UK.
    Rios Diaz, C.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Rix, H. W.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Rixon, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Robichon, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Robin, A. C.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Robin, C.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Roelens, M.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rogues, H. R.O.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Rohrbasser, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gómez, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ UK.
    Royer, F.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruz Mieres, D.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Rybicki, K. A.
    Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland.
    Sadowski, G.
    Institut d Astronomie et d Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Sáez Núñez, A.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Sagristà Sellés, A.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Samaras, N.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium; Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Astronomical Institute of Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sanchez Gimenez, V.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Santoveña, R.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Schultheis, M.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Ségransan, D.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Semeux, D.
    ATOS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Shahaf, S.
    Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 7610001 Israel.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544 USA.
    Siebert, A.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue de l Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Siltala, L.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Silvelo, A.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Slezak, E.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Slezak, I.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Snaith, O. N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Solano, E.
    Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESA-ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n., 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Souami, D.
    LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; naXys, University of Namur, Rempart de la Vierge, 5000 Namur, Belgium.
    Souchay, J.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Spina, L.
    INAF Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS 15, Cambridge, MA, 02138 USA.
    Steele, I. A.
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF UK.
    Steidelmüller, H.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrabe 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n, Urbanizacion Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; CGI Deutschland B.V. & Co. KG, Mornewegstr. 30, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Süveges, M.
    Institute of Global Health, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Surdej, J.
    Institut d Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c, Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium; Astronomical Observatory Institute, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan Poland.
    Szabados, L.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Taris, F.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 Avenue de l Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL UK.
    Tolomei, L.
    ALTEC S.p.a, Corso Marche, 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Tonello, N.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Plaça Eusebi Güell 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Torra, F.
    DAPCOM for Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Torra, J.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Torralba Elipe, G.
    CIGUS CITIC Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña, 15071 Spain.
    Trabucchi, M.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Tsounis, A. T.
    CERN, Esplanade des Particules 1, PO Box 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Turon, C.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Applied Physics Department, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.
    Unger, N.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Vaillant, M. V.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Van Dillen, E.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Van Reeven, W.
    Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, 1331 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, DC, 20004 USA.
    Vanel, O.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Viala, Y.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Plaça Eusebi Güell 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ UK.
    Weiler, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Wevers, T.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK; European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19, Santiago, Chile.
    Wyrzykowski, Ł.
    Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA UK.
    Yvard, P.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 Avenue douard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Zhao, H.
    Université Côte d Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Bd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France.
    Zucker, S.
    Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801 Israel.
    Zwitter, T.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 3: The extragalactic content2023Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 674, artikel-id A41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gaia Galactic survey mission is designed and optimized to obtain astrometry, photometry, and spectroscopy of nearly two billion stars in our Galaxy. Yet as an all-sky multi-epoch survey, Gaia also observes several million extragalactic objects down to a magnitude of G 21 mag. Due to the nature of the Gaia onboard-selection algorithms, these are mostly point-source-like objects. Using data provided by the satellite, we have identified quasar and galaxy candidates via supervised machine learning methods, and estimate their redshifts using the low resolution BP/RP spectra. We further characterise the surface brightness profiles of host galaxies of quasars and of galaxies from pre-defined input lists. Here we give an overview of the processing of extragalactic objects, describe the data products in Gaia DR3, and analyse their properties. Two integrated tables contain the main results for a high completeness, but low purity (50-70%), set of 6.6 million candidate quasars and 4.8 million candidate galaxies. We provide queries that select purer sub-samples of these containing 1.9 million probable quasars and 2.9 million probable galaxies (both 95% purity). We also use high quality BP/RP spectra of 43 thousand high probability quasars over the redshift range 0.05-4.36 to construct a composite quasar spectrum spanning restframe wavelengths from 72 1000 nm.

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  • 11.
    Bentley, Mark S.
    et al.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria.
    Kömle, Norbert I.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria.
    Kargl, Günter
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria.
    Hütter, Erika
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz, Austria.
    On the conditions for fluidisation in cometary mantles2011Ingår i: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 862-873Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain; UK Centre for Astrobiology, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), 28850, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Discovery of recurring slope lineae candidates in Mawrth Vallis, Mars2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 2040Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several interpretations of recurring slope lineae (RSL) have related RSL to the potential presence of transient liquid water on Mars. Such probable signs of liquid water have implications for Mars exploration in terms of rover safety, planetary protection during rover operations, and the current habitability of the planet. Mawrth Vallis has always been a prime target to be considered for Mars rover missions due to its rich mineralogy. Most recently, Mawrth Vallis was one of the two final candidates selected by the European Space Agency as a landing site for the ExoMars 2020 mission. Therefore, all surface features and landforms in Mawrth Vallis that may be of special interest in terms of scientific goals, rover safety, and operations must be scrutinised to better assess it for future Mars missions. Here, we report on the initial detection of RSL candidates in two craters of Mawrth Vallis. The new sightings were made outside of established RSL regions and further prompt the inclusion of a new geographical region within the RSL candidate group. Our inferences on the RSL candidates are based on several morphological and geophysical evidences and analogies: (i) the dimensions of the RSL candidates are consistent with confirmed mid-latitude RSL; (ii) albedo and thermal inertia values are comparable to those of other mid-latitude RSL sites; and (iii) features are found in a summer season image and on the steep and warmest slopes. These results denote the plausible presence of transient liquid brines close to the previously proposed landing ellipse of the ExoMars rover, rendering this site particularly relevant to the search of life. Further investigations of Mawrth Vallis carried out at higher spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to identify more of such features at local scales to maximize the scientific return from the future Mars rovers, to prevent probable biological contamination during rover operations, to evade damage to rover components as brines can be highly corrosive, and to quantify the ability of the regolith at mid-latitudes to capture atmospheric water which is relevant for in-situ-resource utilization.

  • 13.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain.
    Distribution and Morphologies of Transverse Aeolian Ridges in ExoMars 2020 Rover Landing Site2019Ingår i: Remote Sensing, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, nr 8, artikel-id 912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aeolian processes are believed to play a major role in the landscape evolution of Mars. Investigations on Martian aeolian landforms such as ripples, transverse aeolian ridges (TARs), and dunes, and aeolian sediment flux measurements are important to enhance our understanding of past and present wind regimes, the ongoing dust cycle, landscape evolution, and geochemistry. These aeolian bedforms are often comprised of loose sand and sharply undulating topography and thus pose a threat to mobility and maneuvers of Mars rovers. Here we present a first-hand account of the distribution, morphologies, and morphometrics of TARs in Oxia Planum, the recently selected ExoMars 2020 Rover landing site. The gridded mapping was performed for contiguous stretches of TARs within all the landing ellipses using 57 sub-meter high resolution imaging science experiment (HiRISE) scenes. We also provide the morphological descriptions for all types of TARs present within the landing ellipses. We use HiRISE digital terrain models (DTMs) along with the images to derive morphometric information for TARs in Oxia Planum. In general, the average areal TAR coverage was found to be 5.4% (±4.9% standard deviation), increasing from west to east within the landing ellipses. We report the average TAR morphometrics in the form of crest–ridge width (131.1 ± 106.2 m), down-wind TAR length (17.6 ± 10.1 m), wavelength (37.3 ± 11.6 m), plan view aspect ratio (7.1 ± 2.3), inter-bedform spacing (2.1 ± 1.1), slope (10.6° ± 6.1°), predominant orientations (NE-SW and E-W), and height (1.2 ± 0.8 m). While simple TARs are predominant, we report other TAR morphologies such as forked TAR, wavy TAR with associated smaller secondary ripples, barchan-like TAR, networked TAR, and mini-TARs from the region. Our results can help in planning the rover traverses in terms of both safe passage and scientific returns favoring aeolian research, particularly improving our understanding of TARs.

  • 14.
    Bolin, Bryce T.
    et al.
    Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA 91125, USA; Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Ahumada, T.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland , College Park, MD 20740, USA.
    van Dokkum, P.
    Department of Astronomy, Yale University , New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
    Fremling, C.
    Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki , FI-00560, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.
    Steward Observatory, University of Arizona , Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Harikane, Y.
    Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo Kashiwa , Chiba 277-8582, Japan; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan.
    Purdum, J. N.
    Caltech Optical Observatory, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Serabyn, E.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Southworth, J.
    Astrophysical Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University , Liverpool L2 2QP, UK.
    Zhai, C.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    The discovery and characterization of (594913) 'Ayló'chaxnim, a kilometre sized asteroid inside the orbit of Venus2022Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Letters, ISSN 1745-3925, Vol. 517, nr 1, s. L49-L54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-Earth asteroid population models predict the existence of bodies located inside the orbit of Venus. Despite searches up to the end of 2019, none had been found. We report discovery and follow-up observations of (594913) 'Ayló'chaxnim, an asteroid with an orbit entirely interior to Venus. (594913) 'Ayló'chaxnim has an aphelion distance of ∼0.65 au, is ∼2 km in diameter and is red in colour. The detection of such a large asteroid inside the orbit of Venus is surprising given their rarity according to near-Earth asteroid population models. As the first officially numbered and named asteroid located entirely within the orbit of Venus, we propose that the class of interior to Venus asteroids be referred to as 'Ayló'chaxnim asteroids.

  • 15. Bridges, J.
    et al.
    Hagermann, Axel
    UK Mars research and priorities in the Aurora programme2011Ingår i: Astronomy and Geophysics, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 2-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    et al.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Zwitter, T.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Gaia Early Data Release 3: Summary of the contents and survey properties2021Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 649, artikel-id A1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We present the early installment of the third Gaia data release, Gaia EDR3, consisting of astrometry and photometry for 1.8 billion sources brighter than magnitude 21, complemented with the list of radial velocities from Gaia DR2.

    Aims. A summary of the contents of Gaia EDR3 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR2 and an overview of the main limitations which are present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia EDR3 results.

    Methods. The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 34 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium and turned into this early third data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR2 in terms of astrometric and photometric precision, accuracy, and homogeneity. Results. Gaia EDR3 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.8 billion sources. For 1.5 billion of those sources, parallaxes, proper motions, and the (GBP − GRP) colour are also available. The passbands for G, GBP, and GRP are provided as part of the release. For ease of use, the 7 million radial velocities from Gaia DR2 are included in this release, after the removal of a small number of spurious values. New radial velocities will appear as part of Gaia DR3. Finally, Gaia EDR3 represents an updated materialisation of the celestial reference frame (CRF) in the optical, the Gaia-CRF3, which is based solely on extragalactic sources. The creation of the source list for Gaia EDR3 includes enhancements that make it more robust with respect to high proper motion stars, and the disturbing effects of spurious and partially resolved sources. The source list is largely the same as that for Gaia DR2, but it does feature new sources and there are some notable changes. The source list will not change for Gaia DR3.

    Conclusions. Gaia EDR3 represents a significant advance over Gaia DR2, with parallax precisions increased by 30 per cent, proper motion precisions increased by a factor of 2, and the systematic errors in the astrometry suppressed by 30–40% for the parallaxes and by a factor ~2.5 for the proper motions. The photometry also features increased precision, but above all much better homogeneity across colour, magnitude, and celestial position. A single passband for G, GBP, and GRP is valid over the entire magnitude and colour range, with no systematics above the 1% level

  • 17.
    Capitanio, L.
    et al.
    Observatoire de Paris - GEPI, 5 place Janssen, Meudon, France.
    Bartylak, M.
    Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-316, Warsaw, Poland.
    Cui, M.
    Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées, 63 Blvd de Brandebourg, 94200, Ivry-sur-Seine, France.
    Engegaard, B.
    Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway.
    Gassner, M.
    Department of Aviation, FH Joanneum Graz, Alte Poststraße 149, 8020, Graz, Austria.
    Heinemann, S. G.
    Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz, Austria.
    Kargl, G.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, 8042, Graz, Austria.
    Latzko, S. T.
    Deutsches SOFIA Institut, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 29, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Madonia, P. G.
    Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza - Universitá di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.
    May, A. J.
    Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK.
    Postel, A.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Ecogia 16, 1290, Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rodriguez Munoz, J.
    Department of Electronics, Computer Technology and Projects, Polytechnic University of Cartagena, Plaza del Hospital 1, 30203, Cartagena, Spain.
    Schwarzkopf, G. J.
    Fakultät für Mathematik und Informatik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074, Würzburg, Germany.
    Shipman, R. F.
    SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Skalidis, R.
    Department of Physics and Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion, Greece.
    Trivino Herrero, V.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, UK.
    Wikman, Kasper
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    EREBUS: the EuRopean Extinction BUmp Survey2020Ingår i: Experimental astronomy, ISSN 0922-6435, E-ISSN 1572-9508, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 145-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) is intimately linked to the life cycle of stars. Despite being of such fundamental importance to galaxy evolution, the dynamic behaviour and composition of the ISM are not yet fully understood. Observations of reddened Milky Way OB stars have revealed a strong UV extinction feature around 2175 Å and a precipitous extinction rise to the far UV along the lines of sight. Whilst the carrier(s) for this are at present still being debated, multiple laboratory studies suggest carbonate grains to be the key constituent. EREBUS is a mission concept being developed to study the composition of the ISM in both the Milky Way and Local Group Galaxies, primarily by mapping the spatial distribution of the UV extinction features. As these features are sensitive to the dust composition along the line of sight, EREBUS will provide a wealth of information about the spatial distribution and dynamic behaviour of the carrier(s). The mission proposes to deploy a satellite observatory equipped with a coarse UV spectrograph to map the extinction curve variability in the Milky Way in 3 dimensions and in the Local Group in 2 dimensions. In this paper, we discuss the scientific goals for the project, discuss a proposed observation strategy using an iterative process to develop a hierarchical map, and finally outline the instrument requirements and preliminary spacecraft architecture.

  • 18.
    Carry, B.
    et al.
    Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Lille, 77 av. Denfert Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France; Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS34229, 06304, Nice Cedex 4, France .
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014, Finland .
    Vernet, D.
    Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS34229, 06304, Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Potential asteroid discoveries by the ESA Gaia mission: Results from follow-up observations2021Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 648, artikel-id A96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Since July 2014, the Gaia mission of the European Space Agency has been surveying the entire sky down to magnitude 20.7 in the visible. In addition to the millions of daily observations of stars, thousands of Solar System objects (SSOs) are observed. By comparing their positions, as measured by Gaia, to those of known objects, a daily processing pipeline filters known objects from potential discoveries. However, owing to Gaia’s specific observing mode, which follows a predetermined scanning law designed for stars as fixed objects on the celestial sphere, potential newly discovered moving objects are characterized by very few observations, which are acquired over a limited time. Furthermore, these objects cannot be specifically targeted by Gaia itself after their first detection. This aspect was recognized early on in the design of the Gaia data processing. Aims. A daily processing pipeline dedicated to these candidate discoveries was set up to release calls for observations to a network of ground-based telescopes. Their aim is to acquire follow-up astrometry and to characterize these objects. Methods. From the astrometry measured by Gaia, preliminary orbital solutions are determined, allowing us to predict the position of these potentially newly discovered objects in the sky while accounting for the large parallax between Gaia and the Earth (separated by 0.01 au). A specific task within the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium has been responsible for the distribution of requests for follow-up observations of potential Gaia SSO discoveries. Since late 2016, these calls for observations (nicknamed alerts) have been published via a Web interface with a quasi-daily frequency, together with observing guides, which is freely available to anyone worldwide. Results. Between November 2016 and the end of the first year of the extended mission (July 2020), over 1700 alerts were published, leading to the successful recovery of more than 200 objects. Among them, six have a provisional designation assigned with the Gaia observations; the others were previously known objects with poorly characterized orbits, precluding identification at the time of Gaia observations. There is a clear trend for objects with a high inclination to be unidentified, revealing a clear bias in the current census of SSOs against high-inclination populations. © B. Carry et al. 2021.

  • 19.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Granular Carbon Dioxide and Water Ices of Varying Grain Sizes on Mars2020Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 125, nr 4, artikel-id e2019JE006097Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Chinnery, H. E.
    et al.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    Hagermann, Axel
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Kaufmann, Erika
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lewis, Stephen R.
    School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom.
    The Penetration of Solar Radiation Into Water and Carbon Dioxide Snow, With Reference to Mars2019Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, nr 2, s. 337-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Clauss, Margot
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Cho, Mengu
    Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan.
    Bursachi, Noé
    Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), France.
    Laufer, Rene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Weiss, Bernd Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Människa och teknik.
    Reusability potential of spacecraft solar panels2023Ingår i: IAC 2023 Congress Proceedings, 74th International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Baku, Azerbaijan, International Astronautical Federation, 2023, artikel-id 79932Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Cockell, Charles S.
    et al.
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
    Holt, John
    University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Campbell, Jim
    University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Groseman, Harrison
    University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Josset, Jean-Luc
    Space Exploration Institute, Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.
    Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Phelps, Audra
    Spaceward Bound, NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Hakobyan, Lilit
    Spaceward Bound, NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Kuretn, Libby
    Spaceward Bound, NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Beattie, Annalea
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Blank, Jen
    NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba
    NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA; SETI Institute's Carl Sagan Center, California, USA.
    McKay, Christopher
    NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Shirvastava, Anushree
    NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Stoker, Carol
    NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    Willson, David
    NASA Ames Research Center, California, USA.
    McLaughlin, Scott
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
    Payler, Sam
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
    Stevens, Adam
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
    Wadsworth, Jennifer
    UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK.
    Bessone, Loredana
    European Astronaut Center, European Space Agency, Cologne, Germany.
    Maurer, Matthias
    European Astronaut Center, European Space Agency, Cologne, Germany.
    Sauro, Francesco
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. UK Centre for Astrobiology, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, UK; Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (UGR-CSIC), Granada, Spain .
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Soria-Salinas, Álvaro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Mathanlal, Thasshwin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Israel Nazarious, Miracle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vakkada Ramachandran, Abhilash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Vaishampayan, Parag
    Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Guan, Lisa
    Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Perl, Scott M.
    California Institute of Technology/NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA; Mineral Sciences, Los Angeles Natural History Museum, Pasadena, California, USA.
    Telling, Jon
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Boothroyd, Ian M.
    Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, Newcastle, UK.
    Tyson, Ollie
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Realff, James
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Rowbottom, Joseph
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.
    Laurent, Boris
    University of Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, UK.
    Gunn, Matt
    University of Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, UK.
    Shah, Shaily
    Kalam Center, New Delhi, India.
    Srijan, Singh
    Kalam Center, New Delhi, India.
    Paling, Sean
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Edwards, Tom
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Yeoman, Louise
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Meehan, Emma
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Toth, Christopher
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Scovell, Paul
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Suckling, Barbara
    Boulby Underground Laboratory, Boulby, UK.
    Subsurface scientific exploration of extraterrestrial environments (MINAR 5): analogue science, technology and education in the Boulby Mine, UK2019Ingår i: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 157-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.

  • 23.
    Creevey, O. L.
    et al.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Heiter, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Korn, A. J.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; Kavli Inst Cosmol Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Observ Besancon, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM,CNRS,UMR6213, BP1615, F-25010 Besancon, France.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Dastrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U. L.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium; FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Dastrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Turin, Dept Phys, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, DAPCOM Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nicolas, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Sednai Sarl, Geneva, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Roux, W.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Canovas, H.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Cheek, N.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium; CRAAG Ctr Rech Astron Astrophys & Geophys, Route Observ Bp 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    de Teodoro, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Nunez Campos, M.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Esquej, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraile, E.
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Lario, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Halbwachs, J. -L.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Calif Irvine, Donald Bren Sch Informat & Comp Sci, Dept Informat, 5226 Donald Bren Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy; Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Ettore Majorana, Via S Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Löffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Marrese, P. M.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Roegiers, T.
    European Space Agcy ESA, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Rybizki, J.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Abraham, P.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Aramburu, A. Abreu
    European Space Agcy ESA, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Aerts, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Aguado, J. J.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Ajaj, M.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Aldea-Montero, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altavilla, G.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anders, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Anderson, R. I.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne EPFL, Observ Sauverny, Astrophys Lab, Inst Phys, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Varela, E. Anglada
    European Space Agcy ESA, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Baines, D.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balbinot, E.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Balog, Z.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Space Pk Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartolome, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Bauchet, N.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist & Invest Operat, Avda Republ Saharaui S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain.
    Bernet, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Ctr Res & Explorat Space Sci & Technol, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD USA; GSFC Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 698,8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Binnenfeld, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Porter Sch Environm & Earth Sci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Bombrun, A.
    European Space Agcy ESA, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    Univ Porto, CAUP, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France; Univ Chile, CNRS, DAS, LFCA, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breedt, E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA Scuola Internaz Super Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Dastrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Turin, Dept Phys, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Telespazio, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, ETS Ingn Caminos, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, Avda Castros S-N, Santander 39005, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carnerero, M. I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Dastrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Dastrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiaramida, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Chornay, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Comoretto, G.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; DLR Gesell Raumfahrtanwendungen GfR, mbH Munchener Str 20, D-82234 Wessling, Germany.
    Contursi, G.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cooper, W. J.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Hertfordshire, Ctr Astrophys Res, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England.
    Cornez, T.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Turin, Math Dept G Peano, Via Carlo Alberto 10, I-10123 Turin, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    European Space Agcy ESA, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Observ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    European Space Agcy ESA, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    del Peloso, E. F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delisle, J. -B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Demouchy, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Dharmawardena, T. E.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Franche Comte, Mesoctr Calcul Franche Comte, 16 Route Gray, F-25030 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Ctr Donnees Astron Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Fournier, Y.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fouron, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Telespazio, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fragkoudi, F.
    Univ Durham, Inst Computat Cosmol, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England; European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany; Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Garcia-Gutierrez, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Pablo de Olavide Univ, Data Sci & Big Data Lab, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gavel, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavras, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gerlach, E.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Gomel, R.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Gomez, A.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Santamaria, I.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Vera C Rubin Observ, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece; Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; TRUMPF Photon Components GmbH, Lise Meitner Str 13, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Helmer, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Sarmiento, M. H.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hidalgo, S. L.
    IAC Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38200, Spain; Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrophys, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38200, Spain.
    Hladczuk, N.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Delft Univ Technol, Fac Aerosp Engn, Kluyverweg 1, NL-2629 HS Delft, Netherlands.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Jardine, K.
    Radagast Solut, Simon Vestdijkpad 24, NL-2321 WD Leiden, Netherlands.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Piccolo, A. Jean-Antoine
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jimenez-Arranz, O.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Campillo, J. Juaristi
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karbevska, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Caen Normandie, Cote Nacre Blvd Marechal Juin, F-14032 Caen, France.
    Kervella, P.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, LESIA,Univ PSL,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Khanna, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kospal, A.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands; SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Nska, K. Kruszy Prime
    Univ ofWarsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Kun, M.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Laizeau, P.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Scalian, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Campion, J. -F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Dastrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, LESIA,Univ PSL,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Rennes, CNRS, IPR Inst Phys Rennes, UMR 6251, F-35000 Rennes, France.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19 A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark; DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lorca, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Loup, C.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Pardo, P. Madrero
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Romeo, A. Magdaleno
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Telespazio, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Managau, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Naut Sci & Marine Engn, CIGUS CITIC, Paseo de Ronda 51, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marcos, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Santos, M. M. S. Marcos
    European Space Agcy ESA, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pina, D. Marin
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Marinoni, S.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Marocco, F.
    CALTECH, IPAC, Mail Code 100-22,1200 E Calif Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Toulouse, IRAP, CNRS, UPS,CNES, 9 Ave Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
    Polo, L. Martin
    European Space Agcy ESA, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marton, G.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Masip, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Massari, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Mints, A.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; MTA Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, MTA CSFK Lendulet Near Field Cosmol Res Grp, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Monari, G.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Monguio, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Montero, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Murphy, C. P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nagy, Z.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Noval, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ocana, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Ogden, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Osinde, J. O.
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Space Pk Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Bijenicka Cesta 54, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
    Palicio, P. A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Pallas-Quintela, L.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Payne-Wardenaar, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Esteller, X. Penalosa
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Penttila, A.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Plachy, E.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; MTA Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, MTA CSFK Lendulet Near Field Cosmol Res Grp, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France; INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rainer, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via E Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, LC, Italy.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Ramos, P.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain; Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fiorentin, P. Re
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Diaz, C. Rios
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Rix, H. -W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Robichon, N.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Observ Besancon, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM,CNRS,UMR6213, BP1615, F-25010 Besancon, France.
    Robin, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rogues, H. R. O.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rohrbasser, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Mieres, D. Ruz
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Rybicki, K. A.
    Univ ofWarsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Nunez, A. Saez
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Selles, A. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astronomie, Astronom Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    European Space Agcy ESA, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Samaras, N.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium; Charles Univ Prague, Astron Inst, Fac Math & Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000, Czech Republic.
    Gimenez, V. Sanchez
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santovena, R.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Semeux, D.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Shahaf, S.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-7610001 Rehovot, Israel.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astro Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Ctr Donnees Astron Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Siltala, L.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Silvelo, A.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Slezak, I.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Snaith, O. N.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Solano, E.
    CSIC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, INTA,ESA,ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Souami, D.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, LESIA,Univ PSL,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Namur, naXys, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Spina, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmuller, H.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France; Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Telespazio UK SL, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; CGI Deutschland BV & Co KG, Mornewegstr 30, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Inst Global Hlth, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Poznan, Poland.
    Szabados, L.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL, SYRTE,CNRS,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Tolomei, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Tonello, N.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Torra, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, DAPCOM Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Elipe, G. Torralba
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, CIGUS CITIC, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Trabucchi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Tsounis, A. T.
    CERN, Esplanade Particules 1,POB 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Dept Appl Phys, Vigo 36310, Spain.
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Vaillant, M. V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Dillen, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Reeven, W.
    Assoc Univ Res Astron, 1331 Penn Ave NW, Washington, DC 20004 USA.
    Vanel, O.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, Observ Paris, GEPI, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wevers, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; European Southern Observ, Alonsde Cordova 3107,Casilla 19, Santiago, Chile.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ ofWarsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Yvard, P.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Zhao, H.
    Univ Cote dAzur, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, UMR7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Porter Sch Environm & Earth Sci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 3: A golden sample of astrophysical parameters2023Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 674, artikel-id A39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Gaia Data Release 3 (DR3) provides a wealth of new data products for the astronomical community to exploit, including astrophysical parameters for half a billion stars. In this work, we demonstrate the high quality of these data products and illustrate their use in different astrophysical contexts.

    Aims. We produce homogeneous samples of stars with high-quality astrophysical parameters by exploiting Gaia DR3, while focusing on many regimes across the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram; spectral types OBA, FGKM, and ultracool dwarfs (UCDs). We also focus on specific subsamples of particular interest to the community: solar analogues, carbon stars, and the Gaia spectrophotometric standard stars (SPSS).

    Methods. We query the astrophysical parameter tables along with other tables in Gaia DR3 to derive the samples of the stars of interest. We validate our results using the Gaia catalogue itself and by comparison with external data.

    Results. We produced six homogeneous samples of stars with high-quality astrophysical parameters across the HR diagram for the community to exploit. We first focus on three samples that span a large parameter space: young massive disc stars (OBA; about 3 Million), FGKM spectral type stars (about 3 Million), and UCDs (about 20 000). We provide these sources along with additional information (either a flag or complementary parameters) as tables that are made available in the Gaia archive. We also identify 15 740 bone fide carbon stars and 5863 solar analogues, and provide the first homogeneous set of stellar parameters of the SPSS sample. We demonstrate some applications of these samples in different astrophysical contexts. We use a subset of the OBA sample to illustrate its usefulness in analysing the Milky Way rotation curve. We then use the properties of the FGKM stars to analyse known exoplanet systems. We also analyse the ages of some unseen UCD-companions to the FGKM stars. We additionally predict the colours of the Sun in various passbands (Gaia, 2MASS, WISE) using the solar-analogue sample.

    Conclusions. Gaia DR3 contains a wealth of new high-quality astrophysical parameters for the community to exploit.

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  • 24.
    Dalla Pria, Gaia Lucrezia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet. INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
    Sohier, O.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy; Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 55 avenue de Paris, Versailles, 78035, France.
    Scirè, C.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
    Urso, R. G.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
    Baratta, G. A.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
    Palumbo, M. E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
    Experimental study on the radiation-induced destruction of organic compounds on the surface of the Moon2024Ingår i: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 415, artikel-id 116077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic molecules and a complex organic refractory material were detected on the Moon and on lunar samples. The Moon’s surface is exposed to a continuous flux of solar UV photons and fast ions, e.g. galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar wind (SW), and solar energetic particles (SEPs), that modify the physical and chemical properties of surface materials, thus challenging the survival of organic compounds. With this in mind, the aim of this work is to estimate the lifetime of organic compounds on the Moon’s surface under processing by energetic particles. We performed laboratory experiments to measure the destruction cross section of selected organic compounds, namely methane (CH4), formamide (NH2CHO), and an organic refractory residue, under simulated Moon conditions. Volatile species were deposited at low temperature (17 - 18 K) and irradiated with energetic ions (200 keV) in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The organic refractory residue was produced after warming up of a CO:CH4 ice mixture irradiated with 200 keV H+ at 18 K. All the samples were analyzed in situ by infrared transmission spectroscopy. We found that destruction cross sections are strongly affected (up to one order of magnitude) by the dilution of a given organic in an inert matrix. Among the selected samples, organic refractory residues are the most resistant to radiation. We estimated the lifetime of organic compounds on the surface of the Moon by calculating the dose rate due to GCRs and SEPs at the Moon’s orbit and by using the experimental cross section values. Taking into account impact gardening, we also estimated the fraction of surviving organic material as a function of depth. Our results are compatible with the detection of CH4 in the LCROSS eject plume originating from layers deeper than about 0.7 m at the Moon’s South Pole and with the identification of complex organic material in lunar samples collected by Apollo 17 mission.

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    David, P.
    et al.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
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    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Hestroffer, D.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
    Tanga, P.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Spoto, F.
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
    Berthier, J.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Roux, W.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Barbier, A.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Carry, B.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Delbo, M.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Fouron, C.
    Telespazio for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Galluccio, L.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Muinonen, K.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Vuorimiehentie 5, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Oreshina-Slezak, I.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Petit, J. M.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Portell, J.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Brown, A. G.A.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Thuillot, W.
    IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Lille, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    De Bruijne, J. H.J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Arenou, F.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Creevey, O. L.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Ducourant, C.
    Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Eyer, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Jordi, C.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Observatory, Division of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Randich, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland.
    Walton, N. A.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A.L.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bastian, U.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Katz, D.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Soubiran, C.
    Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Van Leeuwen, F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Audard, M.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Castañeda, J.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; DAPCOM Data Services, c. dels Vilabella 5-7, 80500 Vic Barcelona, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
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    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Frémat, Y.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Masana, E.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Nicolas, C.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Sednai Sàrl, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
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    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF-Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Thévenin, F.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Gaia DPAC Project Office, ESAC, Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Benson, K.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Burgess, P. W.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Busso, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Cánovas, H.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
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    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium; CRAAG-Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique, Route de l'Observatoire, Bp 63, Bouzareah, 16340 Algiers, Algeria.
    Davidson, M.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    De Teodoro, P.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Delchambre, L.
    Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Fraile Garcia, E.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Garabato, D.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    García-Lario, P.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Garralda Torres, N.
    ATG Europe for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Gavras, P.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Haigron, R.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Hambly, N. C.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK; Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 15783 Athens, Greece.
    Hernández, J.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Holl, B.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jamal, S.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Jordan, S.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edif. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Ettore Majorana", Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy.
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    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Marchal, O.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy; Space Science Data Center-ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Moitinho, A.
    CENTRA, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edif. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Nuñez Campos, M.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Osborne, P.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy; Space Science Data Center-ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Riello, M.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Robin, A. C.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Sarro, L. M.
    Dpto. de Inteligencia Artificial, UNED, c/ Juan del Rosal 16, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Schultheis, M.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Siopis, C.
    Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Van Leeuwen, M.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Weingrill, K.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Ábrahám, P.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117 Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    ATG Europe for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Aerts, C.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium; Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy; Space Science Data Center-ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Álvarez, M. A.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzs-traße 17, A1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    Institute of Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire de Sauverny, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Antoja, T.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Baines, D.
    Quasar Science Resources for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Balog, Z.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Barache, C.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barros, M.
    LASIGE, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Edif. C6, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Bartolomé, S.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bashi, D.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel; Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK.
    Bauchet, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Baudeau, N.
    Telespazio for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Becciani, U.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bedin, L. R.
    INAF-Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, Palaia Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Beordo, W.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; University of Turin, Department of Physics, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Depto. Estadística e Investigatión Operativa. Universidad de Cádiz, Avda. República Saharaui s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Bernet, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bertolotto, C.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX S.r.l., Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, 10128 Torino, Italy.
    Binnenfeld, A.
    Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Blazere, A.
    ATOS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Boch, T.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Bouquillon, S.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France; LFCA/DAS, Universidad de Chile, CNRS, Casilla, 36-D Santiago, Chile.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Braine, J.
    Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Breedt, E.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA-Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; University of Turin, Department of Physics, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    University of Turin, Department of Computer Sciences, Corso Svizzera 185, 10149 Torino, Italy.
    Cannizzo, S.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Carballo, R.
    Dpto. de Matemática Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computatión, Univ. de Cantabria, ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Carnerero, M. I.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Carretero, J.
    Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain; Port d'Informació Científica (PIC), Campus UAB, C. Albareda s/n, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain.
    Carton, S.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Casamiquela, L.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Cesare, V.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Charlot, P.
    Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Instituto de Astrofísica, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago RM, Chile.
    Chiaramida, V.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Chornay, N.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK; Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Collins, R.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Contursi, G.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Cooper, W. J.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, AL10 9AB, Hatfield, UK.
    Cornez, T.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; University of Turin, Mathematical Department "G.Peano", Via Carlo Alberto 10, 10123 Torino, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Dafonte, C.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    De Laverny, P.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico d'Abruzzo, Via Mentore Mag-gini, 64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    De Souza, R.
    Instituto de Astronomia, Geofìsica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    De Torres, A.
    HE Space Operations BV for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Del Peloso, E. F.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Delgado, A.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Dharmawardena, T. E.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Diakite, S.
    Mésocentre de calcul de Franche-Comté, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Diener, C.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Dsilva, K.
    Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Durán, J.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy; Space Science Data Center-ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Fatović, M.
    Ruder Boškovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Fedorets, G.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK.
    Fernández-Hernández, J.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Fernique, P.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Fournier, Y.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Gai, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Galinier, M.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Garcia-Gutierrez, A.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    García-Torres, M.
    Data Science and Big Data Lab, Pablo de Olavide University, 41013 Seville, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Gerlach, E.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK; Institute of Astrophysics, FORTH, Crete, Greece.
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Plaça Eusebi Güell 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy.
    Gomel, R.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Gomez, A.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    González-Núñez, J.
    ETSE Telecomunicación, Universidade de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Galicia, Spain.
    González-Santamaría, I.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium; F.R.S.-FNRS, Rue d'Egmont 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Gregori Barrera, V.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Haywood, M.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Helmer, A.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Helmi, A.
    Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Henares, K.
    Quasar Science Resources for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Hidalgo, S. L.
    IAC-Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, 38200 La Laguna S.C., Tenerife, Spain; Department of Astrophysics, University of La Laguna, Via Láctea s/n, 38200 La Laguna S.C., Tenerife, Spain.
    Hilger, T.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Observatory, Division of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hottier, C.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Jabłońska, M.
    Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland; Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611, Australia.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Agency (ESA, retired), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Jiménez-Arranz, Ó.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Juaristi Campillo, J.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Khanna, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Kóspál, Á.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117 Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Kun, M.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Lambert, S.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Le Campion, J. F.
    Laboratoire d'astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; Université Rennes, CNRS, IPR (Institut de Physique de Rennes)-UMR 6251, 35000 Rennes, France.
    Lebzelter, T.
    University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzs-traße 17, A1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Napoli.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lecoutre, G.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Liao, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19(A) Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049, PR China.
    Liberato, L.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France; São Paulo State University, Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital e Planetolo-gia, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil.
    Licata, E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Lindstrøm, H. E.P.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen ø, Denmark; DXC Technology, Retortvej 8, 2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive Suite 102, Goleta CA 93117, USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 15783 Athens, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Loup, C.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Mahy, L.
    Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Mann, R. G.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Manteiga, M.
    CIGUS CITIC, Department of Nautical Sciences and Marine Engineering, University of A Coruña, Paseo de Ronda 51, 15071 A Coruña, Spain.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Napoli.
    Marín Pina, D.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy; Space Science Data Center-ASI, Via del Politecnico SNC, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    Marshall, D. J.
    IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.
    Martín Lozano, J.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Martín-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Marton, G.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Masip, A.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Massari, D.
    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Mazeh, T.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Observatory, Division of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Meichsner, J.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Messina, S.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands.
    Millar, N. R.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Mints, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Molina, D.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Napoli.
    Molnár, L.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117 Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary; MTA CSFK Lendület Near-Field Cosmology Research Group, Konkoly Observatory, MTA Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Monari, G.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Monguió, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Montero, A.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Mor, R.
    Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; Pervasive Technologies s.l., c. Saragossa 118, 08006 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technology for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Munoz, D.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF-Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Murphy, C. P.
    European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Musella, I.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Napoli.
    Nagy, Z.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Nieto, S.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Ogden, A.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Pagani, C.
    School of Physics Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Palaversa, L.
    Ruder Boškovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palicio, P. A.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Pallas-Quintela, L.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    Panahi, A.
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Payne-Wardenaar, S.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Pegoraro, L.
    CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Penttilä, A.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Pesciullesi, P.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico d'Abruzzo, Via Mentore Mag-gini, 64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pinamonti, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Plachy, E.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary; ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Physics, 1117 Pázmány Péter sétány 1A, Budapest, Hungary; MTA CSFK Lendület Near-Field Cosmology Research Group, Konkoly Observatory, MTA Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France; INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium; F.R.S.-FNRS, Rue d'Egmont 5, 1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Prša, A.
    Villanova University, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, 800 E Lancaster Avenue, Villanova PA 19085, USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma), Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain; Departmento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Rainer, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy; INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807 Merate (LC), Italy.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Ramos, P.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Telespazio UK S.L. for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanizatión Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ratajczak, M.
    Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland.
    Re Fiorentin, P.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Regibo, S.
    Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Reylé, C.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université de Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Napoli.
    Riva, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Rix, H. W.
    Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Rixon, G.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Robichon, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Robin, C.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Romero-Gómez, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Royer, F.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruz Mieres, D.
    Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK.
    Rybicki, K. A.
    Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
    Sadowski, G.
    Institut d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Sáez Núñez, A.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Sagristà Sellés, A.
    Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    RHEA for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez Gimenez, V.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Santoveña, R.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Sarrate Riera, C.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; DAPCOM Data Services, c. dels Vilabella 5-7, 80500 Vic Barcelona, Spain.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gestión de Negocios for European Space Agency (ESA), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanization Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain.
    Ségransan, D.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shahaf, S.
    Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.
    Siebert, A.
    Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Centre de Données Astronomique de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Siltala, L.
    Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Slezak, E.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy; Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, AL10 9AB, Hatfield, UK.
    Snaith, O. N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; University of Exeter, School of Physics and Astronomy, Stocker Road, Exeter EX2 7SJ, UK.
    Solano, E.
    Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESA-ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Vil-lanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Souami, D.
    LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France; naXys, Department of Mathematics, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, 5000 Namur, Belgium.
    Souchay, J.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Spina, L.
    INAF-Osservatorio astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Spitoni, E.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France; INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste, Italy.
    Squillante, L. A.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Steele, I. A.
    Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK.
    Steidelmüller, H.
    Lohrmann Observatory, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstraße 13, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Surdej, J.
    Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, 19c Allée du 6 Août, 4000 Liège, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Eötvös Loránd Research Network (ELKH), MTA Centre of Excellence, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Taris, F.
    SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, LNE, 61 avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK.
    Teixeira, R.
    Instituto de Astronomia, Geofìsica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Rua do Matão 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Tisanić, K.
    Ruder Boškovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Tolomei, L.
    ALTEC S.p.a., Corso Marche 79, 10146 Torino, Italy.
    Torra, F.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; DAPCOM Data Services, c. dels Vilabella 5-7, 80500 Vic Barcelona, Spain.
    Torralba Elipe, G.
    CIGUS CITIC-Department of Computer Science and Information Technologies, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña s/n, A Coruña 15071, Spain; Escuela de Arquitectura y Politécnica-Universidad Europea de Valencia, Spain; Escuela Superior de Ingeniería y Tecnología-Universidad Interna-cional de la Rioja, Spain.
    Trabucchi, M.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy.
    Tsantaki, M.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy.
    Ulla, A.
    Applied Physics Department, Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain; Instituto de Física e Ciencias Aeroespaciais (IFCAE), Universidade de Vigo, Á Campus de As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense, Spain.
    Unger, N.
    Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Vanel, O.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (TO), Italy.
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Plaça Eusebi Güell 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK.
    Weiler, M.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Wyrzykowski, Ł.
    Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland.
    Zhao, H.
    Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Bd de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France; Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210023, PR China.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis bd. Arago, 75014 Paris, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Balaguer-Núñez, L.
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica (FQA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), c. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), c. Gran Capità 2-4, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Leclerc, N.
    GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France.
    Morgenthaler, S.
    Institute of Mathematics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.
    Robert, G.
    Thales Services for CNES Centre Spatial de Toulouse, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9, France.
    Zucker, S.
    Porter School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.
    Gaia Focused Product Release: Asteroid orbital solution: Properties and assessment2023Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 680, artikel-id A37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We report the exploitation of a sample of Solar System observations based on data from the third Gaia Data Release (Gaia DR3) of nearly 157 000 asteroids. It extends the epoch astrometric solution over the time coverage planned for the Gaia DR4, which is not expected before the end of 2025. This data set covers more than one full orbital period for the vast majority of these asteroids. The orbital solutions are derived from the Gaia data alone over a relatively short arc compared to the observation history of many of these asteroids.

    Aims. The work aims to produce orbital elements for a large set of asteroids based on 66 months of accurate astrometry provided by Gaia and to assess the accuracy of these orbital solutions with a comparison to the best available orbits derived from independent observations. A second validation is performed with accurate occultation timings.

    Methods. We processed the raw astrometric measurements of Gaia to obtain astrometric positions of moving objects with 1D sub-mas accuracy at the bright end. For each asteroid that we matched to the data, an orbit fitting was attempted in the form of the best fit of the initial conditions at the median epoch. The force model included Newtonian and relativistic accelerations to derive the observation equations, which were solved with a linear least-squares fit.

    Results. Orbits are provided in the form of state vectors in the International Celestial Reference Frame for 156 764 asteroids, including near-Earth objects, main-belt asteroids, and Trojans. For the asteroids with the best observations, the (formal) relative uncertainty σa/a is better than 10-10. Results are compared to orbits available from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and MPC. Their orbits are based on much longer data arcs, but from positions of lower quality. The relative differences in semi-major axes have a mean of 5 × 10-10 and a scatter of 5 × 10-9

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  • 26.
    De Ridder, J.
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands; Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Palaversa, L.
    Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Bijenicka Cesta 54, Zagreb 10000, Croatia; Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Creevey, O. L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U. L.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium; FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Turin, Dept Phys, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, DAPCOM Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Heiter, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nicolas, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Sednai Sarl, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Roux, W.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, IMCCE,Observ Paris,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Canovas, H.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium; CRAAG Ctr Rech Astron Astrophys & Geophys, Route Observ Bp 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    de Teodoro, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Nunez Campos, M.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Lario, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Halbwachs, J. -L.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; Kavli Inst Cosmol Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, IMCCE,Observ Paris,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Calif Irvine, Donald Bren Sch Informat & Comp Sci, Dept Informat, 5226 Donald Bren Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy; Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Ettore Majorana, Via S Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Loffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Reyle, C.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France .
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Rybizki, J.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Abraham, P.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Aramburu, A. Abreu
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Aguado, J. J.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Ajaj, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Aldea-Montero, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anders, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Anderson, R. I.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, Astrophys Lab, Observ Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Baines, D.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balbinot, E.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Balog, Z.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barbato, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Space Pk Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartolome, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Bauchet, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist & Invest Operat, Avda Republ Saharaui S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain.
    Bernet, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Ctr Res & Explorat Space Sci & Technol, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21228 USA; GSFC Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 698,8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Binnenfeld, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Porter Sch Environm & Earth Sci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France; Univ Chile, CNRS, LFCA DAS, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breedt, E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA Scuola Int Super Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Turin, Dept Phys, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Comp, ETS Ingenieros Caminos Canales & Puertos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carnerero, M. I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Centro Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiaramida, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Chornay, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; DLR Gesell Raumfahrtanwendungen GfR mbH, Munchener Str 20, D-82234 Wessling, Germany.
    Contursi, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cooper, W. J.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Hertfordshire, Ctr Astrophys Res, Coll Lane, Hatfield 10 9AB, Herts, England.
    Cornez, T.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Turin, Math Dept G Peano, Via Carlo Alberto 10, I-10123 Turin, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, IMCCE,Observ Paris,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    del Peloso, E. F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delisle, J. -B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Demouchy, C.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Dharmawardena, T. E.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Franche Comte, Mesoctr Calcul Franche Comte, 16 Route Gray, F-25030 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Ctr Donnees Astron Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Fournier, Y.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fouron, C.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fragkoudi, F.
    Univ Durham, Inst Computat Cosmol, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England; European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany; Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Garcia-Gutierrez, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Pablo de Olavide Univ, Data Sci & Big Data Lab, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Gavel, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavras, P.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gerlach, E.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Gomel, R.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Gomez, A.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Santamaria, I.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland .
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Vera C Rubin Observ, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece; Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; TRUMPF Photon Components GmbH, Lise Meitner Str 13, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Helmer, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sarmiento, M. H.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hidalgo, S. L.
    IAC Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38200, Spain; Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrophys, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38200, Spain.
    Hladczuk, N.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Delft Univ Technol, Fac Aerosp Engn, Kluyverweg 1, NL-2321 WD Delft, Netherlands; Delft Univ Technol, Fac Aerosp Engn, Simon Vestdijkpad 24, NL-2629 HS Delft, Netherlands.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Jardine, K.
    Radagast Solut, Simon Vestdijkpad 24, NL-2321 WD Leiden, Netherlands.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Piccolo, A. Jean-Antoine
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jimenez-Arranz, O.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Campillo, J. Juaristi
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karbevska, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Caen Normandie, Cote Nacre Blvd Marechal Juin, F-14032 Caen, France.
    Kervella, P.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, LESIA,Observ Paris,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Khanna, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Korn, A. J.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Div Astron & Space Phys, Observat Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kospal, A.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands; SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Kruszynska, K.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Kun, M.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Laizeau, P.
    Scalian CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Campion, J. -F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, LESIA,Observ Paris,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Rennes, CNRS, IPR Inst Phys Rennes, UMR 6251, F-35000 Rennes, France.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19 A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy; Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark; DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lorca, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Loup, C.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Madrero Pardo, P.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Romeo, A. Magdaleno
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC, Dept Naut Sci & Marine Engn, Paseo Ronda 51, La Coruna, Spain.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marcos, J.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marcos Santos, M. M. S.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marin Pina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marocco, F.
    CALTECH, IPAC, Mail Code 100-22,1200 E Calif Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Toulouse, IRAP, CNRS, UPS,CNES, 9 Av Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
    Martin Polo, L.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marton, G.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Masip, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Massari, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Mints, A.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; MTA Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, MTA CSFK Lendulet Near Field Cosmol Res Grp, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Monari, G.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Monguio, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Montero, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Murphy, C. P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nagy, Z.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ocana, F.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ogden, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Osinde, J. O.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Space Pk Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Palicio, P. A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Pallas-Quintela, L.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Payne-Wardenaar, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Penalosa Esteller, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Penttila, A.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Plachy, E.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; MTA Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, MTA CSFK Lendulet Near Field Cosmol Res Grp, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France; INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rainer, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via E Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, LC, Italy.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Ramos, P.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain; Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fiorentin, P. Re
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Rios Diaz, C.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Rix, H. -W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Robichon, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Robin, A. C.
    Institut UTINAM CNRS UMR6213, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Robin, C.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rogues, H. R. O.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rohrbasser, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Mieres, D. Ruz
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Rybicki, K. A.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Saez Nunez, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Selles, A. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Samaras, N.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium; Charles Univ Prague, Astron Inst, Fac Math & Phys, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 18000, Czech Republic.
    Sanchez Gimenez, V.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santovena, R.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Semeux, D.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Shahaf, S.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-7610001 Rehovot, Israel.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Ctr Donnees Astron Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Siltala, L.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Silvelo, A.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Slezak, I.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Snaith, O. N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Solano, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Souami, D.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, LESIA,Observ Paris,CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Namur, NaXys, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Spina, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; CGI Deutschland BV & Co KG, Mornewegstr 30, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Inst Global Hlth, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Phys, Astron Observ Inst, Poznan, Poland.
    Szabados, L.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    MTA Ctr Excellence, Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Tolomei, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Tonello, N.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Torra, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, DAPCOM Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Torralba Elipe, G.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Trabucchi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Tsounis, A. T.
    CERN, Esplanade Particules 1,POB 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Dept Appl Phys, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Unger, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Vaillant, M. V.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    vanDillen, E.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Reeven, W.
    Assoc Univ Res Astron, 1331 Penn Ave NW, Washington, DC 20004 USA.
    Vanel, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wevers, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107,Casilla 19, Santiago, Chile.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Yvard, P.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Zhao, H.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR7095, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Porter Sch Environm & Earth Sci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 3: Pulsations in main sequence OBAF-type stars2023Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 674, artikel-id A36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The third Gaia data release provides photometric time series covering 34 months for about 10 million stars. For many of those stars, a characterisation in Fourier space and their variability classification are also provided. This paper focuses on intermediate- to high-mass (IHM) main sequence pulsators (M ≥  1.3 M⊙) of spectral types O, B, A, or F, known as β Cep, slowly pulsating B (SPB), δ Sct, and γ Dor stars. These stars are often multi-periodic and display low amplitudes, making them challenging targets to analyse with sparse time series.

    Aims. We investigate the extent to which the sparse Gaia DR3 data can be used to detect OBAF-type pulsators and discriminate them from other types of variables. We aim to probe the empirical instability strips and compare them with theoretical predictions. The most populated variability class is that of the δ Sct variables. For these stars, we aim to confirm their empirical period-luminosity (PL) relation, and verify the relation between their oscillation amplitude and rotation.

    Methods. All datasets used in this analysis are part of the Gaia DR3 data release. The photometric time series were used to perform a Fourier analysis, while the global astrophysical parameters necessary for the empirical instability strips were taken from the Gaia DR3 gspphot tables, and the v sin i data were taken from the Gaia DR3 esphs tables. The δ Sct PL relation was derived using the same photometric parallax method as the one recently used to establish the PL relation for classical Cepheids using Gaia data.

    Results. We show that for nearby OBAF-type pulsators, the Gaia DR3 data are precise and accurate enough to pinpoint them in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We find empirical instability strips covering broader regions than theoretically predicted. In particular, our study reveals the presence of fast rotating gravity-mode pulsators outside the strips, as well as the co-existence of rotationally modulated variables inside the strips as reported before in the literature. We derive an extensive period–luminosity relation for δ Sct stars and provide evidence that the relation features different regimes depending on the oscillation period. We demonstrate how stellar rotation attenuates the amplitude of the dominant oscillation mode of δ Sct stars.

    Conclusions. The Gaia DR3 time-series photometry already allows for the detection of the dominant (non-)radial oscillation mode in about 100 000 intermediate- and high-mass dwarfs across the entire sky. This detection capability will increase as the time series becomes longer, allowing the additional delivery of frequencies and amplitudes of secondary pulsation modes.

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  • 27.
    Delley, Diane
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Brightest Cluster Galaxies in the Local Universe: Mergers, Interactions and the Implications for Galaxy Evolution2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Clusters of Galaxies are amongst the largest gravitationally bound structures in our Universe and consist of thousands of galaxies. It is in these gigantic systems where Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) are found, the most massive galaxies in our Universe. A BCG, as its name indicates, is the brightest galaxy in a cluster. These enormous galaxies exhibit special properties, suggesting that they experience a different evolutionary path than a normal galaxy. It is widely accepted that their evolution involves merger events, when the BCG accrete another galaxy, as well as interaction events, like tidal stripping and/or removal of star-forming gas. However, the moment when those interactions happen in the life of the BCG and the extent of their impact on the BCG properties are still under discussion.

    This thesis aims to explore the later stages of BCG evolution by studying the merger/interaction fraction of BCGs in the local Universe. In particular, this research will explore the significance of correlations between the merger/interaction fraction with a variety of BCG properties (Metric Luminosity, α Parameter, BCG distance from the cluster center, BCG offset from the cluster mean redshift) and with a variety of cluster properties (cluster velocity dispersion, luminosity difference between the BCG and the second ranked galaxy in the cluster). The dependence of the merger/interaction fraction on the kinematics of BCGs is also investigated, using data for the BCG stellar velocity dispersion and for the local normalised velocity dispersion of galaxies within 50 kpc of the BCG.

    To accomplish these analyses, this thesis uses a sample of 432 BCGs at z ≤ 0.08 imaged as part of the Warpfire survey - an all-sky imaging and spectroscopic survey of BCGs in the nearby universe. Interacting and Non Interacting candidates are classified via a visual inspection of the residual images. This classification is performed by three independent people to ensure its robustness and to minimize classification bias.

    A merger/interaction fraction of fm/i = 0.220 ± 0.025 (stat) ± 0.040 (sys) at z ≤ 0.08 is found, with a lower limit of fmin ≥ 0.07 ± 0.01 (stat) ± 0.04 (sys). Significant correlations between the interaction status of BCG and its Metric Luminosity and α Parameter are also revealed. Specifically, the BCG merger/interaction fraction more than doubles in amplitude from ∼0.2 to ∼0.5 as the α Parameter increases from 0.4 to 0.9. However, those correlations do not appear to alter the Lm – α relationship, which remains robust against BCG interaction status. No significant correlation is found between the interaction status and the location of the BCG in the cluster, nor between the interaction status and the difference between the Metric Luminosity of the BCG and that of the second brightest galaxy in the cluster. However, it is found that BCGs with strong interaction residuals have slightly higher stellar velocity dispersions. Finally, the normalised velocity dispersion of galaxies within 50 kpc of the BCG is found to be lower than the normalised velocity dispersion around random galaxies in the outskirts of the cluster.

    The results of this thesis clearly indicate ongoing merger activity involving BCGs. The above results are consistent with idea that while BCG stellar accretion is not a dominant process at the current epoch it is not a negligible one either. These results also support a two phased growth model of BCG where the bulk of their stellar mass is assembled prior to z = 0.5 but still continues at a low level today.

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  • 28.
    DeMeo, Francesca E.
    et al.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Marsset, Michaël
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; European Southern Observatory (ESO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, 1900 Casilla Vitacura, Santiago, Chile.
    Polishook, David
    Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 0076100, Israel.
    Burt, Brian J.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA.
    Binzel, Richard P.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Hasegawa, Sunao
    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Moskovitz, Nicholas A.
    Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA.
    Earle, Alissa
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Bus, Schelte J.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2860 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839, USA.
    Thomas, Cristina A.
    Northern Arizona University, Department of Astronomy and Planetary Science PO Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA.
    Rivkin, Andrew S.
    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA.
    Slivan, Stephen M.
    Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Isolating the mechanisms for asteroid surface refreshing2023Ingår i: Icarus, ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 389, artikel-id 115264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence is seen for young, fresh surfaces among Near-Earth and Main-Belt asteroids even though space-weathering timescales are shorter than the age of the surfaces. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to refresh asteroid surfaces on short timescales, such as planetary encounters, YORP spinup, thermal degradation, and collisions. Additionally, other factors such as grain size effects have been proposed to explain the existence of these “fresh-looking” spectra. To investigate the role each of these mechanisms may play, we collected a sample of visible and near-infrared spectra of 477 near-Earth and Mars Crosser asteroids with similar sizes and compositions — all with absolute magnitude H > 16 and within the S-complex and having olivine to pyroxene (ol/(ol+opx)) ratios >0.65. We taxonomically classify these objects in the Q (fresh) and S (weathered) classes. We find four trends in the Q/S ratio: (1) previous work demonstrated the Q/S ratio increases at smaller sizes down to H ≲16, but we find a sharp increase near H∼19 after which the ratio decreases monotonically. (2) in agreement with many previous studies, the Q/S ratio increases with decreasing perihelion distance, and we find it is non-zero for larger perihelia >1.2AU, (3) as a new finding our work reveals the Q/S ratio has a sharp, significant peak near ∼5° orbital inclination, and (4) we confirm previous findings that the Q/S ratio is higher for objects that have the possibility of encounter with Earth and Venus versus those that do not, however this finding cannot be distinguished from the perihelion trend. No single resurfacing mechanism can explain all of these trends, so multiple mechanisms are required. YORP spin-up scales with size, thermal degradation is dependent on perihelion, planetary encounters trend with inclination, perihelion and MOID, noting that asteroid–asteroid collisions are also dependent on inclination. It is likely that a combination of all four resurfacing mechanisms are needed to account for all observational trends.

  • 29.
    Dengel, Ric
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Honvault, Christophe
    European Space Agency, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Mansilla, Luis
    European Space Agency, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Magnin, Diane
    European Space Agency, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Marques, Hugo
    European Space Agency, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Steenari, David
    European Space Agency, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Foerster, Kyra
    European Space Agency, European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Laufer, Rene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Hardware Accelerated Machine Learning on Embedded Systems for Space Applications2021Ingår i: IAC 2021 Congress Proceedings, 72nd International Astronautical Congress (IAC), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, International Astronautical Federation, IAF , 2021, artikel-id 66177Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As spacecraft missions continue to increase in complexity, the system operation and amount of gathered data demand more complex systems than ever before. Currently, mission capabilities are constrained by the link bandwidth as well as on-board processing capacity, depending on a high number of commands and complex ground station systems to allow spacecraft operations. Thus, efficient use of the bandwidth, computing capacity and increased autonomous capabilities are of utmost importance. Artificial intelligence, with its vast areas of application scenarios, allows for these challenges and more to be tackled in spacecraft design. Particularly, the flexibility of neural networks as machine learning technology provides many possibilities. For example, neural networks can be used for object detection and classification tasks. Unfortunately, the execution of current machine learning algorithms consumes a large amount of power and memory resources, and qualified deployment remains challenging which limits their possible applications in space systems. Thus, an increase in efficiency is a major enabling factor for these technologies. The optimisation of the algorithm for System-on-Chip platforms allows it to benefit from the best of a generic processor and hardware acceleration shall allow broader applications of these technologies with a minimum increase of power consumption. Additionally, COTS embedded systems are commonly used in NewSpace applications due to the possibility to add external or software fault mitigation. For deployment of machine learning on such devices, a CNN model was optimised on a workstation. Then, the neural network is deployed with Xilinx’s Vitis AI onto different embedded systems that include a powerful generic processor as well as the hardware programming capabilities of an FPGA. This result was evaluated based on relevant performance and efficiency parameters and a summary is given in this paper. Additionally, a different approach was developed which creates, with a high-level synthesis tool, the hardware description language of an accelerated linear algebra optimized network. The implementation of this tool was started, and the proof of concept is presented. Furthermore, existing challenges with the auto-generated code are outlined and future steps to automate and improve the entire workflow are presented. This paper aims to contribute to increasing the efficiency and applicability of artificial intelligence in space. Specifically, the performance of machine learning algorithms is evaluated on FPGAs which are commonly used for complex algorithms’ execution in space.

  • 30.
    Drimmel, R.
    et al.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Ctr Astron CITEVA, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Ramos, P.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain; Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain; Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Jardine, K.
    Radagast Solut, Simon Vestdijkpad 24, NL-2321 WD Leiden, Netherlands.
    Khanna, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, UPS,CNES, 9 Av Colonel Roche,BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Creevey, O. L.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U. L.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium; FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Turin, Dept Phys, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, DAPCOM Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Heiter, U.
    Uppsala Univ, Div Astron & Space Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Observ Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nicolas, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Sednai Sarl, Geneva, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Roux, W.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project ffice, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany; Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, IMCCE,CNRS,Observ Paris, 77 Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Burgess, P. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Canovas, H.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium; CRAAG Ctr Rech Astron Astrophys & Geophys, Route Observ Bp 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    de Teodoro, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Nunez Campos, M.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Lario, P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium; Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Halbwachs, J. -L.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; Kavli Inst Cosmol Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, IMCCE,CNRS,Observ Paris, 77 Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal; Univ Calif Irvine, Donald Bren Sch Informat & Comp Sci, Dept Informat, 5226 Donald Bren Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy; Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron Ettore Majorana, Via S Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Observ Besancon, Inst UTINAM,CNRS,UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon, France.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Rybizki, J.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Abraham, P.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Aerts, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Aguado, J. J.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Ajaj, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Aldea-Montero, F.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anders, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Anderson, R. I.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Inst Phys, Astrophys Lab, Observ Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Baines, D.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balbinot, E.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Balog, Z.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Ciencias, CENTRA, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Space Pk Leicester, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartolome, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Bauchet, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist & Invest Operat, Avda Republ Saharaui S-N, Puerto Real 11510, Spain.
    Bernet, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Ctr Res & Explorat Space Sci & Technol, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21228 USA; GSFC Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 698,8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Binnenfeld, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Porter Sch Environm & Earth Sci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France; Univ Chile, CNRS, LFCA, DAS, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breedt, E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA Scuola Int Super Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Turin, Dept Phys, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Comp, ETS Ingenieros Caminos Canales & Puertos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carnerero, M. I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chiaramida, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Chornay, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; DLR Gesell Raumfahrtanwendungen GfR mbH, Munchener Str 20, D-82234 Wessling, Germany.
    Contursi, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cooper, W. J.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Hertfordshire, Ctr Astrophys Res, Coll Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England.
    Cornez, T.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Turin, Math Dept G Peano, Via Carlo Alberto 10, I-10123 Turin, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, IMCCE,CNRS,Observ Paris, 77 Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    del Peloso, E. F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delisle, J. -B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Demouchy, C.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Dharmawardena, T. E.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Franche Comte, Mesoctr Calcul Franche Comte, 16 Route Gray, F-25030 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Ctr Donnees Astron Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Fournier, Y.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Fouron, C.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fragkoudi, F.
    Univ Durham, Inst Computat Cosmol, Dept Phys, Durham DH1 3LE, England; European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany; Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Garcia-Gutierrez, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Pablo de Olavide Univ, Data Sci & Big Data Lab, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Gavel, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Div Astron & Space Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Observ Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gavras, P.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gerlach, E.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Gomel, R.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Gomez, A.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Santamaria, I.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Vera C Rubin Observ, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece; Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; TRUMPF Photon Components GmbH, Lise Meitner Str 13, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Helmer, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sarmiento, M. H.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hidalgo, S. L.
    IAC Inst Astrofis Canarias, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife 38200, Spain; Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrophys, Via Lactea S-N, Tenerife, Spain.
    Hladczuk, N.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Delft Univ Technol, Fac Aerosp Engn, Kluyverweg 1, NL-2629 HS Delft, Netherlands.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Piccolo, A. Jean-Antoine
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jimenez-Arranz, O.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Campillo, J. Juaristi
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karbevska, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Caen Normandie, Cote Nacre Blvd Marechal Juin, F-14032 Caen, France.
    Kervella, P.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS,LESIA,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Korn, A. J.
    Uppsala Univ, Div Astron & Space Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Observ Astrophys, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kospal, A.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands; SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Kruszynska, K.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Kun, M.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Laizeau, P.
    Scalian CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Campion, J. -F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS,LESIA,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Rennes, CNRS, IPR Inst Phys Rennes, UMR 6251, F-35000 Rennes, France.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Liao, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, 19 A Yuquan Rd, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy; Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark; DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Natl & Kapodistrian Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lorca, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Loup, C.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Madrero Pardo, P.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Romeo, A. Magdaleno
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, Dept Naut Sci & Marine Engn, CIGUS CITIC, Paseo Ronda 51, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marcos, J.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marcos Santos, M. M. S.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marin Pina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy; Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marocco, F.
    CALTECH, IPAC, Mail Code 100-22,1200 E Calif Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
    Martin Polo, L.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Marton, G.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Masip, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Massari, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Mints, A.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; MTA Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, MTA CSFK Lendulet Near Field Cosmol Res Grp, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Monari, G.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Monguio, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Montero, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Murphy, C. P.
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nagy, Z.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ocana, F.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ogden, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Osinde, J. O.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Sch Phys & Astron, Space Pk Leicester, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Bijenicka Cesta 54, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
    Palicio, P. A.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Pallas-Quintela, L.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Payne-Wardenaar, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Penalosa Esteller, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Penttila, A.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Plachy, E.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Inst Phys, Pazmany Peter Setany 1A, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; MTA Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, MTA CSFK Lendulet Near Field Cosmol Res Grp, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Fis Tierra & Astrofis, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rainer, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy; INAF Osservatorio Astron Brera, Via E Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, LC, Italy.
    Raiteri, C. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fiorentin, P. Re
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Rios Diaz, C.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rix, H. -W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Robichon, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Observ Besancon, Inst UTINAM,CNRS,UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon, France.
    Robin, C.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rogues, H. R. O.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rohrbasser, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Mieres, D. Ruz
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Rybicki, K. A.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Saez Nunez, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Selles, A. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    RHEA European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Samaras, N.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium; Charles Univ Prague, Fac Math & Phys, Astron Inst, V Holesovickach 2, CR-18000 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sanchez Gimenez, V.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santovena, R.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Schultheis, M. S.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Semeux, D.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Shahaf, S.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-7610001 Rehovot, Israel.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Ctr Donnees Astron Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Siltala, L.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Silvelo, A.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Slezak, I.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Snaith, O. N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Solano, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Souami, D.
    Univ Paris, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS,LESIA,Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France; Univ Namur, NaXys, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spina, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio UK SL European Space Agcy ESA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain; CGI Deutschland BV & Co KG, Mornewegstr 30, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Inst Global Hlth, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium; Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Poznan, Poland.
    Szabados, L.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Eotvos Lorand Res Network ELKH, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, MTA Ctr Excellence, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Tolomei, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Tonello, N.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Torra, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, DAPCOM Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Torralba Elipe, G.
    Univ A Coruna, CIGUS CITIC Dept Comp Sci & Informat Technol, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Trabucchi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland; Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Tsounis, A. T.
    CERN, Esplanade Particules 1,POB 1211, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Dept Appl Phys, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Unger, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Pegasi 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Vaillant, M. V.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Dillen, E.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Reeven, W.
    Assoc Univ Res Astron, 1331 Penn Ave, Washington, DC 20004 USA.
    Vanel, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr BSC, Placa Eusebi Guell 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos ICCUB, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wevers, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England; European Southern Observ, Casilla 19, Santiago 3107, Chile.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Yvard, P.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Zhao, H.
    Univ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR7095, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Porter Sch Environm & Earth Sci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 3: Mapping the asymmetric disc of the Milky Way2023Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 674, artikel-id A37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. With the most recent Gaia data release, the number of sources with complete 6D phase space information (position and velocity) has increased to well over 33 million stars, while stellar astrophysical parameters are provided for more than 470 million sources, and more than 11 million variable stars are identified.

    Aims. Using the astrophysical parameters and variability classifications provided in Gaia DR3, we selected various stellar populations to explore and identify non-axisymmetric features in the disc of the Milky Way in configuration and velocity space.

    Methods. Using more about 580 000 sources identified as hot OB stars, together with 988 known open clusters younger than 100 Myr, we mapped the spiral structure associated with star formation 4−5 kpc from the Sun. We selected over 2800 Classical Cepheids younger than 200 Myr that show spiral features extending as far as 10 kpc from the Sun in the outer disc. We also identified more than 8.7 million sources on the red giant branch (RGB), of which 5.7 million have line-of-sight velocities. This later sample allows the velocity field of the Milky Way to be mapped as far as 8 kpc from the Sun, including the inner disc.

    Results. The spiral structure revealed by the young populations is consistent with recent results using Gaia EDR3 astrometry and source lists based on near-infrared photometry, showing the Local (Orion) Arm to be at least 8 kpc long, and an outer arm consistent with what is seen in HI surveys, which seems to be a continuation of the Perseus arm into the third quadrant. The subset of RGB stars with velocities clearly reveals the large-scale kinematic signature of the bar in the inner disc, as well as evidence of streaming motions in the outer disc that might be associated with spiral arms or bar resonances. A local comparison of the velocity field of the OB stars reveals similarities and differences with the RGB sample.

    Conclusions. This cursory study of Gaia DR3 data shows there is a rich bounty of kinematic information to be explored more deeply, which will undoubtedly lead us to a clearer understanding of the dynamical nature of the non-axisymmetric structures of the Milky Way.

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  • 31.
    Emmoth, Frej-Eric
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Investigating UV nightglow within the framework of the JEM-EUSO Experiments2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The main mission of the JEM-EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) Collaborationis to observe Cosmic Rays. These high energy particles come from a variety of sources and bombard the Earth all the time. However, the higher the energy, the lower the flux, and particles with an energy above 1018eV (called Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays or UHECRs) are so sparse that just a few might hit the atmosphere in a year. When CRs, and UHECRs, hit the atmosphere they cause what is called Extensive Air Showers, EAS, a cascade of secondary particles. This limits the effectiveness of ground based observatories, and that is where theJEM-EUSO Collaboration comes in. The goal is to measure UHECRs, by observing the fluorescence of the EAS from space. This way huge areas of the atmosphere can be covered and both galactic hemispheres can be studied. Since the JEM-EUSO instruments are telescopes measuring in the near UV range, a lot of other phenomena can be observed. One of these applications is UV nightglow. Airglow in general are lights in the sky which are emitted from the atmosphere itself, while nightglow is simply the nighttime airglow. There are many uses of airglow, and one of these is as a medium to observe atmospheric gravity waves. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how a space-based photon counting telescope, such as those of the JEM-EUSO Collaboration, can be used to measure disturbances in the terrestrial nightglow, to identify atmospheric gravity waves. To accomplish this, a theoretical basis for these interactions was explored and a simple scenario was built to explore the plausibility of measuring UV nightglow modulations. The aim was to see what variables would affect a measurement, and how important they were. Along side this, a calibration was conducted on one of the JEM-EUSO Collaborations instruments, the EUSO-TA (EUSO-Telescope Array). The goal in the end was to try and measurethe night sky, to complement the calculations. The investigation showed that the conditions during the measurement are very important to the measurement. This includes things like background intensity, nightglow activity, and magnitude/shape of the modulations. Of more importance though are the parameters which can be actively changed to improve the measurement, the most important of which is measurement time. It was concluded that a measurement of the nightglow modulation should be, under the right conditions, possible to do with a currently operating instrument, the Mini-EUSO, or similar instrument. The calibration of the EUSO-TA involved a series of repairs and tests, which highlighted some strengths and weaknesses of the instrument. However, the calibration itself produced few workable results that in the best case scenario reduced the focal surface to an unevenly biased 2-by-2 Elementary Cell square. Unfortunately this would not be sufficient to do proper measurements with, but the process did point out shortcomings with the then involved sensors, as well as some problematic aspects of the software operating the instrument.

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  • 32.
    Farley, K.A.
    et al.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Malespin, C.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    Mahaffy, P.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    Grotzinger, J.P.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Vasconcelos, P.M.
    School of Earth Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland QLD 4072, Australia.
    Milliken, R.E.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.
    Malin, M.
    Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, CA 92121, USA..
    Edgett, K.S.
    Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, CA 92121, USA..
    Pavlov, A.A.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    Hurowitz, J.A.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
    Grant, J.A.
    Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 6th at Independence SW, Washington, DC 20560, USA.
    Miller, H.B.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Arvidson, R.
    Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.
    Beegle, L.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Calef, F.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Conrad, P.G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    Dietrich, W.E.
    Earth and Planetary Science Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
    Eigenbrode, J.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    Gellert, R.
    Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Gupta, S.
    Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
    Hamilton, V.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA.
    Hassler, D.M.
    Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA.
    Lewis, K.W.
    Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.
    McLennan, S.M.
    Department of Geosciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.
    Ming, D.
    NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA.
    Navarro-González, R.
    Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, México D.F. 04510, Mexico.
    Schwenzer, S.P.
    Department of Physical Sciences, CEPSAR, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
    Steele, A.
    Carnegie Institution, Geophysical Laboratory, Washington, DC 20015, USA.
    Stolper, E.M.
    Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Sumner, D.Y.
    Department of Geology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    Vaniman, D.
    Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.
    Vasavada, A.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Williford, K.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.F.
    University of Kiel, Kiel D-24098, Germany.
    In situ radiometric and exposure age dating of the martian surface2014Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 343, nr 6169, artikel-id 1247166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 ± 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced 3He, 21Ne, and 36Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 ± 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation.

  • 33.
    Farnocchia, Davide
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Reddy, Vishnu
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Bauer, James M.
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Dr., Astronomy Dept. Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Warner, Elizabeth M.
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Dr., Astronomy Dept. Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Micheli, Marco
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Largo Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy.
    Payne, Matthew J.
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
    Farnham, Tony
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Dr., Astronomy Dept. Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Kelley, Michael S.
    Planetary Defense Coordination Office, Planetary Science Division, NASA Headquarters, 300 E St. SW, Washington, DC 20546, USA.
    Alarcon, Miguel R.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain.
    Bacci, Paolo
    GAMP—Osservatorio Astronomico Montagna Pistoiese, Via Pratorsi, I-51028 San Marcello Piteglio (PT), Italy.
    Bacci, Roberto
    GAMP—Osservatorio Astronomico Montagna Pistoiese, Via Pratorsi, I-51028 San Marcello Piteglio (PT), Italy; G. Pascoli Observatory, Via dei Pieri, I-55051 Castelvecchio Pascoli (LU), Italy.
    Bachini, Mauro
    Tavolaia Observatory, Via Tavolaia 4, I-56020 Santa Maria A Monte (PI), Italy; BS-CR Observatory, Via Francesca 329, I-56020 Santa Maria A Monte (PI), Italy.
    Baillie, Kevin
    IMCCE, Paris Observatory, PSL University, CNRS, Sorbonne University, Lille University, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Baj, Giorgio
    Observatory M57, Via Viggiù 35, I-21050 Saltrio (VA), Italy.
    Bamberger, Daniel
    Northolt Branch Observatories, Dabbs Hill Lane, Northolt, London, UK.
    Barkov, Anatoly P.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Beck, Stefan
    Altdorf Observatory, Eschelbachstr. 17, D-71088 Holzgerlingen, Germany.
    Betti, Guido
    Observatory Beato Ermanno, Via Sodera 2, I-50023 Impruneta (FI), Italy.
    Biancalani, Enrico
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breã Baja, Spain; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Bolin, Bryce T.
    Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA; Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA; Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    Briggs, David
    Hampshire Astronomical Group, Clanfield, Hampshire, UK.
    Buzzi, Luca
    Schiaparelli Astronomical Observatory, Via Orrigoni 4, I-21100 Varese (VA), Italy.
    Cheng, Haowen
    National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Christensen, Eric
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Coffano, Alessandro
    Serafino Zani Observatory, Consortile San Nicola, I-25065 Lumezzane (BS), Italy.
    Conversi, Luca
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Largo Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy.
    Demeautis, Christophe
    PASTIS Observatory, F-04150 Banon, France.
    Denneau, Larry
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Desmars, Josselin
    IMCCE, Paris Observatory, PSL University, CNRS, Sorbonne University, Lille University, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France; Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées IPSA, 63 boulevard de Brandebourg, F-94200 Ivry-sur-Seine, France.
    Djupvik, Anlaug A.
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breã Baja, Spain; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Elenin, Leonid
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia.
    Fini, Paolo
    Observatory Beato Ermanno, Via Sodera 2, I-50023 Impruneta (FI), Italy.
    Felber, Tobias
    Oberfrauendorf Observatory, An der Lockwitz 52, D-01768 Glashütte, Germany.
    Flynn, Randy
    Squirrel Valley Observatory, 3870 River Rd., Columbus, NC 28722, USA.
    Galli, Gianni
    GiaGa Observatory, Via Mozart 4, I-20005 Pogliano Milanese (MI), Italy.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Gray, Bill
    Project Pluto, 168 Ridge Rd., Bowdoinham, ME 04008, USA.
    Gray, Zuri
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breã Baja, Spain; Armagh Observatory and Planetarium, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, UK; Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK.
    Grazzini, Luca
    Gruppo Astrofili Montelupo, Via San Vito 60, I-50056 Montelupo Fiorentino (FI), Italy.
    Hasubick, Werner
    Public Observatory Buchloe, Alois-Reiner-Str. 15b, D-86807 Buchloe, Germany.
    Hoffmann, Tobias
    Department of Medical Physics and Acoustics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany.
    Holmes, Robert
    Astronomical Research Institute, 7168 NCR 2750E, Ashmore, IL 61912, USA.
    Iozzi, Marco
    H.O.B. Astronomical Observatory, Via Buca dei Tassi 13, I-50050 Capraia Fiorentina (FI), Italy.
    Ivanov, Alexander L.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Ivanov, Viktor A.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Ivanova, Natalya V.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Jacques, Cristóvão
    Southern Observatory for Near Earth Asteroids Research, Oliveira, Brazil.
    Jiang, Hai
    National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Zheng, Jinghui
    Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200030, People's Republic of China.
    Kasikov, Anni
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breã Baja, Spain; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, Observatooriumi 1, Tõravere, 61602, Estonia.
    Kim, Myung-Jin
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Kumar, Balaji
    Golden Ears Observatory, 22938 Vista Ridge Dr., Maple Ridge, BC V4R 2X3, Canada.
    Lee, Hee-Jae
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Li, Bin
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, People's Republic of China.
    Liu, Jing
    National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
    Licandro, Javier
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain.
    Linder, Tyler
    Astronomical Research Institute, 7168 NCR 2750E, Ashmore, IL 61912, USA.
    Lysenkov, Vadim E.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Maestripieri, Martina
    GAMP—Osservatorio Astronomico Montagna Pistoiese, Via Pratorsi, I-51028 San Marcello Piteglio (PT), Italy.
    Mantero, Andrea
    Bernezzo Observatory, Via Maggiori 28, I-12010 Bernezzo (CN), Italy.
    Marinello, Vladimiro
    Serafino Zani Observatory, Consortile San Nicola, I-25065 Lumezzane (BS), Italy.
    McCormick, Jennie
    Farm Cove Observatory, 2/24 Rapallo Place, Farm Cove, Auckland 2010, New Zealand.
    Moon, Darrel
    Killer Rocks Observatory, HC 65 Box 2, Pie Town, NM 87827, USA.
    Nastasi, Alessandro
    GAL Hassin—Centro Internazionale per le Scienze Astronomiche, Via della Fontana Mitri, I-90010 Isnello (PA), Italy.
    Neill, James D.
    Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Neue, Guenther
    Wickede Observatory, Stemmering 5, D-44319 Dortmund, Germany.
    Novichonok, Artem O.
    Petrozavodsk State University, Lenin St., 33, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, Russia.
    Ocaña, Francisco
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Largo Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy.
    Pizzetti, Gianpaolo
    Serafino Zani Observatory, Consortile San Nicola, I-25065 Lumezzane (BS), Italy.
    Pomazan, Anton
    Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200030, People's Republic of China.
    Purdum, Josiah N.
    Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Ratinaud, Christophe
    Landehen Observatory (Z43), 14 allée des Ajoncs d'Or F-22400 LANDEHEN, France.
    Roh, Dong-Goo
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Romanov, Filipp D.
    Amateur astronomer, Russia; Remote observer of the Liverpool Telescope, La Palma, Spain; iTelescope.Net observatories: New Mexico Skies, Mayhill, NM, USA; Siding Spring Observatory, Australia.
    Ruocco, Nello
    Osservatorio Astronomico Nastro Verde, Via Nastro Verde, I-80067 Sorrento (NA), Italy.
    Santana-Ros, Toni
    Instituto de Física Aplicada a las Ciencias y las Tecnologías, Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, E-03080, Alicante, Spain; Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Carrer de Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Scarmato, Toni
    Toni Scarmato's Observatory, Via U. Foscolo 3, I-89817 San Costantino di Briatico (VV), Italy.
    Schmalz, Anastasia
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia.
    Schmalz, Sergei
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia.
    Serra-Ricart, Miquel
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain; Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Canarias, Spain.
    Sherrod, Clay
    Arkansas Sky Observatories, ASO Scientific Studies Inc., 73 Tanyard Springs Rd., Petit Jean Mountain, AR 72110, USA.
    Sioulas, Nick
    NOAK Observatory, Delfon 2 Stavraki, Ioannina, 45500, Greece.
    Soffiantini, Andrea
    Serafino Zani Observatory, Consortile San Nicola, I-25065 Lumezzane (BS), Italy.
    Succi, Giacomo
    Tavolaia Observatory, Via Tavolaia 4, I-56020 Santa Maria A Monte (PI), Italy; BS-CR Observatory, Via Francesca 329, I-56020 Santa Maria A Monte (PI), Italy.
    Tholen, David J.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Thomsen, Jeppe S.
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breã Baja, Spain; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Via Zamboni 33, I-40126 Bologna, Italia.
    Thuillot, William
    IMCCE, Paris Observatory, PSL University, CNRS, Sorbonne University, Lille University, 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Wainscoat, Richard
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Wells, Guy
    Northolt Branch Observatories, Dabbs Hill Lane, Northolt, London, UK.
    Weryk, Robert
    Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.
    Yakovenko, Nikolai A.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya St., 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Yim, Hong-Suh
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Zhai, Chengxing
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    The Second International Asteroid Warning Network Timing Campaign: 2005 LW32023Ingår i: The Planetary Science Journal, E-ISSN 2632-3338, Vol. 4, nr 11, artikel-id 203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth close approach of near-Earth asteroid 2005 LW3 on 2022 November 23 represented a good opportunity for a second observing campaign to test the timing accuracy of astrometric observation. With 82 participating stations, the International Asteroid Warning Network collected 1046 observations of 2005 LW3 around the time of the close approach. Compared to the previous timing campaign targeting 2019 XS, some individual observers were able to significantly improve the accuracy of their reported observation times. In particular, U.S. surveys achieved good timing performance. However, no broad, systematic improvement was achieved compared to the previous campaign, with an overall negative bias persisting among the different observers. The calibration of observing times and the mitigation of timing errors should be important future considerations for observers and orbit computers, respectively.

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  • 34.
    Farnocchia, Davide
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Reddy, Vishnu
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona,1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ85721, USA.
    Bauer, James M.
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Drive, Astronomy Dept., Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Warner, Elizabeth M.
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Drive, Astronomy Dept., Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Micheli, Marco
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Largo Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy.
    Payne, Matthew J.
    Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
    Farnham, Tony
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Drive, Astronomy Dept., Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Kelley, Michael S.
    Planetary Defense Coordination Office, Planetary Science Division, NASA Headquarters, 300 East Street SW, Washington, DC 20546, USA.
    Balam, David D.
    Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada.
    Barkov, Anatoly P.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya Street, 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Berteşteanu, Daniel
    Astroclubul Bucureşti, 21 Lascăr Catargiu blvd, Sector 1, 010662 Bucharest, Romania.
    Birlan, Mirel
    Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, str Cutitul de Argint—5, 040557, Bucharest, Romania; Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des Ephémérides, CNRS8024, Observatoire de Paris, 77 av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bolin, Bryce T.
    Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA; Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.
    Brucker, Melissa J.
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Buzzi, Luca
    Schiaparelli Astronomical Observatory, Campo dei Fiori, Varese, VA I-21100, Italy.
    Chambers, Kenneth C.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Demetz, Lukas
    Skygems Observatory Network, Cisles 51, Santa Cristina Valgardena, BZ I-39047, Italy.
    Djupvik, Anlaug A.
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breña Baja, Spain; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Elenin, Leonid
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia.
    Fini, Paolo
    Gruppo Astrofili Montelupo, Via San Vito 60, I-50056 Montelupo Fiorentino (FI), Italy.
    Flynn, Randy
    Squirrel Valley Observatory, 3870 River Road, Columbus, NC 28722, USA.
    Galli, Gianni
    GiaGa Observatory, Via Mozart 4, I-20005 Pogliano Milanese (MI), Italy.
    Gao, Xing
    Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, 150 Science One St, Ürümqi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 830011, People's Republic of China.
    Gȩdek, Marcin
    6ROADS Ltd., Godebskiego 55a Street, 31-999 Cracow, Poland.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hasubick, Werner
    Public Observatory Buchloe, Alois-Reiner-Str. 15b, D-86807 Buchloe, Germany.
    Ivanov, Alexander L.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya Street, 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Ivanov, Viktor A.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya Street, 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Ivanova, Natalya V.
    National Astronomical Agency, Zheleznodorozhnaya street 1, Afipsky village, Krasnodar Territory, Russia.
    Jaques, Cristóvão
    Southern Observatory for Near Earth Asteroids Research, Oliveira, Brazil.
    Kasikov, Anni
    Nordic Optical Telescope, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38711 Breña Baja, Spain; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu, Observatooriumi 1, Tõravere, 61602, Estonia.
    Kim, Myung-Jin
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Lane, David
    Burke-Gaffney Observatory, Saint Mary's University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3, Canada.
    Lee, Hee-Jae
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Li, Bin
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, People's Republic of China.
    Li, Fan
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, People's Republic of China.
    Lister, Tim
    Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117, USA.
    Lysenko, Vadim E.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya Street, 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Magnier, Eugene A.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Mahomed, Nawaz
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Cnr Banghoek Road and Joubert Street, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.
    McCormick, Jennie
    Farm Cove Observatory, 2/24 Rapallo Place, Farm Cove, Auckland 2010, New Zealand.
    Moon, Darrel
    Killer Rocks Observatory, HC 65 Box 2, Pie Town, NM 87827, USA.
    Nastasi, Alessandro
    GAL Hassin—Centro Internazionale per le Scienze Astronomiche, Via della Fontana Mitri, I-90010 Isnello (PA), Italy.
    Nedelcu, Dan A.
    Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, str Cutitul de Argint—5, 040557, Bucharest, Romania; Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des Ephémérides, CNRS8024, Observatoire de Paris, 77 av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Neue, Guenther
    Wickede Observatory, Stemmering 5, D-44319 Dortmund, Germany.
    Petrescu, Elisabeta
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Largo Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy; ESA ESOC Space Safety Service Centre, Robert-Bosch-Straße 5, D-64293, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Popescu, Marcel
    Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, 5 Cuţitul de Argint, 040557 Bucharest, Romania.
    Prosperi, Enrico
    Osservatorio di Castelmartini, via Bartolini 1317, Larciano, Pistoia, I-51036, Italia.
    Reszelewski, Rafał
    6ROADS Ltd., Godebskiego 55a Street, 31-999 Cracow, Poland.
    Roh, Dong-Goo
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Romanov, Filipp D.
    Amateur astronomer, Russia; Remote observer of Burke-Gaffney Observatory and Abbey Ridge Observatory, Canada.
    Santana-Ros, Toni
    Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Carrer de Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain; Departamento de Física, Ingeniería de Sistemas y Teoría de la Señal, Universidad de Alicante, Carr. de San Vicente del Raspeig, s/n, 03690 San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain.
    Schmalz, Anastasia
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia.
    Schmalz, Sergei
    Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia.
    Scotti, James V.
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Seaman, Robert
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Sioulas, Nick
    NOAK Observatory, Delfon 2 Stavraki, Ioannina, 45500, Greece.
    Sonka, Adrian B.
    Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, str Cutitul de Argint—5, 040557, Bucharest, Romania.
    Tholen, David J.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Trelia, Madalina M.
    Romanian Space Agency, str Mendeleev 25, 010362, Bucharest, Romania; University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, str Atomistilor 405, 077125 Magurele, Romania.
    Wainscoat, Richard
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Wang, Xin
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China.
    Wells, Guy
    Northolt Branch Observatories, Dabbs Hill Lane, Northolt, London, UK.
    Weryk, Robert
    Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.
    Yakovenko, Nikolai A.
    Kuban State University, Stavropolskaya Street, 149, Krasnodar 350040, Russia.
    Ye, Quanzhi
    University of Maryland, 4296 Stadium Drive, Astronomy Dept., Room 1113, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    Yim, Hong-Suh
    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055, Republic of Korea.
    Zhai, Chengxing
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Zhang, Chen
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, People's Republic of China.
    Zhao, Haibin
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China.
    Zhu, Tinglei
    Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210023, People's Republic of China.
    Żołnowski, Michał
    6ROADS Ltd., Godebskiego 55a Street, 31-999 Cracow, Poland.
    International Asteroid Warning Network Timing Campaign: 2019 XS2022Ingår i: The Planetary Science Journal, E-ISSN 2632-3338, Vol. 3, nr 7, artikel-id 156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the International Asteroid Warning Network's observational exercises, we conducted a campaign to observe near-Earth asteroid 2019 XS around its close approach to Earth on 2021 November 9. The goal of the campaign was to characterize errors in the observation times reported to the Minor Planet Center, which become an increasingly important consideration as astrometric accuracy improves and more fast-moving asteroids are observed. As part of the exercise, a total of 957 astrometric observations of 2019 XS during the encounter were reported and subsequently were analyzed to obtain the corresponding residuals. While the timing errors are typically smaller than 1 s, the reported times appear to be negatively biased, i.e., they are generally earlier than they should be. We also compared the observer-provided position uncertainty with the cross-track residuals, which are independent of timing errors. A large fraction of the estimated uncertainties appear to be optimistic, especially when <0 2. We compiled individual reports for each observer to help identify and remove the root cause of any possible timing error and improve the uncertainty quantification process. We suggest possible sources of timing errors and describe a simple procedure to derive reliable, conservative position uncertainties.

  • 35.
    Farnocchia, Davide
    et al.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Seligman, Darryl Z.
    Department of Astronomy and Carl Sagan Institute, Cornell University, 122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA.
    Granvik, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik. Department of Physics, PO Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hainaut, Olivier
    ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-München, Germany.
    Meech, Karen J.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Micheli, Marco
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Largo Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy.
    Weryk, Robert
    Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.
    Chesley, Steven R.
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA.
    Christensen, Eric J.
    Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
    Koschny, Detlef
    ESA NEO Coordination Centre, Via Galileo Galilei, 1, I-00044 Frascati (RM), Italy; ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands; LRT, TU Munich, Boltzmannstraße 15, D-85748 Garching bei München, Germany.
    Kleyna, Jan T.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    Lazzaro, Daniela
    Observatório Nacional, R. Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Mommert, Michael
    School of Computer Science, University of St. Gallen, Rosenbergstrasse 30, CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wainscoat, Richard J.
    Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
    (523599) 2003 RM: The Asteroid that Wanted to be a Comet2023Ingår i: The Planetary Science Journal, E-ISSN 2632-3338, Vol. 4, nr 2, artikel-id 29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a statistically significant detection of nongravitational acceleration on the subkilometer near-Earth asteroid (523599) 2003 RM. Due to its orbit, 2003 RM experiences favorable observing apparitions every 5 yr. Thus, since its discovery, 2003 RM has been extensively tracked with ground-based optical facilities in 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2018. We find that the observed plane-of-sky positions cannot be explained with a purely gravity-driven trajectory. Including a transverse nongravitational acceleration allows us to match all observational data, but its magnitude is inconsistent with perturbations typical of asteroids such as the Yarkovsky effect or solar radiation pressure. After ruling out that the orbital deviations are due to a close approach or collision with another asteroid, we hypothesize that this anomalous acceleration is caused by unseen cometary outgassing. A detailed search for evidence of cometary activity with archival and deep observations from the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System and the Very Large Telescope does not reveal any detectable dust production. However, the best-fitting H2O sublimation model allows for brightening due to activity consistent with the scatter of the data. We estimate the production rate required for H2O outgassing to power the acceleration and find that, assuming a diameter of 300 m, 2003 RM would require Q(H2O) similar to 10(23) molec s(-1) at perihelion. We investigate the recent dynamical history of 2003 RM and find that the object most likely originated in the mid-to-outer main belt (similar to 86% probability) as opposed to from the Jupiter-family comet region (similar to 11% probability). Further observations, especially in the infrared, could shed light on the nature of this anomalous acceleration.

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  • 36.
    Fonseca, Ricardo Morais
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Rymdteknik.
    MARSWRF Prediction of Entry Descent Landing Profiles: Applications to Mars Exploration2019Ingår i: Earth and Space Science, E-ISSN 2333-5084, Vol. 6, nr 8, s. 1440-1459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we use the Mars implementation of the Planet Weather Research and Forecasting model, MarsWRF, to simulate the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) vertical profiles from six past missions: Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rovers Opportunity and SpiritPhoenix, Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and ExoMars 2016 (Schiaparelli), and compare the results with observed data. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the model predictions to the atmospheric dust distribution, MarsWRF is run with two prescribed dust scenarios. It is concluded that the MarsWRF EDL predictions can be used for guidance into the design and planning stage of future missions to the planet, as it generally captures the observed EDL profiles, although it has a tendency to underestimate the temperature and overestimate the density for heights above 15 km. This could be attributed to an incorrect representation of the observed dust loading. We have used the model to predict the EDL conditions that may be encountered by two future missions: ExoMars 2020 and Mars 2020. When run for Oxia Planum and Jezero Crater for the expected landing time, MarsWRF predicts a large sensitivity to the dust loading in particular for the horizontal wind speed above 10‐15 km with maximum differences of up to ±30 m s‐1 for the former and ±15 m s‐1 for the latter site. For both sites, the best time for EDL, i.e. when the wind speed is generally the weakest with smaller shifts in direction, is predicted to be in the late morning and early afternoon.

  • 37.
    Friis-Liby, Linn
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik.
    Identifying Transit Timing Variations in K2 and TESS light curves2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The aim of this work is to investigate any presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) in a sample of observed targets that has light curves in both K2 mission data and TESS mission data. 

    Methods. The original sample utilised here was one from the doctoral thesis of D. Soto (2020) with candidates from K2 data. Cross-referencing for corresponding light curves in TESS was done with a customised Python script created for the purposes of this work, automating the process of obtaining light curves using only one mission ID. A transit search was performed on the light curves of each mission separately with the Python software package OpenTS. The candidates with transits in both light curves were subjected to a TTV search using the Python software package PyTTV. The PyTTV software utilises both mission light curves in creating a joint light curve. 

    Results. Orbital periods, Porb, and transit center times, t0, for 30 targets were updated using joint light curves from the K2 and TESS missions. Seventeen of these systems are found to have non-linear trends in their transit times. These also have constraints for the periods and amplitudes of the TTVs. 

    The disposition distribution of the 30 systems is that 19 candidates are unregistered candidates, ten are registered planetary candidates or TOIs and eight are registered known planets. 

    Conclusions. Out of the reference sample by D. Soto (2020) consisting of 564 targets, 257 targets had a corresponding TESS light curve. Out of the 257 targets, a new sample of 45 targets was contrived through a transit search where they all show distinct transits in both missions light curves. Out of these, fifteen targets were not suitable for a TTV search. A final sample of 30 targets are presented, with seventeen targets showing signs of TTVs and thirteen targets showing a linear trend. The parameters of orbital period and transit centre times are updated for all 30 final candidates. Seventeen candidates are shown to have variations in the transit times and are presented with diagnostics. The candidates with transit timing variations should be further investigated for potential validation or follow-up observations. The unregistered candidates as well as the planetary candidates and TOIs should be considered for follow-up observations or similar validation, to confirm or discard a planetary status.